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1.  AAV-Mediated Delivery of Zinc Finger Nucleases Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Inhibits Active Replication 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97579.
Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that remains in hepatocytes even during otherwise effective therapy and facilitates rebound in patients after treatment has stopped. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment that targets active and persistent HBV infections remains. As a novel approach to treat HBV, we have targeted the HBV genome for disruption to prevent viral reactivation and replication. We generated 3 zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that target sequences within the HBV polymerase, core and X genes. Upon the formation of ZFN-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB), imprecise repair by non-homologous end joining leads to mutations that inactivate HBV genes. We delivered HBV-specific ZFNs using self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors and tested their anti-HBV activity in HepAD38 cells. HBV-ZFNs efficiently disrupted HBV target sites by inducing site-specific mutations. Cytotoxicity was seen with one of the ZFNs. scAAV-mediated delivery of a ZFN targeting HBV polymerase resulted in complete inhibition of HBV DNA replication and production of infectious HBV virions in HepAD38 cells. This effect was sustained for at least 2 weeks following only a single treatment. Furthermore, high specificity was observed for all ZFNs, as negligible off-target cleavage was seen via high-throughput sequencing of 7 closely matched potential off-target sites. These results show that HBV-targeted ZFNs can efficiently inhibit active HBV replication and suppress the cellular template for HBV persistence, making them promising candidates for eradication therapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097579
PMCID: PMC4020843  PMID: 24827459
2.  In vitro Inactivation of Latent HSV by Targeted Mutagenesis Using an HSV-specific Homing Endonuclease 
Following acute infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in sensory neurons, from which it can reactivate and cause recurrent disease. Available antiviral therapies do not affect latent viral genomes; therefore, they do not prevent reactivation following therapy cessation. One possible curative approach involves the introduction of DNA double strand breaks in latent HSV genomes by rare-cutting endonucleases, leading to mutagenesis of essential viral genes. We tested this approach in an in vitro HSV latency model using the engineered homing endonuclease (HE) HSV1m5, which recognizes a sequence in the HSV-1 gene UL19, encoding the virion protein VP5. Coexpression of the 3′-exonuclease Trex2 with HEs increased HE-mediated mutagenesis frequencies up to sixfold. Following HSV1m5/Trex2 delivery with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, the target site was mutated in latent HSV genomes with no detectable cell toxicity. Importantly, HSV production by latently infected cells after reactivation was decreased after HSV1m5/Trex2 exposure. Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors prior to HSV1m5/Trex2 treatment increased mutagenesis frequencies of latent HSV genomes another two- to fivefold, suggesting that chromatin modification may be a useful adjunct to gene-targeting approaches. These results support the continuing development of HEs and other nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs) for cure of chronic viral infections.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.75
PMCID: PMC3951911  PMID: 24496438
antiviral; endonuclease; mutagenesis
3.  Predictors of Hepatitis B Cure Using Gene Therapy to Deliver DNA Cleavage Enzymes: A Mathematical Modeling Approach 
PLoS Computational Biology  2013;9(7):e1003131.
Most chronic viral infections are managed with small molecule therapies that inhibit replication but are not curative because non-replicating viral forms can persist despite decades of suppressive treatment. There are therefore numerous strategies in development to eradicate all non-replicating viruses from the body. We are currently engineering DNA cleavage enzymes that specifically target hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA), the episomal form of the virus that persists despite potent antiviral therapies. DNA cleavage enzymes, including homing endonucleases or meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR-associated system 9 (Cas9) proteins, can disrupt specific regions of viral DNA. Because DNA repair is error prone, the virus can be neutralized after repeated cleavage events when a target sequence becomes mutated. DNA cleavage enzymes will be delivered as genes within viral vectors that enter hepatocytes. Here we develop mathematical models that describe the delivery and intracellular activity of DNA cleavage enzymes. Model simulations predict that high vector to target cell ratio, limited removal of delivery vectors by humoral immunity, and avid binding between enzyme and its DNA target will promote the highest level of cccDNA disruption. Development of de novo resistance to cleavage enzymes may occur if DNA cleavage and error prone repair does not render the viral episome replication incompetent: our model predicts that concurrent delivery of multiple enzymes which target different vital cccDNA regions, or sequential delivery of different enzymes, are both potentially useful strategies for avoiding multi-enzyme resistance. The underlying dynamics of cccDNA persistence are unlikely to impact the probability of cure provided that antiviral therapy is given concurrently during eradication trials. We conclude by describing experiments that can be used to validate the model, which will in turn provide vital information for dose selection for potential curative trials in animals and ultimately humans.
Author Summary
Innovative new approaches are being developed to eradicate viral infections that until recently were considered incurable. We are interested in engineering DNA cleavage enzymes that can cut and incapacitate persistent viruses. One hurdle is that these enzymes must be delivered to infected cells as genes within viral vectors that are not harmful to humans. In this paper, we developed a series of equations that describe the delivery of these enzymes to their intended targets, as well the activity of DNA cutting within the cell. While our mathematical model is catered towards hepatitis B virus infection, it is widely applicable to other infections such as HIV, as well as oncologic and metabolic diseases characterized by aberrant gene expression. Certain enzymes may bind DNA more avidly than others, while different enzymes may also bind cooperatively if targeted to different regions of viral DNA. We predict that such enzymes, if delivered efficiently to a high proportion of infected cells, will be critical to increase the probability of cure. We also demonstrate that our equations will serve as a useful tool for identifying the most important features of a curative regimen, and ultimately for guiding clinical trial dosing schedules to ensure hepatitis B eradication with the smallest number of possible doses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003131
PMCID: PMC3701691  PMID: 23861664
4.  Targeted DNA Mutagenesis for the Cure of Chronic Viral Infections 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(17):8920-8936.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been incurable to date because effective antiviral therapies target only replicating viruses and do not eradicate latently integrated or nonreplicating episomal viral genomes. Endonucleases that can target and cleave critical regions within latent viral genomes are currently in development. These enzymes are being engineered with high specificity such that off-target binding of cellular DNA will be absent or minimal. Imprecise nonhomologous-end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair following repeated cleavage at the same critical site may permanently disrupt translation of essential viral proteins. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of three types of DNA cleavage enzymes (zinc finger endonucleases, transcription activator-like [TAL] effector nucleases [TALENs], and homing endonucleases [also called meganucleases]), the development of delivery vectors for these enzymes, and potential obstacles for successful treatment of chronic viral infections. We then review issues regarding persistence of HIV-1, HBV, and HSV that are relevant to eradication with genome-altering approaches.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00052-12
PMCID: PMC3416169  PMID: 22718830
5.  Colloids as Mobile Substrates for the Implantation and Integration of Differentiated Neurons into the Mammalian Brain 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e30293.
Neuronal degeneration and the deterioration of neuronal communication lie at the origin of many neuronal disorders, and there have been major efforts to develop cell replacement therapies for treating such diseases. One challenge, however, is that differentiated cells are challenging to transplant due to their sensitivity both to being uprooted from their cell culture growth support and to shear forces inherent in the implantation process. Here, we describe an approach to address these problems. We demonstrate that rat hippocampal neurons can be grown on colloidal particles or beads, matured and even transfected in vitro, and subsequently transplanted while adhered to the beads into the young adult rat hippocampus. The transplanted cells have a 76% cell survival rate one week post-surgery. At this time, most transplanted neurons have left their beads and elaborated long processes, similar to the host neurons. Additionally, the transplanted cells distribute uniformly across the host hippocampus. Expression of a fluorescent protein and the light-gated glutamate receptor in the transplanted neurons enabled them to be driven to fire by remote optical control. At 1-2 weeks after transplantation, calcium imaging of host brain slice shows that optical excitation of the transplanted neurons elicits activity in nearby host neurons, indicating the formation of functional transplant-host synaptic connections. After 6 months, the transplanted cell survival and overall cell distribution remained unchanged, suggesting that cells are functionally integrated. This approach, which could be extended to other cell classes such as neural stem cells and other regions of the brain, offers promising prospects for neuronal circuit repair via transplantation of in vitro differentiated, genetically engineered neurons.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030293
PMCID: PMC3266246  PMID: 22295079
6.  Intravitreal Injection of AAV2 Transduces Macaque Inner Retina 
Intravitreally injected AAV2 transduced inner retinal cells in a restricted region at the macaque fovea. Because macaque and human eyes are similar, the results suggest a need to improve transduction methods in gene therapy for the human inner retina.
Purpose.
Adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) has been shown to be effective in transducing inner retinal neurons after intravitreal injection in several species. However, results in nonprimates may not be predictive of transduction in the human inner retina, because of differences in eye size and the specialized morphology of the high-acuity human fovea. This was a study of inner retina transduction in the macaque, a primate with ocular characteristics most similar to that of humans.
Methods.
In vivo imaging and histology were used to examine GFP expression in the macaque inner retina after intravitreal injection of AAV vectors containing five distinct promoters.
Results.
AAV2 produced pronounced GFP expression in inner retinal cells of the fovea, no expression in the central retina beyond the fovea, and variable expression in the peripheral retina. AAV2 vector incorporating the neuronal promoter human connexin 36 (hCx36) transduced ganglion cells within a dense annulus around the fovea center, whereas AAV2 containing the ubiquitous promoter hybrid cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/chicken-β-actin (CBA) transduced both Müller and ganglion cells in a dense circular disc centered on the fovea. With three shorter promoters—human synapsin (hSYN) and the shortened CBA and hCx36 promoters (smCBA and hCx36sh)—AAV2 produced visible transduction, as seen in fundus images, only when the retina was altered by ganglion cell loss or enzymatic vitreolysis.
Conclusions.
The results in the macaque suggest that intravitreal injection of AAV2 would produce high levels of gene expression at the human fovea, important in retinal gene therapy, but not in the central retina beyond the fovea.
doi:10.1167/iovs.10-6250
PMCID: PMC3088562  PMID: 21310920
7.  Nox2 redox signaling maintains essential cell populations in the brain 
Nature chemical biology  2010;7(2):106-112.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are conventionally classified as toxic consequences of aerobic life, and the brain is particularly susceptible to ROS-induced oxidative stress and damage owing to its high energy and oxygen demands. In this context, NAPDH oxidases (Nox) are a widespread source of brain ROS implicated in seizures, stroke, and neurodegeneration. A physiological role for ROS generation in normal brain function has not been established, despite the fact that mice and humans lacking functional Nox proteins exhibit cognitive deficits. Using molecular imaging with Peroxyfluor-6 (PF6), a new selective fluorescent indicator for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), we show that adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells (AHPs) generate H2O2 through Nox2 to regulate intracellular growth signaling pathways, which in turn maintains their normal proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Our results challenge the traditional view that brain ROS are solely deleterious by demonstrating that controlled ROS chemistry is needed for maintaining specific cell populations.
doi:10.1038/nchembio.497
PMCID: PMC3023843  PMID: 21186346
8.  Adenovirus Expression of IL-1 and NF-κB Inhibitors Does Not Inhibit Acute Adenoviral-Induced Brain Inflammation, but Delays Immune System-Mediated Elimination of Transgene Expression 
Despite their ability to provide long-term transgene expression in the central nervous system of naïve hosts, the use of first-generation adenovirus (Ad) vectors for the treatment of chronic neurological disorders is limited by peripheral immunization, which stimulates anti-adenovirus immune responses and causes severe inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and elimination of transgene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of NF-κB and interleukin-1 (IL-1) during inflammatory responses to Ads in the CNS of naïve and preimmunized rats. We assessed activation of macrophages/microglia, up-regulation of MHC I expression, infiltration of leukocytes, and transgene expression following delivery of Ads to the rat striatum. After delivery of increasing doses of adenoviral vectors expressing various anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., NF-κB or IL-1 inhibitors) to naïve rats, no reduction in Ad-mediated CNS inflammation was seen 1 week after delivery of Ads, compared to a control Ad.hCMV.β-galactosidase (RAd.35) virus. We then assessed CNS inflammation and transgene expression at a time when control transgene expression would be completely eliminated, i.e., 1 month post-vector injection into the brain. This would optimize the assessment of an anti-inflammatory agent expressed by an adenoviral vector that could either delay or diminish immune system-mediated elimination of transgene expression. As expected, at 1 month postinfection, control preimmunized rats receiving Ad.mCMV.β-galactosidase (RAd.36)/saline or RAd.36/Ad.null (RAd.0) showed complete elimination of β-galactosidase expression in the brain and levels of inflammation comparable to those of naïve animals. However, animals injected with RAd.36 in combination with Ads expressing NF-κB or IL-1 inhibitors showed a delayed elimination of β-galactosidase compared to controls. As predicted, the extended presence of transgene expression was accompanied by increased levels of CNS inflammation. This suggests that blocking NF-κB or IL-1 delays, albeit partially, transgene elimination in the presence of a preexisting systemic immune response. Prolonged transgene expression is predicted to extend concurrent brain inflammation, as noted earlier. Taken together these data demonstrate a role for NF-κB and IL-1 in immune system-mediated elimination of Ad-mediated CNS transgene expression.
PMCID: PMC2913593  PMID: 12946313
interleukin-1; nuclear factor-κB; gene transfer/therapy; adenoviral vectors; brain inflammation
9.  Novel Viral Vector Systems for Gene Therapy 
Viruses  2010;2(4):1002-1007.
doi:10.3390/v2041002
PMCID: PMC3185661  PMID: 21994667
10.  In Vitro and In Vivo Properties of Adenovirus Vectors with Increased Affinity to CD46▿  
Journal of Virology  2008;82(21):10567-10579.
Gene transfer vectors containing adenovirus (Ad) serotype 35 (Ad35) fibers have shown promise for cancer and stem cell gene therapy. In this study, we attempted to improve the in vitro and in vivo infection properties of these vectors by increasing their affinity to the Ad35 fiber receptor CD46. We constructed Ad vectors containing either the wild-type Ad35 fiber knob (Ad5/35) or Ad35 knob mutants with 4-fold- and 60-fold-higher affinity to CD46 (Ad5/35+ and Ad5/35++, respectively). In in vitro studies with cell lines, the higher affinities of Ad5/35+ and Ad5/35++ to CD46 did not translate into correspondingly higher transduction efficiencies, regardless of the CD46 receptor density present on cells. However, in vivo, in a mouse model with preestablished CD46high liver metastases, intravenous injection of Ad5/35++ resulted in more-efficient tumor cell transduction. We conclude that Ad5/35 vectors with increased affinity to CD46 have an advantage in competing with non-CD46-mediated sequestration of vector particles after intravenous injection.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01308-08
PMCID: PMC2573189  PMID: 18753195
11.  Biodistribution and Safety Profile of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 6 Vectors following Intravenous Delivery ▿  
Journal of Virology  2008;82(15):7711-7715.
Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 6 (rAAV6) efficiently transduce skeletal muscle after intravenous administration and have shown efficacy in the mdx model of muscular dystrophy. As a prelude to future clinical studies, we investigated the biodistribution and safety profile of rAAV6 in mice. Although it was present in all organs tested, rAAV6 was sequestered mainly in the liver and spleen. rAAV6 had a minimal effect on circulating blood cells and caused no apparent hepatotoxicity or coagulation activation. rAAV6 caused some neutrophil infiltration into the liver, with a transient elevation in cytokine and chemokine transcription/secretion. In summary, rAAV6 induces transient toxicity that subsides almost completely within 72 h and causes no significant side effects.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00542-08
PMCID: PMC2493321  PMID: 18480442
12.  Identification of CD46 Binding Sites within the Adenovirus Serotype 35 Fiber Knob▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;81(23):12785-12792.
Species B human adenoviruses (Ads) are often associated with fatal illnesses in immunocompromised individuals. Recently, species B Ads, most of which use the ubiquitously expressed complement regulatory protein CD46 as a primary attachment receptor, have gained interest for use as gene therapy vectors. In this study, we focused on species B Ad serotype 35 (Ad35), whose trimeric fiber knob domain binds to three CD46 molecules with a KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) of 15.5 nM. To study the Ad35 knob-CD46 interaction, we generated an expression library of Ad35 knobs with random mutations and screened it for CD46 binding. We identified four critical residues (Phe242, Arg279, Ser282, and Glu302) which, when mutated, ablated Ad35 knob binding to CD46 without affecting knob trimerization. The functional importance of the identified residues was validated in surface plasmon resonance and competition binding studies. To model the Ad35 knob-CD46 interaction, we resolved the Ad35 knob structure at 2-Å resolution by X-ray crystallography and overlaid it onto the existing structure for Ad11-CD46 interaction. According to our model, all identified Ad35 residues are in regions that interact with CD46, whereby one CD46 molecule binds between two knob monomers. This mode of interaction might have potential consequences for CD46 signaling and intracellular trafficking of Ad35. Our findings are also fundamental for better characterization of species B Ads and design of antiviral drugs, as well as for application of species B Ads as in vivo and in vitro gene transfer vectors.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01732-07
PMCID: PMC2169084  PMID: 17898059
13.  Evaluation of adenovirus vectors containing serotype 35 fibers for vaccination. 
In contrast to commonly used serotype 5 based adenovirus (Ad) vectors, Ads containing fibers derived from B-group serotype 35 (Ad5/35) efficiently transduce human DCs ex vivo and appear to target antigen-presenting cells after intravenous injection into baboons. Based on this, Ad5/35 vectors could be valuable tools for immunotherapy and vaccination. On the other hand, a number of studies indicate that signaling through the B-group Ad receptor, CD46, can cause tolerance or immuno-suppression. Since mice do not express CD46 in a human-like pattern, we studied the in vivo properties of Ad5/35 in transgenic mice that express CD46 in a pattern and at a level similar to humans. Hypersensitivity assays and analyses of frequencies of regulatory T-cells and T-cell responses did not indicate that Ad5/35 injection exerts detrimental effects on the host's immune system. An Ad5/35 vector expressing a model antigen was able to trigger a strong T-cell response against the test antigen after intramuscular injection. Overall, compared to Ad5 vectors, Ad5/35 vectors had a better safety profile, reflected by lower serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
doi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.12.008
PMCID: PMC1424671  PMID: 16461009
14.  Adenovirus-Platelet Interaction in Blood Causes Virus Sequestration to the Reticuloendothelial System of the Liver▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;81(9):4866-4871.
Intravenous (i.v.) delivery of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors for gene therapy is hindered by safety and efficacy problems. We have discovered a new pathway involved in unspecific Ad5 sequestration and degradation. After i.v. administration, Ad5 rapidly binds to circulating platelets, which causes their activation/aggregation and subsequent entrapment in liver sinusoids. Virus-platelet aggregates are taken up by Kupffer cells and degraded. Ad sequestration in organs can be reduced by platelet depletion prior to vector injection. Identification of this new sequestration mechanism and construction of vectors that avoid it could improve levels of target cell transduction at lower vector doses.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02819-06
PMCID: PMC1900148  PMID: 17301138
15.  A New Group B Adenovirus Receptor Is Expressed at High Levels on Human Stem and Tumor Cells▿  
Journal of Virology  2006;80(24):12109-12120.
CD46 is used by human group B adenoviruses (Ads) as a high-affinity attachment receptor. Here we show evidence that several group B Ads utilize an additional receptor for infection of human cells, which is different from CD46. We tentatively named this receptor receptor X. Competition studies with unlabeled and labeled Ads, recombinant Ad fiber knobs, and soluble CD46 and CD46 antibodies revealed three different subgroups of group B Ads, in terms of their receptor usage. Group I (Ad16, -21, -35, and -50) nearly exclusively uses CD46. Group II (Ad3, -7p, and -14) utilizes receptor X and not CD46. Group III (Ad11p) uses both CD46 and the alternative receptor X. Interaction of group II and III Ads with receptor X occurs via the fiber knob. Receptor X is an abundantly expressed glycoprotein that interacts with group II and III Ads at relatively low affinity in a Ca2+-dependent manner. This receptor is expressed at high levels on human mesenchymal and undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, as well as on human cancer cell lines. These findings have practical implications for stem cell and gene therapy.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01370-06
PMCID: PMC1676274  PMID: 17020944
16.  Development and Assessment of Human Adenovirus Type 11 as a Gene Transfer Vector 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(8):5090-5104.
Adenovirus vectors based on human serotype 5 (Ad5) have successfully been used as gene transfer vectors in many gene therapy-based approaches to treat disease. Despite their widespread application, many potential therapeutic applications are limited by the widespread prevalence of vector-neutralizing antibodies within the human population and the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce important therapeutic target cell types. In an attempt to circumvent these problems, we have developed Ad vectors based on human Ad serotype 11 (Ad11), since the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to Ad11 in humans is low. E1-deleted Ad11 vector genomes were generated by homologous recombination in 293 cells expressing the Ad11-E1B55K protein or by recombination in Escherichia coli. E1-deleted Ad11 genomes did not display transforming activity in rodent cells. Transduction of primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and immature dendritic cells was more efficient with Ad11 vectors than with Ad5 vectors. Thirty minutes after intravenous injection into mice that express one of the Ad11 receptors (CD46), we found, in a pattern and at a level comparable to what is found in humans, Ad11 vector genomes in all analyzed organs, with the highest amounts in liver, lung, kidney, and spleen. Neither Ad11 genomes nor Ad11 vector-mediated transgene expression were, however, detected at 72 h postinfusion. A large number of Ad11 particles were also found to be associated with circulating blood cells. We also discovered differences in in vitro transduction efficiencies and in vivo biodistributions between Ad11 vectors and chimeric Ad5 vectors possessing Ad11 fibers, indicating that Ad11 capsid proteins other than fibers influence viral infectivity and tropism. Overall, our study provides a basis for the application of Ad11 vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene transfer and for gaining an understanding of the factors that determine Ad tropism.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.8.5090-5104.2005
PMCID: PMC1069572  PMID: 15795294
17.  Cholesterol balance and fecal neutral steroid and bile acid excretion in normal men fed dietary fats of different fatty acid composition 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1969;48(8):1363-1375.
Six normal men were fed formula diets containing either highly saturated fat (cocoa butter, iodine value 32) or polyunsaturated fat (corn oil, iodine value 125). The sterol balance technique was used to compare the changes in serum cholesterol concentration with the excretion of fecal steroids. The method used for the analysis of fecal steroids was chemical, with a final identification and quantification by gas-liquid chromatography. It was confirmed that the chemical method for fecal steroid analysis was accurate and reproducible.
The three dietary periods were each 3 wk in length. In sequence, cocoa butter (period I), corn oil, and cocoa butter (period III) were fed at 40% of the total calories. All diets were cholesterol free, contained similar amounts of plant sterols, and were identical in other nutrients.
Corn oil had a hypocholesterolemic effect. Mean serum cholesterol concentrations were 222 mg/100 ml (cocoa butter, period I), 177 during corn oil, and 225 after the return to cocoa butter. Individual fecal steroids were determined from stools pooled for 7 days. Both neutral steroids and bile acids were altered significantly by dietary polyunsaturated fat. The change in bile acid excretion was considerably greater than the change in neutral steroids. Corn oil caused a greater fecal excretion of both deoxycholic and lithocholic acids. The total mean excretion (milligrams per day) of fecal steroids was 709 for cocoa butter (period I), 915 for corn oil, and 629 for the second cocoa butter period.
The enhanced total fecal steroid excretion by the polyunsaturated fat of corn oil created a negative cholesterol balance vis-à-vis the saturated fat of cocoa butter. The hypocholesterolemic effect of polyunsaturated fat was associated with total fecal sterol excretion twice greater than the amount of cholesterol calculated to leave the plasma. This finding suggested possible loss of cholesterol from the tissues as well.
Images
PMCID: PMC322363  PMID: 5796351

Results 1-19 (19)