Earlier studies have suggested that a common genetic architecture underlies the clinically heterogeneous polygenic Fredrickson hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) phenotypes defined by hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Here, we comprehensively analyzed 504 HLP-HTG patients and 1213 normotriglyceridemic controls and confirmed that a spectrum of common and rare lipid-associated variants underlies this heterogeneity.
Methods and Results
First, we demonstrated that genetic determinants of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, including common variants associated with plasma triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium were associated with multiple HLP-HTG phenotypes. Second, we demonstrated that weighted risk scores composed of common TG-associated variants were distinctly increased across all HLP-HTG phenotypes compared with controls; weighted HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores were also increased, although to a less pronounced degree with some HLP-HTG phenotypes. Interestingly, decomposition of HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores revealed that pleiotropic variants (those jointly associated with TG) accounted for the greatest difference in HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores. The APOE E2/E2 genotype was significantly overrepresented in HLP type 3 versus other phenotypes. Finally, rare variants in 4 genes accumulated equally across HLP-HTG phenotypes.
HTG susceptibility and phenotypic heterogeneity are both influenced by accumulation of common and rare TG-associated variants.
lipoproteins; genetic risk scores; genetic variation; hypertriglyceridemia; pleiotropy
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cause degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and thus may play a key role in cancer development.
In our search for biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), we compared primary OSCC, oral dysplasia and control subjects with respect to: (1) expression of MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP12 in oral epithelial tissue using Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip arrays, followed by qRT-PCR for MMP1, and (2) determination of MMP1 and MMP3 concentrations in saliva.
MMP1 expression in primary OSCC (n=119) was >200-fold higher (p=7.16×10−40) compared with expression levels in non-neoplastic oral epithelium from controls (n=35). qRT-PCR results on 30 cases and 22 controls confirmed this substantial differential expression. The exceptional discriminatory power to separate OSCC from controls was validated in two independent testing sets (AUC%=100; 95% CI, 100-100 and AUC%=98.4; 95% CI, 95.6–100). Salivary concentrations of MMP1 and MMP3 in OSCC patients (33 stage I/II, 26 stage III/IV) were 6.2 times (95% CI, 3.32–11.73) and 14.8 times (95% CI, 6.75–32.56) higher, respectively, than in controls, and displayed an increasing trend with higher stage disease.
Tumor and salivary MMPs are robust diagnostic biomarkers of OSCC.
The capacity of MMP gene expression to identify OSCC provides support for further investigation into MMPs as potential markers for OSCC development. Detection of MMP proteins in saliva in particular may provide a promising means to detect and monitor OSCC non-invasively.
oral squamous cell carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinase; MMP; saliva; gene expression
To evaluate the relationship between common genetic variation in genes involved in the biosynthesis and signaling of estrogen and progesterone and endometriosis risk.
Genetic polymorphism analysis.
Population-based case-control study conducted in Group Health Cooperative enrollees in Western Washington.
Women with newly diagnosed, surgically confirmed endometriosis between 1996 and 2001 (n=256), and age and reference year matched female controls without a history of endometriosis (n=567).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
We evaluated the relationship between common genetic variation and endometriosis risk, using gene-based tests and single variant analysis of genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, PGR, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, COMT and GSTM1.
The most consistent gene-based association with endometriosis risk was for CYP19A1 (p-value = 0.02). We did not find evidence for consistent significant associations between previously reported candidate SNPs in sex hormone-related genes and endometriosis risk.
In summary, we report increased endometriosis risk with CYP19A1 gene-based tests; replication of the association between endometriosis and this gene or gene region is necessary in a larger study population.
Population-based; case-control; endometriosis; genetic polymorphisms; sex hormone metabolic pathway; candidate genes
After age, gender is the most important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The mechanism through which women are protected from CAD is still largely unknown, but the observed gender difference suggests the involvement of the reproductive steroid hormone signaling system. Genetic association studies of the gene encoding Estrogen Receptor alpha (ESR1) have shown conflicting results, although only a limited range of variation in the gene has been investigated.
Methods and Results
We exploited information made available by advanced new methods and resources in complex disease genetics to revisit the question of ESR1's role in risk of CAD. We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies (CARDIoGRAM discovery analysis, N~87,000) to search for population-wide and gender-specific associations between CAD risk and common genetic variants throughout the coding, non-coding and flanking regions of ESR1. In additional samples from the MIGen (N~6,000), WTCCC (N~7,400) and Framingham (N~3,700) studies, we extended this search to a larger number of common and uncommon variants by imputation into a panel of haplotypes constructed using data from the 1000 Genomes project. Despite the widespread expression of ER alpha in vascular tissues, we find no evidence for involvement of common or low-frequency genetic variation throughout the ESR1 gene in modifying risk of CAD, either in the general population or as a function of gender.
We suggest that future research on the genetic basis of gender-related differences in CAD risk should initially prioritize other genes in the reproductive steroid hormone biosynthesis system.
coronary artery disease; estrogen receptor alpha; menopause; polymorphism, single nucleotide; genetic association studies; meta-analysis
While some studies have reported detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal tumors, others have not.
We examined the association between oncogenic HPV infection and colorectal polyps in a case-control study of individuals with colorectal adenomas (n=167), hyperplastic polyps (n=87), and polyp-free controls (n=250). We performed real-time PCR for HPV-16 /18 DNA, and SPF PCR covering 43 HPV types, on lesional and normal colorectal tissue samples. Plasma antibodies for oncogenic HPV types were assessed via a bead-based multiplex Luminex assay.
HPV DNA was not found in any of the 609 successfully assayed colorectal tissue samples from adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, normal biopsies adjacent to polyps, or normal biopsies of the rectum of disease-free controls. Also, there was no association between HPV seropositivity for all oncogenic HPV types combined, for either polyp type, and for men or women. When analyses were restricted to participants without a previous history of polyps, among men [adenomas (n=31), hyperplastic polyps (n=28), and controls (n=68)], there was an association between seropositivity and hyperplastic polyps when all oncogenic HPV types were combined (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–7.9).
Overall, our findings do not support an etiologic relationship between HPV and colorectal adenomas or hyperplastic polyps; however, our finding suggesting an association between HPV seropositivity and hyperplastic polyps in men may warrant further investigations.
After stringent controls for contamination and three methods to assess HPV infection, we report no evidence for HPV in the etiology of colorectal neoplasia for either men or women.
HPV; colorectal adenomas; hyperplastic polyps; DNA; antibodies
To determine the differential gene expression between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with and without metastasis to cervical lymph nodes and to assess prediction of nodal metastasis using molecular features.
We used Affymetrix U133 2.0 plus arrays to compare the tumor genome-wide gene expression of 73 node-positive OSCC with 40 node-negative (≥18 months) OSCC. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the association between gene expression and nodal metastasis. Stepwise logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis were used to generate predictive models and to compare these with models using tumor size alone.
We identified five genes differentially expressed between node-positive and node-negative OSCC after adjusting for tumor size and Human Papillomavirus status: REEP1, RNF145, CTONG2002744, MYO5A and FBXO32. Stepwise regression identified a four-gene model (MYO5A, RFN145, FBXO32 and CTONG2002744) as the most predictive of nodal metastasis. A leave-one-out ROC analysis revealed that our model had a higher Area Under the Curve (AUC) for identifying occult nodal metastasis compared to that of a model using tumor size alone (respective AUC: 0.85 and 0.61; p = 0.011). A model combining tumor size and gene expression did not further improve prediction of occult metastasis. Independent validation using 31 metastatic and 13 non-metastatic cases revealed a significant under-expression of CTONG2002744 (p = 0.0004).
These results suggest that our gene expression markers of OSCC metastasis hold promise for improving current clinical practice. Confirmation by others and functional studies of CTONG2002744 are warranted.
oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral cancer; genetic expression profiles; gene expression profiling; metastasis; microarrays
Glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and sulfation, catalyzed by sulfotransferases (SULT), are pathways through which sex steroids are metabolized to less active compounds. These enzymes are highly polymorphic and genetic variants frequently result in higher or lower activity. The phenotypic effects of these polymorphisms on circulating sex steroids in premenopausal women have not yet been investigated. One hundred and seventy women ages 40-45 years had a blood sample drawn during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for sex steroid measures and to obtain genomic DNA. Urine was collected for 2-hydroxy (OH) estrone (E1) and 16α-OH E1 measures. Generalized linear regression models were used to assess associations between sex steroids and polymorphisms in the UGT1A and UGT2B families, SULT1A1, and SULT1E1. Women with the UGT1A1(TA7/TA7) genotype had 25% lower mean estradiol (E2) concentrations compared to the wildtype (TA6/TA6) (p = 0.02). Similar associations were observed between SULT1A1(R213/H213) and E1 (13% lower mean E1 concentration vs. wildtype; p-value = 0.02) and UGT2B4(E458/E458) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (20% lower mean DHEA vs. wildtype; p-value = 0.03). The SULT1E1(A/C) and the UGT1A1(TA7)-UGT1A3(R11) haplotypes were associated with reduced estrogen concentrations. Further study of UGT and SULT polymorphisms and circulating sex steroid measures in larger populations of premenopausal women is warranted.
Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases; sulfotransferases; estrogens; androgens; premenopausal women
Human papillomavirus is the acknowledged cause of cervical cancer. We hypothesized that allergies, characterized by hyperimmune reaction to common allergens andwhich have been associated with various cancers, may be related to cervical cancer, and that genetic variation in cytokine genes related to allergies might impact cervical cancer risk.
We investigated the risk of invasive squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC) associated with self-reported allergies and with variation in allergy-related cytokine genes using data from a case-control study (561 cases, 1258 controls) conducted in Washington State. Logistic regression models yielded odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Pollen allergy, the most commonly reported allergy, was associated with reduced SCC risk (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5–0.8). Of 60 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms covering eight genes (CSF2, IL3, IL4, IL13, CSF2RB, IL4R, IL13RA1, IL13RA2), several were related to pollen allergies among controls: IL4R rs3024647 (dominant OR 1.5 95% CI 1.0–2.3, p=0.04), CSF2RB rs16997517 (dominant OR 2.2 95% CI 1.0–4.7, p=0.04), and IL13 rs1800925 (per-allele OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.4, p=0.0007). Two variants were inversely associated with SCC risk: IL4R rs3024656 (per-allele OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6–1.0, p=0.03) and CSF2RB rs16997517 (dominant OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.9, p=0.04).
Pollen allergies were related to reduced SCC risk. CSF2RB rs16997517 was directly related to pollen allergies in controls and to reduced SCC risk.
If other studies confirm these results, the mechanism behind allergy-associated immune response associated with SCC risk may be worth exploring in the context of therapeutic or prophylactic vaccines.
Cervical cancer; HPV; allergy; cytokines
The usefulness of landline random digit dialing (RDD) in epidemiologic studies is threatened by the rapid increase in households with only cellular telephone service. This study assessed the feasibility of including cellular telephone numbers in RDD and differences between young adults with landline telephones and those with only cellular telephones. Between 2008 and 2009, a total of 9,023 cellular telephone numbers were called and 43.8% were successfully screened; 248 men and 249 women who resided in 3 Washington State counties, were 20–44 years of age, and used only cellular telephones were interviewed. They were compared with 332 men and 526 women with landline telephones interviewed as controls for 2 case-control studies conducted in parallel with cellular telephone interviewing. Cellular-only users were more likely to be college educated and less likely to have fathered/birthed a child than were their landline counterparts. Male cellular-only users were less likely to be obese and more likely to exercise, to be Hispanic, and to have lower incomes, while female cellular-only users were more likely to be single than landline respondents. Including cellular telephone numbers in RDD is feasible and should be incorporated into epidemiologic studies that rely on this method to ascertain subjects, although low screening rates could hamper the representativeness of such a sample.
bias (epidemiology); case-control studies; epidemiologic methods; selection bias; telephone
Background Head and neck cancer (HNC) risk is elevated among lean people and reduced among overweight or obese people in some studies; however, it is unknown whether these associations differ for certain subgroups or are influenced by residual confounding from the effects of alcohol and tobacco use or by other sources of biases.
Methods We pooled data from 17 case–control studies including 12 716 cases and the 17 438 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between body mass index (BMI) at different ages and HNC risk, adjusted for age, sex, centre, race, education, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.
Results Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were elevated for people with BMI at reference (date of diagnosis for cases and date of selection for controls) ≤18.5 kg/m2 (2.13, 1.75–2.58) and reduced for BMI >25.0–30.0 kg/m2 (0.52, 0.44–0.60) and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (0.43, 0.33–0.57), compared with BMI >18.5–25.0 kg/m2. These associations did not differ by age, sex, tumour site or control source. Although the increased risk among people with BMI ≤18.5 kg/m2 was not modified by tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking, the inverse association for people with BMI > 25 kg/m2 was present only in smokers and drinkers.
Conclusions In our large pooled analysis, leanness was associated with increased HNC risk regardless of smoking and drinking status, although reverse causality cannot be excluded. The reduced risk among overweight or obese people may indicate body size is a modifier of the risk associated with smoking and drinking. Further clarification may be provided by analyses of prospective cohort and mechanistic studies.
BMI; head and neck cancer; smoking
For 3 decades, terms such as synthetic phenotype and contractile phenotype have been used to imply the existence of a specific mechanism for smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to injury. In this issue of the JCI, Hendrix et al. offer a far more precise approach to examining the mechanisms of SMC responses to injury, focused not on general changes in phenotype but on effects of injury on a single promoter element, the CArG [CC(A/T)6GG] box, in a single gene encoding smooth muscle (SM) α-actin. Since CArG box structures are present in some, but not all, SMC genes, these data suggest that we may be progressing toward establishing a systematic, molecular classification of both SMC subsets and the response of SMCs to different injuries.
Animal data indicate that developmental tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters immune function; however, the potential immunotoxicity of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the developing infant is an understudied area. The aim of the current study is to examine the association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to total infant serum immunoglobulin concentrations determined at 6-months-of-age. We selected 384 mother-infant pairs participating in a birth cohort study in Eastern Slovakia. PCB concentrations of several congeners were determined in maternal and cord serum samples and in infant serum samples collected at 6-months-of-age using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Total immunoglobulin (Ig) G, A, and M concentrations were determined by nephelometry, and IgE concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to estimate the associations between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and total serum immunoglobulins. The median maternal serum concentration of PCB-153 was 140 ng/g lipid, ≈10-fold higher than concentrations in childbearing-age women in the United States during the same period. Maternal, cord, or 6-month infant PCB concentrations were not associated with total serum immunoglobulin levels at 6 months, regardless of the timing of PCB exposure, PCB congener, or specific immunoglobulin. In this population, which has high PCB concentrations relative to most populations in the world today, we did not observe any association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations and total immunoglobulin measures of IgG, IgA, IgM, or IgE.
Epidemiology; cohort; DAG; roma
Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study.
The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age.
Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener.
At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.
Marijuana contains carcinogens similar to tobacco smoke and has been suggested by relatively small studies to increase the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). Since tobacco is a major risk factor for HNC, large studies with substantial numbers of never tobacco users could help to clarify whether marijuana smoking is independently associated with HNC risk.
We pooled self-reported interview data on marijuana smoking and known HNC risk factors on 4,029 HNC cases and 5,015 controls from five case-control studies within the INHANCE Consortium. Subanalyses were conducted among never tobacco users (493 cases and 1,813 controls), and among individuals who did not consume alcohol or smoke tobacco (237 cases and 887 controls).
The risk of HNC was not elevated by ever marijuana smoking (odds ratio (OR) =0.88, 95% confidence intervals (CI) =0.67, 1.16), and there was no increasing risk associated with increasing frequency, duration or cumulative consumption of marijuana smoking. An increased risk of HNC associated with marijuana use was not detected among never tobacco users (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.63, 1.37; three studies) nor among individuals who did not drink alcohol and smoke tobacco (OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.47, 2.38; two studies).
Our results are consistent with the notion that infrequent marijuana smoking does not confer a risk of these malignancies. Nonetheless, because the prevalence of frequent marijuana smoking was low in most of the contributing studies, we could not rule out a moderately increased risk, particularly among subgroups without exposure to tobacco and alcohol.
Background Quitting tobacco or alcohol use has been reported to reduce the head and neck cancer risk in previous studies. However, it is unclear how many years must pass following cessation of these habits before the risk is reduced, and whether the risk ultimately declines to the level of never smokers or never drinkers.
Methods We pooled individual-level data from case–control studies in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Data were available from 13 studies on drinking cessation (9167 cases and 12 593 controls), and from 17 studies on smoking cessation (12 040 cases and 16 884 controls). We estimated the effect of quitting smoking and drinking on the risk of head and neck cancer and its subsites, by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression models.
Results Quitting tobacco smoking for 1–4 years resulted in a head and neck cancer risk reduction [OR 0.70, confidence interval (CI) 0.61–0.81 compared with current smoking], with the risk reduction due to smoking cessation after ≥20 years (OR 0.23, CI 0.18–0.31), reaching the level of never smokers. For alcohol use, a beneficial effect on the risk of head and neck cancer was only observed after ≥20 years of quitting (OR 0.60, CI 0.40–0.89 compared with current drinking), reaching the level of never drinkers.
Conclusions Our results support that cessation of tobacco smoking and cessation of alcohol drinking protect against the development of head and neck cancer.
Epidemiology; head and neck cancer; cessation; alcohol drinking; tobacco smoking
Background Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV).
Methods We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case–control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral–anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite.
Results Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) and with an earlier age at sexual debut (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.37, 5.05). Cancer of the base of the tongue was associated with ever having oral sex among women (OR = 4.32, 95% CI 1.06, 17.6), having two sexual partners in comparison with only one (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19, 3.46) and, among men, with a history of same-sex sexual contact (OR = 8.89, 95% CI 2.14, 36.8).
Conclusions Sexual behaviours are associated with cancer risk at the head and neck cancer subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection.
Sexual practices; head and neck cancer; oropharyngeal neoplasms; homosexual; gay men; risk factors; pooled analyses
Sex hormones are metabolized to less active compounds via (i) glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and (ii) sulfation, catalyzed by sulfotransferases (SULT). Functional UGT and SULT polymorphisms can affect clearance of sex hormones, thereby influencing exposure in hormone-sensitive tissues, such as the breast. We assessed relationships between functional polymorphisms in the UGT and SULT genes and breast density in premenopausal women.
One-hundred and seventy five women ages 40–45 years, who had a screening mammogram taken within the previous year, provided a genomic DNA sample. Mammograms were digitized to obtain breast density measures. Using generalized linear regression, we assessed associations between percent breast density and polymorphisms in the UGT1A and UGT2B families, SULT1A1, and SULT1E1.
Women with the SULT1A1(H213/H213) genotype had 16% lower percent breast density compared to women with the SULT1A1(R213/R213) genotype after controlling for ethnicity (p-value = 0.001). Breast density was 5% lower among women carrying at least one copy of the UGT1A1(TA7)-UG1A3(R11)-UGT1A3(A47) haplotype compared to the UGT1A1(TA6)-UG1A3(W11)-UGT1A3(V47) haplotype (p-value = 0.07). No associations were observed between polymorphisms in the UGT2B family or SULT1E1 and breast density.
Polymorphisms in SULT1A1 and the UGT1A locus may influence percent breast density in premenopausal women.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases; sulfotransferases; hormones; mammographic breast density; premenopausal women
Cancer is rare in adolescents and young adults (AYA), but these patients have seen little improvement in survival in contrast to most other age groups. Furthermore, participation in research by AYAs is typically low. We conducted a study to examine the feasibility of recruiting a population-based sample of AYA survivors to examine issues of treatment and health outcomes.
Individuals diagnosed in 2007–08 and age 15–39 at the time of diagnosis with acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, germ cell cancer or sarcoma were identified by 7 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) cancer registries, mailed surveys within 14 months after diagnosis and again a year later, and had medical records reviewed.
525 (43%) of the eligible patients responded, 39% refused and 17% were lost to follow-up. Extensive efforts were required for most potential respondents (87%). 76% of respondents completed the paper rather than online survey version. In a multivariate model, age, cancer site, education and months from diagnosis to the first mailing of the survey were not associated with participation, although males (p < 0.01), Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks (p < 0.001) were less likely to participate. 91% of survivors completing the initial survey completed the subsequent survey.
Despite the response rate, those who participated adequately reflected the population of AYA cancer survivors. The study demonstrates that cancer registries are valuable foundations for conducting observational, longitudinal population-based research on AYA cancer survivors.
Implications for Cancer Survivors
Achieving a reasonable response rate in this population is possible, but requires extensive resources.
Adolescent cancer; Young adult cancer; Survey; Response rates; Medical records; Consent forms
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have replicably identified multiple loci associated with population-based plasma lipid concentrations1-5. Common genetic variants at these loci together explain <10% of the total variation of each lipid trait4,5. Rare variants of individually large effect may contribute additionally to the “missing heritability” of lipid traits6,7, however it remains to be shown to what extent rare variants will affect lipid phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate a significant accumulation of rare variants in GWAS-identified genes in patients with an extreme phenotype of abnormal plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism. A GWAS of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) patients revealed that common variants in APOA5, GCKR, LPL and APOB genes were associated with the HTG phenotype at genome-wide significance. We subsequently resequenced protein coding regions of these genes and found a significant burden of 154 rare missense or nonsense variants in 438 HTG patients, in contrast to 53 variants in 327 controls (P=6.2X10-8); this corresponds to a carrier frequency of 28.1% of HTG patients and 15.3% of controls (P=2.6X10-5). Many rare variants were predicted in silico to have compromised function; additionally some had previously demonstrated dysfunctionality in vitro. Rare variants in these 4 genes explained 1.1% of total variation in HTG diagnoses. Our study demonstrates a marked mutation skew that likely contributes to disease pathophysiology in patients with HTG.
CXCL12 provides a chemotactic signal directing leukocyte migration and regulates metastatic behavior of tumor cells. We conducted a population-based case-control study to test the hypothesis that common genetic variation in CXCL12 (single SNP alleles and haplotypes) is associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma. Cases (N=917) were women diagnosed with invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS) of the cervix, while residents of western Washington State. Control participants (N=849) were identified from the source population by random digit telephone dialing and frequency matched to cases on county and age. Nine CXCL12 tagSNPs chosen from the SeattleSNPs database were genotyped. The minor allele of intronic SNP rs266085 was inversely associated with cervical cancer under a recessive genetic effects model (OR=0.74, 95% C.I. 0.56–0.98). Among the ten common haplotypes inferred from the 9 tagSNPs, one haplotype defined by minor alleles at 5’ flanking SNP rs17885289 and rs266085, and common alleles at the other 7 SNPs occurred among 7.8% of cases and 10.6% of controls (dominant model OR=0.72, 95% C.I. 0.56–0.93; recessive model OR=0.35, 95% C.I. 0.12–0.97; and log additive model OR=0.72, 95% C.I. 0.57–0.90). A stepwise procedure identified rs17885289, rs266085, and 3’ UTR SNP rs266093 as the most parsimonious subset of SNPs necessary to define the haplotype inversely associated with cervical cancer risk in our study. A 3’ UTR SNP, rs1801157, previously found to be related to HIV pathogenesis, was not associated with cervical cancer risk. Further population-based studies are warranted to confirm these associations between genetic variation in CXCL12 and cervical cancer risk.
cervical cancer; HPV epidemiology; CXCL12; single nucleotide polymorphism
We sought to identify clinical and/or plaque characteristics that affect atherosclerotic disease progression and arterial remodeling in the carotid artery with subclinical stenosis.
Increasing severity of stenosis has been associated with a higher risk of stroke. Factors that drive subclinical lesions to become stenotic plaques remain ambiguous. Carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been validated with histology to accurately quantify in vivo arterial morphology and plaque composition.
A total of 67 asymptomatic participants with 16% to 49% carotid stenosis as demonstrated by duplex ultrasonography were imaged at 1.5-T with a carotid MRI protocol at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Clinical and/or intra-arterial metrics with a significant association with change in plaque burden during multivariate analysis were evaluated for effects on lumen, wall, and total vessel volume.
From multiple regression analysis, intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) (p < 0.001) and statin therapy (p = 0.015) were identified as key determinants of change in plaque burden. The group with IPH compared with the group without IPH demonstrated luminal narrowing, with a mean ± SD decrease in lumen volume (−24.9 ± 21.1 mm3/year vs. −0.5 ± 26.9 mm3/year; p = 0.005), a larger increase in wall volume (44.1 ± 36.1 mm3/year vs. 0.8 ± 34.5 mm3/year; p < 0.001), and no difference in total vessel volume (19.3 ± 27.4 mm3/year vs. 0.4 ± 42.4 mm3/year; p = 0.15). The nonstatin group compared with the statin group demonstrated outward remodeling, with an increase in wall volume (22.4 ± 35.6 mm3/year3/year vs. 0.9 ± 38.0 mm3/year; p = 0.026) and total vessel volume (19.2 ± 36.9 mm3/year vs. −4.9 ± 40.4 mm3/year; p = 0.019) and no difference in lumen volume (−5.8 ± 26.6 mm3/year vs. −3.2 ± 29.5 mm3/year; p = 0.72).
IPH may represent an indication of accelerated plaque growth and impending luminal compromise in the subclinical carotid artery. Statin therapy may stabilize lesions by slowing or halting lesion progression. This phase of plaque stenosis (16% to 49%) may be a critical stage for intrinsic and extrinsic factors to affect the atherosclerotic disease process.
atherosclerosis; carotid arteries; magnetic resonance imaging; remodeling
Although cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption increase risk for head and neck cancers, there have been few attempts to model risks quantitatively and to formally evaluate cancer site-specific risks. The authors pooled data from 15 case-control studies and modeled the excess odds ratio (EOR) to assess risk by total exposure (pack-years and drink-years) and its modification by exposure rate (cigarettes/day and drinks/day). The smoking analysis included 1,761 laryngeal, 2,453 pharyngeal, and 1,990 oral cavity cancers, and the alcohol analysis included 2,551 laryngeal, 3,693 pharyngeal, and 3,116 oval cavity cancers, with over 8,000 controls. Above 15 cigarettes/day, the EOR/pack-year decreased with increasing cigarettes/day, suggesting that greater cigarettes/day for a shorter duration was less deleterious than fewer cigarettes/day for a longer duration. Estimates of EOR/pack-year were homogeneous across sites, while the effects of cigarettes/day varied, indicating that the greater laryngeal cancer risk derived from differential cigarettes/day effects and not pack-years. EOR/drink-year estimates increased through 10 drinks/day, suggesting that greater drinks/day for a shorter duration was more deleterious than fewer drinks/day for a longer duration. Above 10 drinks/day, data were limited. EOR/drink-year estimates varied by site, while drinks/day effects were homogeneous, indicating that the greater pharyngeal/oral cavity cancer risk with alcohol consumption derived from the differential effects of drink-years and not drinks/day.
alcohol drinking; risk model; smoking
The innominate artery is a predilection site for atherosclerotic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic mice. The lesions at this site in chow-fed apo E−/− mice progress from fatty streaks through stages that include atheroma with large necrotic areas, fibro-fatty nodules containing chondrocyte-like cells and highly calcified, acellular plaques. The advanced lesions in the innominate arteries of the apo E−/− mice exhibit a reproducible frequency of intra-plaque hemorrhage that occurs primarily as a result of fissures through lateral fatty streaks that form adjacent to or on top of the established plaques. However, this plaque disruption is not equivalent to plaque rupture in human lesions where there is rupture of well formed fibrous caps. The plaque disruption in the lesions of the chow-fed apo E−/− mice also do not lead to formation of occlusive thrombi, the predominant marker of plaque rupture in humans. Thus, although the lesions in the innominate arteries of hyperlipidemic mice progress to very advanced stages of the disease, they are not, in our opinion a model in which to study the mechanisms of plaque rupture in humans. The advanced lesions in the innominate arteries of the apo E−/− mice may however be adequate models for studying vascular fibrosis and calcification.
Mammographic breast and bone mineral densities (BMD) have been associated with luteal phase hormone concentrations in premenopausal women. We assessed the associations of breast and bone densities with follicular phase hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in premenopausal women given that follicular phase hormones have been shown to be positively associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk.
One hundred and ninety two 40-45 year old women provided a spot urine and/or blood sample during the follicular phase. Hormone and SHBG concentrations and bone density were measured and routine mammograms were accessed and digitized to obtain breast density measures. Regression models were fit to assess the associations between hormones and SHBG and breast and bone densities.
Positive associations were observed between percent breast density and SHBG (p trend = 0.02), as well as estradiol (p trend = 0.08), after controlling for body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, and breast feeding history. In addition, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between total testosterone and head BMD (p trend = 0.01), after controlling for BMI.
Associations were observed between breast and bone densities and serum hormone concentrations during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.
estrogens; androgens; mammographic density; bone mineral density; premenopausal women
Endometriosis, a gynecologic disorder affecting 8–10% of reproductive-age women in the United States, is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and is linked to pelvic pain and infertility. Environmental contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are hypothesized to contribute to endometriosis risk through effects on steroid hormones.
We evaluated serum concentrations of certain noncoplanar PCBs, which have no or only weak dioxin-like properties, as risk factors for endometriosis.
In a case–control study of Group Health enrollees in western Washington State, 20 PCB congeners were measured in serum from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases that were newly diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 (n = 251) and from female controls matched for age and reference year (n = 538).
Summed and estrogenic PCB concentrations were not associated with endometriosis risk [summed: odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8–2.2; estrogenic: OR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8–1.4]. Although several congener-specific ORs were statistically above or below the null (PCB 170: third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; PCB 196: third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.7; PCB 201: second vs. lowest: OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.8; third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.7), there were no overall consistent patterns of endometriosis risk.
Taken in context with other North American studies, our findings suggest that noncoplanar PCB concentrations consistent within the range of exposure currently observed in western Washington State do not contribute meaningfully to endometriosis risk.
case–control; endometriosis; non–dioxin-like PCBs; population-based; risk factors