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1.  Intraoperative predictors of early tracheal extubation after living-donor liver transplantation 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(2):103-109.
Prolonged mechanical ventilation after liver transplantation has been associated with deleterious clinical outcomes, so early tracheal extubation posttransplant is now increasing. However, there is no universal clinical criterion for predicting early extubation in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We investigated specific predictors of early extubation after LDLT.
Perioperative data of adult patients undergoing LDLT were reviewed. "Early" extubation was defined as tracheal extubation in the operating room or intensive care unit (ICU) within 1 h posttransplant, and we divided patients into early extubation (EX) and non-EX groups. Potentially significant (P < 0.10) perioperative variables from univariate analyses were entered into multivariate logistic regression analyses. Individual cut-offs of the predictors were calculated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis.
Of 107 patients, 66 (61.7%) were extubated early after LDLT. Patients in the EX group showed shorter stays in the hospital and ICU and lower incidences of reoperation, infection, and vascular thrombosis. Preoperatively, model for end-stage liver disease score, lung disease, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and intraoperatively, surgical time, transfusion of packed red blood cell (PRBC), urine output, vasopressors, and last measured serum lactate were associated with early extubation (P < 0.05). After multivariate analysis, only PRBC transfusion of ≤ 7.0 units and last serum lactate of ≤ 8.2 mmol/L were selected as predictors of early extubation after LDLT (AUC 0.865).
Intraoperative serum lactate and blood transfusion were predictors of posttransplant early extubation. Aggressive efforts to ameliorate intraoperative circulatory issues would facilitate successful early extubation after LDLT.
PMCID: PMC4166381  PMID: 25237446
Living donors; Liver transplantation; Tracheal extubation
3.  Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation after liver transplantation due to acute liver failure 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(3):228-236.
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressing and fatal disease for which liver transplantation (LT) is the only treatment. Posttransplant mechanical ventilation tends to be more prolonged in patients with ALF than in other LT patients. The present study examined the clinical effects of prolonged posttransplant mechanical ventilation (PMV), and identified risk factors for PMV following LT for ALF.
We reviewed data of patients undergoing LT for ALF between January 2005 and June 2011. After grouping patients according to administration of PMV (≥ 24 h), donor and recipient perioperative variables were compared between the groups with and without PMV. Potentially significant factors (P < 0.1) from the univariate intergroup comparison were entered into a multivariate logistic regression to establish a predictive model for PMV.
Twenty-four (25.3%) of 95 patients with ALF who received PMV had a higher mortality rate (29.2% vs 11.3%, P = 0.038) and longer intensive care unit stay (12.9 ± 10.4 vs 7.1 ± 2.7 days, P = 0.012) than patients without PMV. The intergroup comparisons revealed worse preoperative hepatic conditions, more supportive therapy, and more intraoperative fluctuations in vital signs and less urine output in the with- compared with the without-PMV group. The multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative hepatic encephalopathy (≥ grade III), intraoperative blood pressure fluctuation, and oliguria (< 0.5 ml/kg/h) were independent risk factors for PMV.
PMV was associated with deleterious outcomes. Besides care for known risk factors including hepatic encephalopathy, meticulous attention to managing intraoperative hemodynamic circulatory status is required to avoid PMV and improve the posttransplant prognosis in ALF patients.
PMCID: PMC3790034  PMID: 24101957
Acute liver failure; Liver transplantation; Mechanical ventilation; Prediction
5.  Rho-Associated Kinase 2 Polymorphism of Vasospastic Angina in Korean Population 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(6):379-381.
PMCID: PMC3390422  PMID: 22787467
6.  Temporary cardiac arrest in patient under robotically assisted total thyroidectomy causing carotid sinus hypersensitivity -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(Suppl):S137-S140.
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is an exaggerated response to carotid sinus baroreceptor stimulation. Bradycardia, hypotension, and syncope are common manifestations of CSH. A 31-year-old female patient was scheduled for a robotically assisted endoscopic total thyroidectomy. No problems occurred during anesthetic induction. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred near dissection of the diseased thyroid. However, while atropine was administered, the patient soon recovered to normal sinus rhythm. Subsequent bradycardia or hypotension was not followed until the end of surgery.
PMCID: PMC3030020  PMID: 21286424
Cardiac arrest; Carotid sinus hypersensitivity; Robot; Thyroidectomy
7.  Sluggish decline in a post-transplant model for end-stage liver disease score is a predictor of mortality in living donor liver transplantation 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(3):160-166.
The pre-transplant model for end-stage liver disease (pre-MELD) score is controversial regarding its ability to predict patient mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Prominent changes in physical conditions through the surgery may require a post-transplant indicator for better mortality prediction. We aimed to investigate whether the post-transplant MELD (post-MELD) score can be a predictor of 1-year mortality.
Perioperative variables of 269 patients with living donor LT were retrospectively investigated on their association with 1-year mortality. Post-MELD scores until the 30th day and their respective declines from the 1st day post-MELD score were included along with pre-MELD, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores on the 1st post-transplant day. The predictive model of mortality was established by multivariate Cox's proportional hazards regression.
The 1-year mortality rate was 17% (n = 44), and the leading cause of death was graft failure. Among prognostic indicators, only post-MELD scores after the 5th day and declines in post-MELD scores until the 5th and 30th day were associated with mortality in univariate analyses (P < 0.05). After multivariate analyses, declines in post-MELD scores until the 5th day of less than 5 points (hazard ratio 2.35, P = 0.007) and prolonged mechanical ventilation ≥24 hours were the earliest independent predictors of 1-year mortality.
A sluggish decline in post-MELD scores during the early post-transplant period may be a meaningful prognostic indicator of 1-year mortality after LT.
PMCID: PMC2946032  PMID: 20877699
Liver transplantation; Living donor; Mortality; Prediction
8.  Anaphylactoid reaction after injection of ketorolac in a loading dose for patient-controlled analgesia -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;58(6):565-568.
Anaphylaxis is a severe and life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction. Ketorolac is a popular drug used for patient-controlled analgesia. Although anaphylactic reaction to ketorolac has not been frequently reported, it can develop by way of several mechanisms. A 41-year-old male patient was scheduled for laparoscopic correction of a perforated gastric ulcer. Emergency surgery was performed under general anesthesia with no complications. Near the end of anesthesia administration, ketorolac in a loading dose was administered intravenously in order to launch patient-controlled analgesia. Following injection, urticaria-like skin lesions, including rashes and wheels appeared systemically; tachycardia and breathing difficulty with oxygen desaturation also developed. Through additional inquiry into the patient's drug history, past experience with ibuprofen allergy was identified. Antihistamine, steroid, and aminophylline were administered, and continuous positive airway pressure by full facial mask was applied to relieve bronchospastic symptoms. The patient recovered without further complications.
PMCID: PMC2892592  PMID: 20589183
Anaphylaxis; Ketorolac; Patient-controlled analgesia
9.  MicroRNA expression profiling and Notch1 and Notch2 expression in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix 
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is known to be deregulated in cervical carcinomas. However, no data is available about the miRNA expression pattern for the minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of uterine cervix. We sought to detect deregulated miRNAs in MDA in an attempt to find the most dependable miRNA or their combinations to understand their tumorigenesis pathway and to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. We also investigated the association between those miRNAs and their target genes, especially Notch1 and Notch2.
We evaluated miRNA expression profiles via miRNA microarray and validated them using.real-time PCR assays with 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of MDA and 11 normal proliferative endocervical tissues as control. Expression for Notch1 and 2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
MiRNA-135a-3p, 192-5p, 194-5p, and 494 were up-regulated, whereas miR-34b-5p, 204-5p, 299-5p, 424-5p, and 136-3p were down-regulated in MDA compared with normal proliferative endocervical tissues (all P <0.05). Considering the second-order Akaike Information Criterion consisting of likelihood ratio and number of parameters, miR-34b-5p showed the best discrimination power among the nine candidate miRNAs. A combined panel of miR-34b-5p and 194-5p was the best fit model to discriminate between MDA and control, revealing 100% sensitivity and specificity. Notch1 and Notch2, respective target genes of miR-34b-5p and miR-204-5p, were more frequently expressed in MDA than in control (63% vs. 18%; 52% vs. 18%, respectively, P <0.05). MiR-34b-5p expression level was higher in Notch1-negative samples compared with Notch1-positive ones (P <0.05). Down-regulated miR-494 was associated with poor patient survival (P =0.036).
MDA showed distinctive expression profiles of miRNAs, Notch1, and Notch2 from normal proliferative endocervical tissues. In particular, miR-34b-5p and 194-5p might be used as diagnostic biomarkers and miR-494 as a prognostic predictor for MDA. The miR-34b-5p/Notch1 pathway as well as Notch2 might be important oncogenic contributors to MDA.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-334) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4239392  PMID: 25381598
microRNA; Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma; Notch; Uterine cervix
10.  Metabolic Syndrome and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
Psychiatry Investigation  2014;11(3):325-329.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation in Korean. This study was based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A questionnaire was used to measure suicidal ideation and physical examination was performed to measure waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation among adults and adolescents. Subjects with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have suicidal ideation in adult. There would be essential needs to evaluate suicidal ideation in adult with metabolic syndrome and to follow up suicidal ideation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC4124193  PMID: 25110507
Suicidal ideation; Metabolic syndrome
11.  Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relationship between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Quality of Life 
Psychiatry Investigation  2014;11(2):131-136.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressive symptoms affect the relationship between adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the quality of life (QOL) in Korean soldiers.
We evaluated past and present symptoms of adult ADHD (the Korean Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Scale and the Wender Utah Rating Scale), depression (the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and QOL (the Korean version of the SmithKline Beecham 'Quality of Life' scale) in 131 soldiers during mental health screenings performed by a local mental health center. A structured equation model using AMOS 19.0 was used to evaluate the mediating effect of depression.
In our first model (without depressive symptoms), adult ADHD significantly affected QOL (standardized regression weight=-0.51, p<0.01). After depressive symptoms were added to this model, the direct effect of adult ADHD on QOL was not significant (standardized regression weight=0.10, p=0.43). Regarding the indirect effect, adult ADHD significantly affected depression (standardized regression weight=0.78, p<0.01), and depression also affected QOL (standardized regression weight=-0.79, p<0.01).
Through structural equation modeling, the complete mediation model for the influence of depressive symptoms on ADHD and QOL was confirmed. These findings indicated that it might be important to consider comorbidities, such as depression, when adult ADHD is being evaluated.
PMCID: PMC4023086  PMID: 24843367
Adult ADHD and quality of life
12.  A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum 
The Plant Pathology Journal  2014;30(1):25-32.
Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which are a major health concern for humans and animals. The objective of this research was to develop an easy seed or seedling inoculation assay, and to compare these assays with whole plant resistance of twenty-nine Korean winter wheat cultivars to FHB. The clip-dipping assay consists of cutting off the coleoptiles apex, dipping the coleoptiles apex in conidial suspension, covering in plastic bag for 3 days, and measuring the lengths of lesions 7 days after inoculation. There were significant cultivar differences after inoculation with F. graminearum in seedling relative to the controls. Correlation coefficients between the lesion lengths of clip-dipping inoculation and FHB Type II resistance from adult plants were significant (r=0.45; P<0.05). Results from two other seedling inoculation methods, spraying and pin-point inoculation, were not correlated with adult FHB resistance. Single linear correlation was not significant between seed germination assays (soaking and soak-dry) and FHB resistance (Type I and Type II), respectively. These results showed that clip-dipping inoculation method using F. graminearum may offer a real possibility of simple, rapid, and reliable for the early screening of FHB resistance in wheat.
PMCID: PMC4174839  PMID: 25288982
Fusarium head blight (FHB); seed germination assay; seedling inoculation assay; wheat
13.  The Relationship between Impulsivity and Quality of Life in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder 
Psychiatry Investigation  2013;10(3):246-252.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by elevated impulsivity, even during periods of remission. Many recovered BD patients have functional impairments, which can lead to poor quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between impulsivity and QoL in euthymic BD patients.
A total of 56 remitted or recovered patients with type I or II BD, diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria, were recruited. Psychiatrists administered the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) for BD and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales and then interviewed the subjects to assess clinical variables. Patients completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument-Brief Form (WHOQoL-BREF). Pearson correlations, univariate regression analyses, and multiple linear regression analyses were performed.
The BIS-11 total score was significantly correlated with the WHOQoL-BREF total score (r=-0.55, p<0.01) and with the WHOQoL-BREF subscales. After controlling for GAF score and other clinical variables, the BIS-11 total score (β=-0.43, p=0.001) was independently associated with overall QoL. Additionally, the BIS-11 total score was particularly strongly associated with the physical, psychological, and social domains of the multi-dimensional QoL scale.
Our results suggest that high impulsivity is related to low QoL in euthymic BD patients. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions for high impulsivity effectively improve QoL in patients with BD.
PMCID: PMC3843016  PMID: 24302947
Bipolar disorder; Impulsivity; Quality of life
14.  C-Type Natriuretic Peptide as a Surrogate Marker in Variant Angina Pectoris 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(3):168-173.
Background and Objectives
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a surrogate marker for detection of coronary artery spasm in variant angina pectoris (VAP).
Subjects and Methods
Sixty-six patients (mean age: 51±11 years, M : F=40 : 26) who underwent coronary angiography on suspicion of angina and who were diagnosed with VAP by the acetylcholine-induced spasm provocation test (SPT) were enrolled and divided into a SPT (-) group (n=23) and a SPT (+) group (n=43). Concentrations of CNP and other markers were determined by immunoassay in both groups.
Plasma CNP and creatine kinase myoglobin band (CK-MB) concentrations were significantly increased in the SPT (+) group relative to the SPT (-) group (CNP, 5.268±1.800 pg/mL vs. 3.342±1.150 pg/mL, p=0.002; CK-MB, 2.54±1.03 ng/dL vs. 1.86±0.96 ng/dL, p=0.019, respectively) while plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) concentrations were not significantly different between the SPT (-) group and SPT (+) group (hs-CRP, 2.76±4.99 mg/L vs. 3.13±4.88 mg/L, p=0.789; NT pro-BNP, 49±47 pg/mL vs. 57±63 pg/mL, p=0.818, respectively). Plasma CNP concentration was independently associated with the VAP via SPT {odds ratio: 2.014 (95% confidence interval: 1.016-3.992), p=0.045}. A CNP cut-off value of 4.096 pg/mL was found to have a sensitivity of 68.2% and a specificity of 40.0% for predicting the probability of VAP via SPT.
Increased plasma CNP concentration in patients with VAP may have an impact on the regulation of endothelial function in accordance with the progression of atherosclerosis. Further analysis is warranted to develop clinical applications of this finding.
PMCID: PMC3629242  PMID: 23613693
Natriuretic peptide, C-type; Angina pectoris, variant; Endothelium; Acetylcholine
15.  Analgesic Effects of Dexmedetomidine in Vincristine-Evoked Painful Neuropathic Rats 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(11):1411-1417.
Dexmedetomidine, which is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, was recently introduced into clinical practice for its analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine in a vincristine-evoked neuropathic rat models. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with vincristine or saline (0.1 mg/kg/day) using a 5-day-on, 2-day-off schedule for 2 weeks. Saline and dexmedetomidine (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/kg) were injected to rats developed allodynia 14 days after vincristine injection, respectively. We evaluated allodynia at before, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min, and 24 hr after intraperitoneal drug (normal saline or dexmedetomidine) injection. Saline treatment did not show any differences for all the allodynia. Maximal paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical stimuli were 3.0 ± 0.4, 9.1 ± 1.9, 13.0 ± 3.6, 16.6 ± 2.4, and 24.4 ± 1.6 g at saline, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/kg dexmedetomidine injection, respectively. Minimal withdrawal frequency to cold stimuli were 73.3 ± 4.2, 57.1 ± 6.8, 34.3 ± 5.7, 20.0 ± 6.2, and 14.3 ± 9.5 g at saline, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/kg dexmedetomidine injection, respectively. Dexmedetomidine shows a dose-dependent antiallodynic effect on mechanical and cold stimuli in vincristine-evoked neuropathic rat models (P < 0.05).
PMCID: PMC3492679  PMID: 23166426
Dexmedetomidine; Neuropathy; Pain; Vincristine
16.  Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection 
A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3498313  PMID: 23185659
Eosinophilic myocarditis; Toxocara canis; Visceral larva migrans
17.  MicroRNA expression in ovarian carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological features 
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is known to be deregulated in ovarian carcinomas. However, limited data is available about the miRNA expression pattern for the benign or borderline ovarian tumors as well as differential miRNA expression pattern associated with histological types, grades or clinical stages in ovarian carcinomas. We defined patterns of microRNA expression in tissues from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumors and explored the relationship between frequently deregulated miRNAs and clinicopathologic findings, response to therapy, survival, and association with Her-2/neu status in ovarian carcinomas.
We measured the expression of nine miRNAs (miR-181d, miR-30a-3p, miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p, miR-368, miR-370, miR-493-5p, miR-532-5p) in 171 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue blocks as well as six normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines using Taqman-based real-time PCR assays. Her-2/neu overexpression was assessed in ovarian carcinomas (n = 109 cases) by immunohistochemistry analysis.
Expression of four miRNAs (miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p, miR-370) was significantly different between carcinomas and benign ovarian tissues as well as between carcinoma and borderline tissues. An additional three miRNAs (miR-181d, miR-30a-3p, miR-532-5p) were significantly different between borderline and carcinoma tissues. Expression of miR-532-5p was significantly lower in borderline than in benign tissues. Among ovarian carcinomas, expression of four miRNAs (miR-30a-3p, miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p) was lowest in mucinous and highest in clear cell samples. Expression of miR-30a-3p was higher in well-differentiated compared to poorly differentiated tumors (P = 0.02), and expression of miR-370 was higher in stage I/II compared to stage III/IV samples (P = 0.03). In multivariate analyses, higher expression of miR-181d, miR-30c, miR-30d, and miR-30e-3p was associated with significantly better disease-free or overall survival. Finally, lower expression of miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p and miR-532-5p was significantly associated with overexpression of Her-2/neu.
Aberrant expression of miRNAs is common in ovarian tumor suggesting involvement of miRNA in ovarian tumorigenesis. They are associated with histology, clinical stage, survival and oncogene expression in ovarian carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3449188  PMID: 22925189
miRNA; Ovarian tumor; Her2/neu; Survival
18.  Effect of Symptoms of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Korean Conscripts 
Psychiatry Investigation  2012;9(2):154-160.
This study is conducted to investigate the effect of symptoms of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 224 conscripts during 5 weeks of military basic training.
Total number of subject is 224 conscripts. We evaluated past and present symptoms of ADHD with Korean-Wender Utah rating scale (K-WURS) and Korean adult attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale (K-AADHDS) and stress and symptoms of PTSD with Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument-K (BEPSI-K), the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-K) on 1 week and 5 weeks later of basic military training. Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate risk factors of PTSD using SPSS program and Path analysis also was used to find relationship between past and present ADHD and PTSD simultaneously using AMOS program.
Present symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.145, CI=1.054-1.245, p=0.001) and Past symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.049, CI=1.005-1.095, p=0.028) were significant risk factor of PTSD symptoms on 1st week of basic military training. The symptoms of PTSD on fist week was also significant risk factor of PTSD after 5weeks of basic military training (OR=1.073, CI=1.020-1.129, p=0.006). Using path analysis, we could found confirm these relations between past and present ADHD symptoms and symptoms of PTSD.
The result suggests that past and present symptoms of ADHD are the risk factor of symptoms of PTSD on first week. And the symptoms of PTSD on first week are also risk factor of PTSD symptoms on last weeks in Korean conscripts. The symptoms of ADHD might make an important role in vulnerability of the symptoms of PTSD in Korean conscripts.
PMCID: PMC3372563  PMID: 22707966
19.  Positive Result in the Early Passive Phase of the Tilt-table Test: A Predictor of Neurocardiogenic Syncope in Young Men 
This study elucidated the prognostic factors for neurocardiogenic syncope in males in their late teens and early twenties.
Tilt-table testing (TTT) was performed on 665 males (age range, 17 to 27 years) following the Italian protocol. The subjects were tilted head-up at a 70° angle on a table for 30 minutes during the passive phase. If the passive phase was negative, the subjects were given sublingual nitroglycerin and tilted to the same angle for 20 minutes during the drug-provocation phase. The subjects with positive results were followed without medication. We analyzed factors related to the recurrence rate of syncope.
Of 305 subjects (45.8%) with positive results, 223 (age range, 18 to 26 years) were followed for 12 months. The frequency of previous syncopal episodes ≥ 4 (p = 0.001) and a positive result during the passive phase (p = 0.022) were significantly related to a high recurrence rate. A positive result during the early passive phase (≤ 12 minutes) was significantly related to a higher recurrence rate than was that during the late passive phase (> 12 minutes; p = 0.011).
A positive result during the early passive phase of TTT and frequent previous syncopal episodes were prognostic factors for neurocardiogenic syncope in men in their late teens and early twenties.
PMCID: PMC3295990  PMID: 22403501
Syncope, vasovagal; Prognosis; Tilt-table test
20.  High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of clinical outcomes in patients achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets with statins after percutaneous coronary intervention 
Heart  2011;97(23):1943-1950.
A low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is strongly associated with cardiovascular events. However, the significance of HDL-C after statin therapy on the outcome of patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug eluting stents (DES) is unclear.
To investigate the significance of HDL-C after statin therapy on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease after DES implantation.
Patients who underwent PCI with DES from January 2004 to December 2009 were prospectively enrolled. The follow-up lipid panel of 2693 patients (median lab follow-up duration 225 days) who had continued using statins after PCI and who attained low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dl was analysed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularisation according to follow-up HDL-C level (40 mg/dl for men or 50 mg/dl for women) were compared with the use of propensity scores matching.
Median follow-up duration was 832 days. 1585 (58.9%) patients had low follow-up HDL-C and 1108 had high follow-up HDL-C. The low follow-up HDL-C group had significantly higher rates of MACE. Low follow-up HDL-C was a significant independent predictor of MACE (adjusted HR 1.404, 95% CI 1.111 to 1.774, p=0.004). In further analysis with propensity scores matching, overall findings were consistent.
Raising HDL-C levels may be a subsequent goal after achieving target LDL-C levels in patients with DES implantation.
PMCID: PMC3210465  PMID: 21665885
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; statin; percutaneous coronary intervention; drug eluting stents; coronary angioplasty; lipoproteins, coronary artery disease
21.  Association Between Plaque Thickness of the Thoracic Aorta and Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Ablation 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(4):177-183.
Background and Objectives
Several predictors of recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after ablation have been identified, including age, type of AF, hypertension, left atrial diameter and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the atherosclerotic plaque thickness of the thoracic aorta is associated with a recurrence of AF after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA).
Subjects and Methods
Among patients with drug-refractory paroxysmal or persistent AF, 105 consecutive (mean age 58±11 years, male : female=76 : 29) patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography and CPVA were studied. The relationships between the recurrence of AF and variables, including clinical characteristics, plaque thickness of the thoracic aorta, laboratory findings and echocardiographic parameters were evaluated.
A univariate analysis showed that the presence of diabetes {hazard ratio (HR)=3.425; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.422-8.249, p=0.006}, ischemic heart disease (HR=4.549; 95% CI, 1.679-12.322, p=0.003), duration of AF (HR=1.010; 95% CI, 1.001-1.018, p=0.025), type of AF (HR=2.412, 95% CI=1.042-5.584, p=0.040) and aortic plaque thickness with ≥4 mm (HR=9.514; 95% CI, 3.419-26.105, p<0.001) were significantly associated with the recurrence of AF after ablation. In Cox multivariate regression analysis, only the aortic plaque thickness (with ≥4 mm) was an independent predictor of recurrence of AF after ablation (HR=7.250, 95% CI=1.906-27.580, p=0.004).
Significantly increased aortic plaque thickness can be a predictable marker of recurrence of AF after CPVA.
PMCID: PMC3098409  PMID: 21607167
Atrial fibrillation; Catheter ablation; Atherosclerosis; Aorta, thoracic
22.  A Case of Chloroquine-Induced Cardiomyopathy That Presented as Sick Sinus Syndrome 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(11):604-608.
A 52-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who had been treated with prednisone and hydroxychloroquine for >12 years presented with chest discomfort and a seizure. She was diagnosed with restrictive cardiomyopathy combined with sick sinus syndrome. A myocardial muscle biopsy was performed to identify the underlying cardiomyopathy, which showed marked muscle fiber hypertrophy, fiber dropout, slightly increased interstitial fibrous connective tissue, and extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the myocytes under light microscopy. Electron microscopy of the myocytes demonstrated dense, myeloid, and curvilinear bodies. The diagnosis of hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy was made based on the clinical, hemodynamic, and pathologic findings. This is the first case report describing chloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy involving the heart conduction system.
PMCID: PMC3008834  PMID: 21217940
Hydroxychloroquine; Cardiomyopathy, restrictive; Sick sinus syndrome
23.  A Transthoracic Echocardiographic Follow-Up Study After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Can We Detect Pulmonary Vein Stenosis by Transthoracic Echocardiography? 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(9):442-447.
Background and Objectives
While pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective curative procedure for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis is a potential complication which may lead to symptoms that are often unrecognized. The aim of this study was to compare differences between ablation sites in pulmonary venous flow (PVF) measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) before and after PVI.
Subjects and Methods
One hundred five patients (M : F=64 : 41; mean age 56±10 years) with paroxysmal AF (n=78) or chronic, persistent AF (n=27) were enrolled. PVI strategies consisted of ostial ablation (n=75; OA group) and antral ablation using an electroanatomic mapping system (n=30; AA group). The ostial diameter was estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with PVF ≥110 cm/sec by TTE after PVI.
No patient complained of PV stenosis-related symptoms. Changes in mean peak right PV systolic (-6.7±28.1 vs. 10.9±25.9 cm/sec, p=0.038) and diastolic (-4.1±17.0 vs. 9.9±25.9 cm/sec, p=0.021) flow velocities were lower in the AA group than in the OA group. Although the change in mean peak systolic flow velocity of the left PV before and after PVI in the AA group was significantly lower than the change in the OA group (-13.4±25.1 vs. 9.2±22.3 cm/sec, p=0.016), there was no difference in peak diastolic flow velocity. Two patients in the OA group had high PVF velocities (118 cm/sec and 133 cm/sec) on TTE, and their maximum PV stenoses measured by MRI were 62.5% and 50.0%, respectively.
PV stenosis after PVI could be detected by TTE, and PVI by antral ablation using an electroanatomic mapping system might be safer and more useful for the prevention of PV stenosis.
PMCID: PMC2957642  PMID: 20967145
Atrial fibrillation; Catheter ablation; Pulmonary veins; Echocardiography
24.  Pentraxin 3 as a Novel Marker Predicting Congestive Heart Failure in Subjects With Acute Coronary Syndrome 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(8):370-376.
Background and Objectives
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was shown to be elevated in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to have prognostic significance in AMI patients. The aim of this study was to estimate whether the value of PTX3 could be used as a prognostic biomarker, with the global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE) risk assessment tool, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Subjects and Methods
Between July 2007 and June 2008, 137 patient subjects (mean age : 61±12 years, M : F=108 : 29) with ACS who underwent coronary intervention, but did not have a prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and/or follow-up coronary angiogram, were enrolled. We estimated the all-cause mortality or death/MI, in-hospital and to 6 months, using the GRACE risk scores and compared these estimates with serum PTX3 concentrations.
The serum PTX3 concentration showed a significant increase in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) greater than the unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group (2.4±2.1 ng/mL vs. 1.3±0.9 ng/mL, p= 0.017, respectively), but did not show a significant difference between non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and the UAP group (1.9±1.4 ng/mL vs. 1.3±0.9 ng/mL, p=0.083, respectively). The serum PTX3 concentration was closely related to death/MI in-hospital (r=0.242, p=0.015) and death/MI to 6 months (r=0.224, p=0.023), respectively. The serum PTX3 concentration was not related to all-cause mortality in-hospital (r=0.112, p=0.269) and to 6 months (r=0.132, p=0.191), respectively. Among the parameters determining the GRACE risk scores, the degree of Killip class in congestive heart failure (CHF) was independently associated with the supramedian PTX3 concentration [odds ratio: 2.229 (95% confidence interval: 1.038-4.787), p=0.040].
The serum PTX3 level provides important information for the risk stratification of CHF among the parameters determining the GRACE risk scores in subjects with ACS.
PMCID: PMC2933461  PMID: 20830250
Pentraxin 3; Myocardial infarction; Acute coronary syndrome; Heart failure
25.  The Effect of Cilostazol on Stent Thrombosis After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(1):10-15.
Background and Objectives
Placement of drug-eluting stents (DES) can be complicated by stent thrombosis; prophylactic antiplatelet therapy has been used to prevent such events. We evaluated the efficacy of cilostazol with regard to stent thrombosis as adjunctive antiplatelet therapy.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 1,315 patients (846 males, 469 females) were prospectively enrolled and analyzed for the frequency of stent thrombosis. Patients with known risk factors for stent thrombosis, except diabetes and acute coronary syndrome, were excluded from the study. All patients maintained antiplatelet therapy for at least six months. To evaluate the effects of cilostazol as another option for antiplatelet therapy, triple antiplatelet therapy (aspirin+clopidogrel+cilostazol, n=502) was compared to dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin+clopidogrel, n=813). Six months after stent placement, all patients received only two antiplatelet drugs: treatment either with cilostazol+aspirin (cilostazol group) or clopidogrel+aspirin (clopidogrel group). There were 1,033 patients (396 in cilostazol group and 637 in clopidogrel group) that maintained antiplatelet therapy for at least 12 months and were included in this study. Stent thrombosis was defined and classified according to the definition reported by the Academic Research Consortium (ARC).
defined and classified according to the definition reported by the Academic Research Consortium (ARC). Results: During follow-up (561.7±251.4 days), 15 patients (1.14%) developed stent thrombosis between day 1 to day 657. Stent thrombosis occurred in seven patients (1.39%) on triple antiplatelet therapy and four patients (0.49%) on dual antiplatelet therapy (p=NS) within the first six months after stenting. Six months and later, after stent implantation, one patient (0.25%) developed stent thrombosis in the cilostazol group, and three (0.47%) in the clopidogrel group (p=NS).
During the first six months after DES triple antiplatelet therapy may be more effective than dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of stent thrombosis. However, after the first six months, dual antiplatelet treatment, with aspirin and cilostazol, may have a better cost benefit ratio for the prevention of stent thrombosis.
PMCID: PMC2812792  PMID: 20111647
Drug-eluting stents; Cilostazol

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