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author:("naggar, anus")
1.  A Whole Recombinant Yeast-Based Therapeutic Vaccine Elicits HBV X, S and Core Specific T Cells in Mice and Activates Human T Cells Recognizing Epitopes Linked to Viral Clearance 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e101904.
Chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is characterized by sub-optimal T cell responses to viral antigens. A therapeutic vaccine capable of restoring these immune responses could potentially improve HBsAg seroconversion rates in the setting of direct acting antiviral therapies. A yeast-based immunotherapy (Tarmogen) platform was used to make a vaccine candidate expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X, surface (S), and Core antigens (X-S-Core). Murine and human immunogenicity models were used to evaluate the type and magnitude of HBV-Ag specific T cell responses elicited by the vaccine. C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice immunized with yeast expressing X-S-Core showed T cell responses to X, S and Core when evaluated by lymphocyte proliferation assay, ELISpot, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), or tumor challenge assays. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were observed. Human T cells transduced with HBc18–27 and HBs183–91 specific T cell receptors (TCRs) produced interferon gamma (IFNγ following incubation with X-S-Core-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from CHB patients or from HBV vaccine recipients with autologous DCs pulsed with X-S-Core or a related product (S-Core) resulted in pronounced expansions of HBV Ag-specific T cells possessing a cytolytic phenotype. These data indicate that X-S-Core-expressing yeast elicit functional adaptive immune responses and supports the ongoing evaluation of this therapeutic vaccine in patients with CHB to enhance the induction of HBV-specific T cell responses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101904
PMCID: PMC4106793  PMID: 25051027
2.  Age-dependent hepatic lymphoid organization directs successful immunity to hepatitis B 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(9):3728-3739.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen that causes immune-mediated hepatitis. Successful immunity to HBV is age dependent: viral clearance occurs in most adults, whereas neonates and young children usually develop chronic infection. Using a mouse model of HBV infection, we sought mechanisms underpinning the age-dependent outcome of HBV and demonstrated that hepatic macrophages facilitate lymphoid organization and immune priming within the adult liver and promote successful immunity. In contrast, lymphoid organization and immune priming was greatly diminished in the livers of young mice, and of macrophage-depleted adult mice, leading to abrogated HBV immunity. Furthermore, we found that CXCL13, which is involved in B lymphocyte trafficking and lymphoid architecture and development, is expressed in an age-dependent manner in both adult mouse and human hepatic macrophages and plays an integral role in facilitating an effective immune response against HBV. Taken together, these results identify some of the immunological mechanisms necessary for effective control of HBV.
doi:10.1172/JCI68182
PMCID: PMC3754256  PMID: 23925290
3.  Evaluation of adenovirus vectors containing serotype 35 fibers for vaccination. 
In contrast to commonly used serotype 5 based adenovirus (Ad) vectors, Ads containing fibers derived from B-group serotype 35 (Ad5/35) efficiently transduce human DCs ex vivo and appear to target antigen-presenting cells after intravenous injection into baboons. Based on this, Ad5/35 vectors could be valuable tools for immunotherapy and vaccination. On the other hand, a number of studies indicate that signaling through the B-group Ad receptor, CD46, can cause tolerance or immuno-suppression. Since mice do not express CD46 in a human-like pattern, we studied the in vivo properties of Ad5/35 in transgenic mice that express CD46 in a pattern and at a level similar to humans. Hypersensitivity assays and analyses of frequencies of regulatory T-cells and T-cell responses did not indicate that Ad5/35 injection exerts detrimental effects on the host's immune system. An Ad5/35 vector expressing a model antigen was able to trigger a strong T-cell response against the test antigen after intramuscular injection. Overall, compared to Ad5 vectors, Ad5/35 vectors had a better safety profile, reflected by lower serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
doi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.12.008
PMCID: PMC1424671  PMID: 16461009
4.  Evaluation of Biodistribution and Safety of Adenovirus Vectors Containing Group B Fibers after Intravenous Injection into Baboons 
Human gene therapy  2005;16(6):664-677.
Vectors containing group B adenovirus (Ad) fibers are able to efficiently transduce gene therapy targets that are refractory to infection with standard Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors, including malignant tumor cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and dendritic cells. Preliminary studies in mice indicate that, after intravenous injection, B-group fiber-containing Ads do not efficiently transduce most organs and cause less acute toxicity than Ad5 vectors. However, biodistribution and safety studies in mice are of limited value because the mouse analog of the B-group Ad receptor, CD46, is expressed only in the testis, whereas in humans, CD46 is expressed on all nucleated cells. Unlike mice, baboons have CD46 expression patterns and levels that closely mimic those in humans. We conducted a biodistribution and toxicity study of group B Ad fiber-containing vectors in baboons. Animals received phosphate-buffered saline, Ad5-bGal (a first-generation Ad5 vector), or B-group fiber-containing Ads (Ad5/35-bGal and Ad5/11-bGal) at a dose of 2 × 1012 VP/kg, and vector biodistribution and safety was analyzed over 3 days. The amount of Ad5/35-bGal and Ad5/11-bGal vector genomes was in most tissues one to three orders of magnitude below that of Ad5. Significant Ad5/35- and Ad5/11-mediated transgene (β-galactosidase) expression was seen only in the marginal zone of splenic follicles. Compared with the animal that received Ad5-bGal, all animals injected with B-group fiber-containing Ad vectors had lower elevations in serum proinflammatory cytokine levels. Gross and histopathology were normal in animals that received B-group Ad fiber-containing Ads, in contrast to the Ad5-infused animal, which showed widespread endothelial damage and inflammation. In a further study, a chimeric Ad5/35 vector carrying proapoptotic TRAIL and Ad E1A genes under tumor-specific regulation was well tolerated in a 30-day toxicity study. No major clinical, serologic, or pathologic abnormalities were noticed in this animal.
OVERVIEW SUMMARY
B-group Ad fiber-containing vectors are promising tools for gene therapy, for example, for the treatment of metastatic cancer or cardiovascular diseases, or for vaccination/immunotherapy. However, only a few studies of vectors containing B-group Ad fibers in mice have been conducted so far, and little is known about the mechanisms and effects of B-group Ad vector delivery in vivo. Before these vectors can be considered for clinical application, this knowledge gap must be filled. We performed biodistribution and safety studies after intravenous injection of chimeric Ad5 vectors containing Ad35 and Ad11 fibers into baboons. Our study suggests that Ad vectors possessing B-group Ad fibers have a better safety profile after intravenous injection than do conventional Ad5-based vectors.
doi:10.1089/hum.2005.16.664
PMCID: PMC1351080  PMID: 15960598
5.  A New Group B Adenovirus Receptor Is Expressed at High Levels on Human Stem and Tumor Cells▿  
Journal of Virology  2006;80(24):12109-12120.
CD46 is used by human group B adenoviruses (Ads) as a high-affinity attachment receptor. Here we show evidence that several group B Ads utilize an additional receptor for infection of human cells, which is different from CD46. We tentatively named this receptor receptor X. Competition studies with unlabeled and labeled Ads, recombinant Ad fiber knobs, and soluble CD46 and CD46 antibodies revealed three different subgroups of group B Ads, in terms of their receptor usage. Group I (Ad16, -21, -35, and -50) nearly exclusively uses CD46. Group II (Ad3, -7p, and -14) utilizes receptor X and not CD46. Group III (Ad11p) uses both CD46 and the alternative receptor X. Interaction of group II and III Ads with receptor X occurs via the fiber knob. Receptor X is an abundantly expressed glycoprotein that interacts with group II and III Ads at relatively low affinity in a Ca2+-dependent manner. This receptor is expressed at high levels on human mesenchymal and undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, as well as on human cancer cell lines. These findings have practical implications for stem cell and gene therapy.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01370-06
PMCID: PMC1676274  PMID: 17020944
6.  Adenovirus Binding to Blood Factors Results in Liver Cell Infection and Hepatotoxicity 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(12):7478-7491.
Adenoviruses (Ad) are efficient vehicles for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, they are a promising tool in gene therapy, particularly in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, preclinical and clinical studies undertaken during the last decade have revealed a series of problems that limit both the safety and efficacy of Ad vectors, specifically after intravenous application. Major obstacles to clinical use include innate toxicity and Ad sequestration by nontarget tissues. The factors and mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The majority of intravenously injected Ad particles are sequestered by the liver, which in turn causes an inflammatory response characterized by acute transaminitis and vascular damage. Here, we describe a novel pathway that is used by Ad for infection of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells upon intravenous virus application in mice. We found that blood factors play a major role in targeting Ad vectors to hepatic cells. We demonstrated that coagulation factor IX and complement component C4-binding protein can bind the Ad fiber knob domain and provide a bridge for virus uptake through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. An Ad vector, Ad5mut, which contained mutations in the fiber knob domain ablating blood factor binding, demonstrated significantly reduced infection of liver cells and liver toxicity in vivo. This study contributes to a better understanding of adenovirus-host interactions for intravenously applied vectors. It also provides a rationale for novel strategies to target adenovirus vector to specific tissues and to reduce virus-associated toxicity after systemic application.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.12.7478-7491.2005
PMCID: PMC1143681  PMID: 15919903
7.  Localization of Regions in CD46 That Interact with Adenovirus 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(12):7503-7513.
A variety of pathogens use CD46, a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein that regulates complement activation, as a cellular attachment receptor. While the CD46 binding sites of several pathogens, including measles virus, Neisseria gonorrhea, and human herpesvirus 6, have been described, the region of CD46 responsible for adenovirus binding has not been determined. In this study, we used competition experiments with known CD46 ligands, CD46-specific antibodies, and a set of CD46 mutants to localize the binding domain for the group B adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35). Our results show that Ad35 competes with measles virus for binding to CD46 but not with complement protein C3b. We further show that this interaction is a protein-protein interaction and that N glycosylations do not critically contribute to infection with Ad35 fiber-containing Ad vectors. Our data demonstrate that the native conformation of the CCP2 domain is crucial for Ad35 binding and that the substitution of amino acids at positions 130 to 135 or 152 to 156 completely abolishes the receptor function of CD46. These regions localize to the same planar face of CD46 and likely form an extended adenovirus binding surface, since no single amino acid substitution within these areas eliminates virus binding. Finally, we demonstrate that the infection with a virus possessing human group B serotype Ad11 fibers is also mediated by the CCP2 domain. This information is important to better characterize the mechanisms of the receptor recognition by adenovirus relative to other pathogens that interact with CD46, and it may help in the design of antiviral therapeutics against adenovirus serotypes that use CD46 as a primary cellular attachment receptor.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.12.7503-7513.2005
PMCID: PMC1143628  PMID: 15919905
8.  Development and Assessment of Human Adenovirus Type 11 as a Gene Transfer Vector 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(8):5090-5104.
Adenovirus vectors based on human serotype 5 (Ad5) have successfully been used as gene transfer vectors in many gene therapy-based approaches to treat disease. Despite their widespread application, many potential therapeutic applications are limited by the widespread prevalence of vector-neutralizing antibodies within the human population and the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce important therapeutic target cell types. In an attempt to circumvent these problems, we have developed Ad vectors based on human Ad serotype 11 (Ad11), since the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to Ad11 in humans is low. E1-deleted Ad11 vector genomes were generated by homologous recombination in 293 cells expressing the Ad11-E1B55K protein or by recombination in Escherichia coli. E1-deleted Ad11 genomes did not display transforming activity in rodent cells. Transduction of primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and immature dendritic cells was more efficient with Ad11 vectors than with Ad5 vectors. Thirty minutes after intravenous injection into mice that express one of the Ad11 receptors (CD46), we found, in a pattern and at a level comparable to what is found in humans, Ad11 vector genomes in all analyzed organs, with the highest amounts in liver, lung, kidney, and spleen. Neither Ad11 genomes nor Ad11 vector-mediated transgene expression were, however, detected at 72 h postinfusion. A large number of Ad11 particles were also found to be associated with circulating blood cells. We also discovered differences in in vitro transduction efficiencies and in vivo biodistributions between Ad11 vectors and chimeric Ad5 vectors possessing Ad11 fibers, indicating that Ad11 capsid proteins other than fibers influence viral infectivity and tropism. Overall, our study provides a basis for the application of Ad11 vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene transfer and for gaining an understanding of the factors that determine Ad tropism.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.8.5090-5104.2005
PMCID: PMC1069572  PMID: 15795294
9.  Genome Size and Structure Determine Efficiency of Postinternalization Steps and Gene Transfer of Capsid-Modified Adenovirus Vectors in a Cell-Type-Specific Manner 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(18):10009-10022.
Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors containing Ad B-group fibers have become increasingly popular as gene transfer vectors because they efficiently transduce human cell types that are relatively refractory to Ad5 infection. So far, most B-group fiber-containing vectors have been first-generation vectors, deleted of E1 and/or E3 genes. Transduction with these vectors, however, results in viral gene expression and is associated with cytotoxicity and immune responses against transduced cells. To circumvent these problems, we developed fiber-chimeric Ad vectors devoid of all viral genes that were produced either by the homologous recombination of first-generation vectors or by using the Cre/lox-based helper virus system. In this study we compared early steps of infection between first-generation (35-kb genome) and Ad vectors devoid of all viral genes with genome sizes of 28 kb and 12.6 kb. All vectors possessed an Ad35-derived fiber knob domain, which uses CD46 as a primary attachment receptor. Using immortalized human hematopoietic cell lines and primary human CD34-positive hematopoietic cells, we found that the Ad genome size did not affect the efficiency of virus attachment to and internalization into cells. Furthermore, independently of the genome length and structure, all vectors migrated to the nucleus through late endosomal and lysosomal cellular compartments. However, the vector containing the short 12.6-kb genome was unable to efficiently escape from endosomes and deliver its DNA into the nucleus. Moreover, compared to other vectors, these Ad particles were less stable and had an abnormal capsid protein composition, including a lack of capsid-stabilizing protein IX. Our data indicate that the size and structure of the packaged viral genomes can affect the integrity of Ad particles, which in turn results in lower infectivity of Ad vectors.
doi:10.1128/JVI.78.18.10009-10022.2004
PMCID: PMC514985  PMID: 15331734
10.  The Interaction between the Fiber Knob Domain and the Cellular Attachment Receptor Determines the Intracellular Trafficking Route of Adenoviruses 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(6):3712-3723.
Most of the presently used adenovirus (Ad) vectors are based on serotype 5. However, the application of these vectors is limited by the native tropism of Ad5. To address this problem, a series of fiber chimeric vectors were produced to take advantage of the different cellular receptors used by Ad of different subgroups. In this study we utilize an Ad5-based chimeric vector containing sequences encoding the Ad35 fiber knob domain instead of the Ad5 knob (Ad5/35L) to analyze factors responsible for selection of intracellular trafficking routes by Ads. By competition analysis with recombinant Ad5 and Ad35 knobs we showed that the Ad5/35L vector infected cells through a receptor different from the Ad5 receptor. Intracellular trafficking of Ad5 and Ad5/35L viruses was analyzed in HeLa cells by tracking fluorophore-conjugated Ad particles, by immunostaining for capsid hexon protein, by electron microscopy, and by Southern blotting for viral DNA. These studies showed that the interaction with the Ad35 receptor(s) predestines Ad5/35L vector to intracellular trafficking pathways different from those of Ad5. Ad5 efficiently escaped from the endosomes early after infection. In contrast, Ad5/35L remained longer in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments and used them to achieve localization to the nucleus. However, a significant portion of Ad5/35L particles appeared to be recycled back to the cell surface. This phenomenon resulted in significantly less efficient Ad5/35L-mediated gene transfer compared to that of Ad5. We also demonstrated that the selection of intracellular trafficking routes was determined by the fiber knob domain and did not depend on the length of the fiber shaft. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern the infection of retargeted, capsid-modified vectors which have potential application for hematopoietic stem cell and tumor gene therapy.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.6.3712-3723.2003
PMCID: PMC149506  PMID: 12610146

Results 1-10 (10)