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1.  Synergistic Effects of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Combined with Low Concentration of Gemcitabine on Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vitro 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43213.
Treatment of cancer often involves uses of multiple therapeutic strategies with different mechanisms of action. In this study we investigated combinations of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) with low concentrations of gemcitabine on human oral cancer cells. Cells (Cal-27) were treated with pulse parameters (20 pulses, 100 ns in duration, intensities of 10, 30 and 60 kV/cm) and then cultured in medium with 0.01 µg/ml gemcitabine. Proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis, invasion and morphology of those cells were examined using MTT, flow cytometry, clonogenics, transwell migration and TEM assay. Results show that combination treatments of gemcitabine and nsPEFs exhibited significant synergistic activities versus individual treatments for inhibiting oral cancer cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis and necrosis. However, there was no apparent synergism for cell invasion. By this we demonstrated synergistic inhibition of Cal-27 cells in vitro by nsPEFs and gemcitabine. Synergistic behavior indicates that these two treatments have different sites of action and combination treatment allows reduced doses of gemcitabine and lower nsPEF conditions, which may provide better treatment for patients than either treatment alone while reducing systemic toxicities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043213
PMCID: PMC3426536  PMID: 22927951
2.  MRI of Auto-Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem-Progenitor Cells for Potential Repair of Injured Arteries 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e31137.
Background
This study was to validate the feasibility of using clinical 3.0T MRI to monitor the migration of autotransplanted bone marrow (BM)-derived stem-progenitor cells (SPC) to the injured arteries of near-human sized swine for potential cell-based arterial repair.
Methodology
The study was divided into two phases. For in vitro evaluation, BM cells were extracted from the iliac crests of 13 domestic pigs and then labeled with a T2 contrast agent, Feridex, and/or a fluorescent tissue marker, PKH26. The viability, the proliferation efficiency and the efficacies of Feridex and/or PKH26 labeling were determined. For in vivo validation, the 13 pigs underwent endovascular balloon-mediated intimal damages of the iliofemoral arteries. The labeled or un-labeled BM cells were autotransplanted back to the same pig from which the BM cells were extracted. Approximately three weeks post-cell transplantation, 3.0T T2-weighted MRI was performed to detect Feridex-created signal voids of the transplanted BM cells in the injured iliofemoral arteries, which was confirmed by subsequent histologic correlation.
Principal Findings
Of the in vitro study, the viability of dual-labeled BM cells was 95–98%. The proliferation efficiencies of dual-labeled BM cells were not significantly different compared to those of non-labeled cells. The efficacies of Feridex- and PKH26 labeling were 90% and 100%, respectively. Of the in vivo study, 3.0T MRI detected the auto-transplanted BM cells migrated to the injured arteries, which was confirmed by histologic examinations.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates the capability of using clinical 3.0T MRI to monitor the auto-transplantation of BM cells that migrate to the injured arteries of large animals, which may provide a useful MRI technique to monitor cell-based arterial repair.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031137
PMCID: PMC3281926  PMID: 22363566
3.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow Cell-Mediated Interleukin-10 Gene Therapy of Atherosclerosis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24529.
Background
A characteristic feature of atherosclerosis is its diffuse involvement of arteries across the entire human body. Bone marrow cells (BMC) can be simultaneously transferred with therapeutic genes and magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents prior to their transplantation. Via systemic transplantation, these dual-transferred BMCs can circulate through the entire body and thus function as vehicles to carry genes/contrast agents to multiple atherosclerosis. This study was to evaluate the feasibility of using in vivo MR imaging (MRI) to monitor BMC-mediated interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene therapy of atherosclerosis.
Methodology
For in vitro confirmation, donor mouse BMCs were transduced by IL-10/lentivirus, and then labeled with a T2-MR contrast agent (Feridex). For in vivo validation, atherosclerotic apoE−/− mice were intravenously transplanted with IL-10/Feridex-BMCs (Group I, n = 5) and Feridex-BMCs (Group II, n = 5), compared to controls without BMC transplantation (Group III, n = 5). The cell migration to aortic atherosclerotic lesions was monitored in vivo using 3.0T MRI with subsequent histology correlation. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of BMC-mediated IL-10 gene therapy, we statistically compared the normalized wall indexes (NWI) of ascending aortas amongst different mouse groups with various treatments.
Principal Findings
Of in vitro experiments, simultaneous IL-10 transduction and Feridex labeling of BMCs were successfully achieved, with high cell viability and cell labeling efficiency, as well as IL-10 expression efficiency (≥90%). Of in vivo experiments, MRI of animal groups I and II showed signal voids within the aortic walls due to Feridex-created artifacts from the migrated BMCs in the atherosclerotic plaques, which were confirmed by histology. Histological quantification showed that the mean NWI of group I was significantly lower than those of group II and group III (P<0.05).
Conclusion
This study has confirmed the possibility of using MRI to track, in vivo, IL-10/Feridex-BMCs recruited to atherosclerotic lesions, where IL-10 genes function to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024529
PMCID: PMC3168522  PMID: 21915349

Results 1-3 (3)