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2.  A Prospective Study of Breakfast Eating and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in a Cohort of Male U.S. Health Professionals 
Circulation  2013;128(4):337-343.
Among adults, skipping meals is associated with excess bodyweight, hypertension, insulin resistance, and elevated fasting lipid concentrations. However, it remains unknown whether specific eating habits irrespective of dietary composition influence coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine eating habits and risk of CHD.
Methods and Results
Eating habits including breakfast eating were assessed in 1992 in 26,902 American men aged 45-82 years from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer. During 16 years of follow-up, 1,527 incident CHD cases were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CHD, adjusted for demographic, diet, lifestyle, and other CHD risk factors. Men who skipped breakfast had a 27% higher risk of CHD as compared with men who did not (RR=1.27, 95% CI:1.06-1.53). Compared with men who did not eat late at night, those who ate late at night had a 55% higher CHD risk (RR=1.55, 95% CI:1.05-2.29). These associations were mediated by BMI, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. No association was observed between eating frequency (times/day) and risk of CHD.
Eating breakfast was associated with significantly lower CHD risk in this cohort of male health professionals.
PMCID: PMC3797523  PMID: 23877060
coronary disease; epidemiology; myocardial infarction; nutrition; prevention
3.  Haptoglobin Genotype Is a Consistent Marker of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Among Individuals With Elevated Glycosylated Hemoglobin 
This study sought to investigate into the biologically plausible interaction between the common haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism rs#72294371 and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
Studies of the association between the Hp polymorphism and CHD report inconsistent results. Individuals with the Hp2-2 genotype produce Hp proteins with an impaired ability to prevent oxidative injury caused by elevated HbA1c.
HbA1c concentration and Hp genotype were determined for 407 CHD cases matched 1:1 to controls (from the NHS [Nurses' Health Study]) and in a replication cohort of 2,070 individuals who served as the nontreatment group in the ICARE (Israel Cardiovascular Events Reduction With Vitamin E) study, with 29 CHD events during follow-up. Multivariate models were adjusted for lifestyle and CHD risk factors as appropriate. A pooled analysis was conducted of NHS, ICARE, and the 1 previously published analysis (a cardiovascular disease case-control sample from the Strong Heart Study).
In the NHS, Hp2-2 genotype (39% frequency) was strongly related to CHD risk only among individuals with elevated HbA1c (≥6.5%), an association that was similar in the ICARE trial and the Strong Heart Study. In a pooled analysis, participants with both the Hp2-2 genotype and elevated HbA1c had a relative risk of 7.90 (95% confidence interval: 4.43 to 14.10) for CHD compared with participants with both an Hp1 allele and HbA1c <6.5% (p for interaction = 0.004), whereas the Hp2-2 genotype with HbA1c <6.5% was not associated with risk (relative risk: 1.34 [95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 2.46]).
Hp genotype was a significant predictor of CHD among individuals with elevated HbA1c.
PMCID: PMC3678553  PMID: 23312704
acute myocardial infarction; coronary disease; epidemiology; genetic association; genotype; glycoproteins
4.  Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics: Viewpoints on the Current Status and Applications in Nutrition Research and Practice 
Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics hold much promise for providing better nutritional advice to the public generally, genetic subgroups and individuals. Because nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics require a deep understanding of nutrition, genetics and biochemistry and ever new ‘omic’ technologies, it is often difficult, even for educated professionals, to appreciate their relevance to the practice of preventive approaches for optimising health, delaying onset of disease and diminishing its severity. This review discusses (i) the basic concepts, technical terms and technology involved in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics; (ii) how this emerging knowledge can be applied to optimise health, prevent and treat diseases; (iii) how to read, understand and interpret nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic research results, and (iv) how this knowledge may potentially transform nutrition and dietetic practice, and the implications of such a transformation. This is in effect an up-to-date overview of the various aspects of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics relevant to health practitioners who are seeking a better understanding of this new frontier in nutrition research and its potential application to dietetic practice.
PMCID: PMC3121546  PMID: 21625170
Dietetics; Nutrigenetics; Nutrigenomics; Nutrition Research; Personalised nutrition
5.  The Authors Reply 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2009;171(3):387-388.
PMCID: PMC2878112
6.  Comparison of body mass index and waist circumference as predictors of cardiometabolic health in a population of young Canadian adults 
This study aimed to investigate whether waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) is a better predictor of blood lipid concentrations among young men and women from different ethnocultural groups.
Participants were 1181 healthy men (n = 358) and women (n = 823) aged 20-29 years taken from the cross-sectional Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women, and for Caucasian and East Asian ethnocultural groups. Serum triglycerides (TG) and total to HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL cholesterol) were used as outcomes. Associations between the adiposity and blood lipid measures were examined using partial correlations and odds ratios derived from logistic regression models.
WC had a stronger association with serum lipid concentrations than BMI. WC was significantly related to TG and TC:HDL cholesterol after adjusting for BMI and covariates among men and women (P ≤ 0.01). However, after adjusting for WC and covariates, BMI was not significantly associated with the two serum lipid measures. WC was a better predictor of TG and TC:HDL among all sex and ethnocultural subgroups except among East Asian women where little difference between the two measures was observed.
WC is a stronger predictor of cardiometabolic health when compared with BMI among young adults, especially among men.
PMCID: PMC2883969  PMID: 20459858

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