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1.  Increased abundance of Sutterella spp. and Ruminococcus torques in feces of children with autism spectrum disorder 
Molecular Autism  2013;4:42.
Background
A recent report indicated that numbers of Sutterella spp. are elevated in gastrointestinal biopsies taken from children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have recently reported changes in the numbers of some bacteria within the stool of ASD children, and now examine whether numbers of Sutterella spp. and some other mucosa-associated bacteria linked with gastrointestinal disease (Ruminococcus gnavus and Ruminococcus torques) are also altered in the stool of these children.
Findings
We show that numbers of Sutterella spp. are elevated in feces of ASD children relative to controls, and that numbers of R. torques are higher in the children with ASD with a reported functional gastrointestinal disorder than those without such a disorder.
Conclusions
We show further evidence of changes in the gut microbiota of children with ASD and confirm that the abundance of Sutterella spp. is altered in stool.
doi:10.1186/2040-2392-4-42
PMCID: PMC3828002  PMID: 24188502
Autism spectrum disorder; Gut; Feces; Microbiota; Sutterella
2.  The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Background
Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition.
Methods
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders.
Results
Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity.
Conclusions
The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-35
PMCID: PMC3373368  PMID: 22524510
γ-glutamyl cycle; Trans-sulphuration pathway; Metabolites; Genes; Supplementation; Autism spectrum disorders
3.  Low Relative Abundances of the Mucolytic Bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and Bifidobacterium spp. in Feces of Children with Autism▿†  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2011;77(18):6718-6721.
Gastrointestinal disturbance is frequently reported for individuals with autism. We used quantitative real-time PCR analysis to quantify fecal bacteria that could influence gastrointestinal health in children with and without autism. Lower relative abundances of Bifidobacteria species and the mucolytic bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila were found in children with autism, the latter suggesting mucus barrier changes.
doi:10.1128/AEM.05212-11
PMCID: PMC3187122  PMID: 21784919
4.  Pharmacist elicited medication histories in the Emergency Department: Identifying patient groups at risk of medication misadventure 
Pharmacy Practice  2007;5(4):162-168.
The Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Committee guidelines call for a detailed medication history to be taken at the first point of admission to an Emergency Department (ED). The elderly, in particular those residing in Residential Aged Care Facilities and those with a non-English speaking background, have been identified as patient groups vulnerable to medication misadventure.
Objective
to analyse the incidence of discrepancies in medication histories in these demographic groups when pharmacist elicited medication histories were compared with those taken by ED physicians. It also aimed to investigate the incidence of medication related ED presentations.
Methods
The study was conducted over a six week period and included 100 patients over the age of 70, who take five or more regular medications, have three or more clinical co-morbidities and/or have been discharged from hospital in three months prior to the study.
Results
Twenty four participants were classified as ‘language barrier’; 12 participants were from residential aged care facilities, and 64 participants were classified as ‘general’. The number of correctly recorded medications was lowest in the ‘language barrier’ group (13.8%) compared with 18% and 19.6% of medications for ‘general’ patients and patients from residential aged care facilities respectively. Seven of the patients (29.2%) with ‘language barrier’; 1 from a residential aged care facility (8.3%) and 13 of the (20.3%) patients from the ‘general’ category were suspected as having a medication related ED presentation.
Conclusion
This study further highlights the positive contribution an ED pharmacist can make to enhancing medication management along the continuum of care. This study also confirms the vulnerability of patients with language barrier to medication misadventure and their need for interpreter services at all stages of their hospitalisation, in particular at the point of ED presentation.
PMCID: PMC4147795  PMID: 25170353
Medication Errors; Pharmaceutical Services; Medical Records; Communication Barriers; Australia
5.  Eliciting comprehensive medication histories in the emergency department: the role of the pharmacist 
Pharmacy Practice  2007;5(2):78-84.
The Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Committee guidelines call for a detailed medication history to be taken at the first point of admission to hospital. Accurate medication histories are vital in optimising health outcomes and have been shown to reduce mortality rates.
This study aimed to examine the accuracy of medication histories taken in the Emergency Department of the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Medication histories recorded by medical staff were compared to those elicited by a pharmacy researcher.
The study, conducted over a six-week period, included 100 patients over the age of 70, who took five or more regular medications, had three or more clinical co-morbidities and/or had been discharged from hospital in three months prior to the study. Following patient interviews, the researcher contacted the patient’s pharmacist and GP for confirmation and completion of the medication history.
Out of the 1152 medications recorded as being used by the 100 patients, discrepancies were found for 966 medications (83.9%). There were 563 (48.9%) complete omissions of medications. The most common discrepancies were incomplete or omitted dosage and frequency information. Discrepancies were mostly medications that treated dermatological and ear, nose and throat disorders but approximately 29% were used to treat cardiovascular disorders.
This study provides support for the presence of an Emergency Department pharmacist who can compile a comprehensive and accurate medication history to enhance medication management along the continuum of care. It is recommended that the patient’s community pharmacy and GP be contacted for clarification and confirmation of the medication history.
PMCID: PMC4155155  PMID: 25214922
Medication Errors; Pharmaceutical Services; Medical Records; Australia

Results 1-5 (5)