PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-8 (8)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12 
Advances in Nutrition  2012;3(3):362-369.
Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. Folate, a Group II micronutrient, is included for comparison. Information is presented on forms and concentrations in human milk, analytical methods, the basis of current recommended intakes for infants and lactating women, and effects of maternal supplementation. From reports of maternal and/or infant deficiency, concentrations in milk were noted as well as any consequences for infant function. These milk values were used to estimate the percent of recommended daily intake that infants fed by a deficient mother could obtain from her milk. Estimates were 60% for thiamin, 53% for riboflavin, 80% for vitamin B-6, 16% for vitamin B-12, and 56% for choline. Lack of data limits the accuracy and generalizability of these conclusions, but the overall picture that emerges is consistent across nutrients and points to an urgent need to improve the information available on breast milk quality.
doi:10.3945/an.111.001172
PMCID: PMC3649471  PMID: 22585913
2.  Evidence of Associations Between Feto-Maternal Vitamin D Status, Cord Parathyroid Hormone and Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, and Newborn Whole Body Bone Mineral Content 
Nutrients  2012;4(2):68-77.
In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between maternal and cord 25(OH)D, PTH, BALP, and WBBMC in newborns in a multiethnic population in Oakland, California and to evaluate the predictive value of the biochemical indices as indicators of WBBMC. Maternal and cord blood were collected from 80 mother-infant pairs and infant WBBMC was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 8–21 days post-birth. Cord PTH and BALP were each inversely correlated with infant WBBMC (r = −0.28, p = 0.01 and r = −0.26, p = 0.02) and with cord 25(OH)D (r = −0.24, p = 0.03 and r = −0.34, p = 0.002), while cord 25(OH)D and unadjusted or weight-adjusted WBBMC were not significantly correlated with one other. In multivariate regression modeling, infant WBBMC was most strongly predicted by infant weight (p < 0.0001), while either PTH or BALP contributed modestly but significantly to the model (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03 respectively). Cord 25(OH)D was not a significant predictor of infant WBBMC. This study provides evidence of associations between feto-maternal 25(OH)D, cord PTH and BALP, and early infant WBBMC, though neither feto-maternal 25(OH)D nor the measured biochemical indices were suitable indicators of WBBMC.
doi:10.3390/nu4020068
PMCID: PMC3296991  PMID: 22413062
infant; vitamin D; dual X-ray absorptiometry; bone mineral content
3.  Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183] 
Nutrition Journal  2011;10:100.
Background
Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency.
Methods
We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill.
The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function.
Conclusions
In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile.
Trial registration
ISRCTN: ISRCTN02694183
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-100
PMCID: PMC3195703  PMID: 21952034
cobalamin; vitamin B12; cyanocobalamin; elderly; neurophysiology; cognitive disorders; nerve conduction; cluster randomized controlled trial; public health; Chile
4.  Transcobalamin C776G Genotype Modifies the Association between Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine in Older Hispanics 
Background
A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues.
Methods
TC genotype and its associations with indicators of B12 status, including total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine, were evaluated in a cohort of elderly Latinos (N=554, age 60–93y) from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA).
Results
The distribution of TC genotypes was 41.3% homozygous reference (776CC) and 11.6% homozygous variant (776GG). No differences between the homozygous genotypes were observed in total B12, holoTC, methylmalonic acid, or homocysteine. The holoTC/total B12 ratio was lower in the 776GG group compared with the 776CC group (p=0.04). Significant interactions of TC genotype with total B12 (p=0.04) and with holoTC (p≤0.03) were observed such that mean homocysteine concentrations and the odds ratios for hyperhomocysteinemia (>13 µmol/L) were higher in the 776CC subjects compared with all carriers of the G allele (776CG and 776GG combined) when total B12 (<156 pmol/L) or holoTC (<35 pmol/L) were low.
Conclusions
This population of older Latinos has a lower prevalence of the TC 776GG variant than reported for Caucasian populations. The association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine concentrations is modified by TC 776 genotype. It remains to be determined if the TC C776G polymorphism has a significant effect on the hematological and neurological manifestations of B12 deficiency or on vascular and other morbidities associated with hyperhomocysteinemia.
doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.20
PMCID: PMC2864787  PMID: 20216556
Transcobalamin; polymorphism; homocysteine; vitamin B12; Hispanic elderly
5.  The Micronutrient Genomics Project: a community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research 
Genes & Nutrition  2010;5(4):285-296.
Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it is becoming feasible to assess the activity of single and multiple micronutrients in their complete biological context. Existing research collects fragments of information, which are not stored systematically and are thus not optimally disseminated. The Micronutrient Genomics Project (MGP) was established as a community-driven project to facilitate the development of systematic capture, storage, management, analyses, and dissemination of data and knowledge generated by biological studies focused on micronutrient–genome interactions. Specifically, the MGP creates a public portal and open-source bioinformatics toolbox for all “omics” information and evaluation of micronutrient and health studies. The core of the project focuses on access to, and visualization of, genetic/genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic information related to micronutrients. For each micronutrient, an expert group is or will be established combining the various relevant areas (including genetics, nutrition, biochemistry, and epidemiology). Each expert group will (1) collect all available knowledge, (2) collaborate with bioinformatics teams towards constructing the pathways and biological networks, and (3) publish their findings on a regular basis. The project is coordinated in a transparent manner, regular meetings are organized and dissemination is arranged through tools, a toolbox web portal, a communications website and dedicated publications.
doi:10.1007/s12263-010-0192-8
PMCID: PMC2989004  PMID: 21189865
Micronutrient; Bioinformatics; Database; Genomics
6.  The Micronutrient Genomics Project: a community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research 
Genes & Nutrition  2010;5(4):285-296.
Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it is becoming feasible to assess the activity of single and multiple micronutrients in their complete biological context. Existing research collects fragments of information, which are not stored systematically and are thus not optimally disseminated. The Micronutrient Genomics Project (MGP) was established as a community-driven project to facilitate the development of systematic capture, storage, management, analyses, and dissemination of data and knowledge generated by biological studies focused on micronutrient–genome interactions. Specifically, the MGP creates a public portal and open-source bioinformatics toolbox for all “omics” information and evaluation of micronutrient and health studies. The core of the project focuses on access to, and visualization of, genetic/genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic information related to micronutrients. For each micronutrient, an expert group is or will be established combining the various relevant areas (including genetics, nutrition, biochemistry, and epidemiology). Each expert group will (1) collect all available knowledge, (2) collaborate with bioinformatics teams towards constructing the pathways and biological networks, and (3) publish their findings on a regular basis. The project is coordinated in a transparent manner, regular meetings are organized and dissemination is arranged through tools, a toolbox web portal, a communications website and dedicated publications.
doi:10.1007/s12263-010-0192-8
PMCID: PMC2989004  PMID: 21189865
Micronutrient; Bioinformatics; Database; Genomics
7.  Fraction of Total Plasma Vitamin B12 Bound to Transcobalamin Correlates with Cognitive Function in Elderly Latinos with Depressive Symptoms 
Clinical chemistry  2008;54(7):1210-1217.
BACKGROUND:
The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear.
METHODS:
We assessed associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio in a cohort of elderly Latinos (n = 1089, age 60–101 years). We assessed cognitive function using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE) and a delayed recall test; we diagnosed clinical cognitive impairment by neuropsychological and clinical exam with expert adjudication; and we assessed depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We measured total B12 and holoTC using radioassays.
RESULTS:
HoloTC/B12 ratio was directly associated with 3MSE score (P = 0.026) but not delayed recall score. Interactions between holoTC/B12 and CES-D score were observed for 3MSE (P = 0.026) and delayed recall scores (P = 0.013) such that associations between the ratio and cognitive function scores were confined to individuals with CES-D ≥16. For individuals with CES-D ≥16, the odds ratio for clinical cognitive impairment for the lowest holoTC/B12 tertile was 3.6 (95% CI 1.2–11.2) compared with the highest tertile (P = 0.03). We observed no associations between cognitive function and total B12 or holoTC alone, except between holoTC and 3MSE score (P = 0.021), and no interactions between holoTC or total B12 and CES-D score on cognitive function.
CONCLUSIONS:
HoloTC/B12 ratio is associated with cognitive function in elderly Latinos with depressive symptoms and may better reflect the adequacy of B12 for nervous system function than either holoTC or total B12 alone.
doi:10.1373/clinchem.2007.102632
PMCID: PMC2752269  PMID: 18451312
8.  Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging2 
Background
High concentrations of homocysteine have been linked to a greater risk of Alzheimer disease, dementia, and cognitive decline.
Objective
We evaluated the association between homocysteine and 4.5-y combined incidences of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in a cohort of 1779 Mexican Americans aged 60–101 y.
Design
Homocysteine, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma vitamin B-12 were measured at baseline. New cases of dementia or CIND were ascertained by neuropsychological and clinical examinations and expert adjudication. We used proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of homocysteine-associated dementia or CIND and the influence of RBC folate and plasma vitamin B-12 on that association.
Results
High homocysteine concentrations were associated with a greater risk of dementia or CIND: hazard ratio (HR): 2.39; 95% CI: 1.11, 5.16. Plasma vitamin B-12 modified the association between homocysteine and the outcome. The rates of dementia or CIND associated with homocysteine for those in the lowest and highest tertiles of vitamin B-12, respectively, were significantly higher (HR: 1.61, P = 0.04) and lower (HR: 0.94, P = 0.015) than the risk for those in the middle tertile.
Conclusions
Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for both dementia and CIND. Higher plasma vitamin B-12 may reduce the risk of homocysteine-associated dementia or CIND.
PMCID: PMC1892349  PMID: 17284751
Homocysteine; B vitamins; dementia; cognitive impairment without dementia; red blood cell folate

Results 1-8 (8)