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1.  Multiple cytokines and chemokines are associated with rheumatoid arthritis-related autoimmunity in first-degree relatives without rheumatoid arthritis: Studies of the Aetiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2012;72(6):901-907.
Objective
We investigated whether rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoantibodies were associated with systemic inflammation in a prospective cohort of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of RA probands, a population without RA but at increased risk for its future development.
Methods
We studied 44 autoantibody positive FDRs, of whom 29 were rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, 25 were positive for the high risk autoantibody profile (HRP), that is, positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and/or for at least two RF IgM, IgG or IgA isotypes, and nine FDRs who were positive for both; and 62 FDRs who were never autoantibody positive. Twenty-five cytokines/chemokines were measured using a bead-based assay in serum. As a comprehensive measure of inflammation, we calculated a Cytokine Score by summing all cytokine/chemokine levels, weighted by their regression coefficients for RA-autoantibody association. We compared C-reactive protein, individual cytokines/chemokines and Cytokine Score to the outcomes: positivity for RF and for the HRP using logistic regression.
Results
Adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity and ever smoking, the Cytokine Score and levels of IL-6 and IL-9 were associated with both RF and HRP. IL-2, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon (IFN)-γ were associated with HRP only. Associations between the Cytokine Score and RF and HRP positivity were replicated in an independent military personnel cohort.
Conclusions
In first-degree relatives of patients with RA, RA-related autoimmunity is associated with inflammation, as evidenced by associations with multiple cytokines and chemokines.
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-201505
PMCID: PMC3726193  PMID: 22915618
2.  Infant Exposures and Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 
JAMA pediatrics  2013;167(9):808-815.
IMPORTANCE
The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing worldwide, with the most rapid increase among children younger than 5 years of age.
OBJECTIVE
To examine the associations between perinatal and infant exposures, especially early infant diet, and the development of T1DM.
DESIGN
The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) is a longitudinal, observational study.
SETTING
Newborn screening for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was done at St. Joseph’s Hospital in Denver, Colorado. First-degree relatives of individuals with T1DM were recruited from the Denver metropolitan area.
PARTICIPANTS
A total of 1835 children at increased genetic risk for T1DM followed up from birth with complete prospective assessment of infant diet. Fifty-three children developed T1DM.
EXPOSURES
Early (<4 months of age) and late (≥6 months of age) first exposure to solid foods compared with first exposures at 4 to 5 months of age (referent).
MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE
Risk for T1DM diagnosed by a physician.
RESULTS
Both early and late first exposure to any solid food predicted development of T1DM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04–3.51, and HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.26–7.24, respectively), adjusting for the HLA-DR genotype, first-degree relative with T1DM, maternal education, and delivery type. Specifically, early exposure to fruit and late exposure to rice/oat predicted T1DM (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.14–4.39, and HR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.36–6.11, respectively), while breastfeeding at the time of introduction to wheat/barley conferred protection (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26–0.86). Complicated vaginal delivery was also a predictor of T1DM (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.03–3.61).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
These results suggest the safest age to introduce solid foods in children at increased genetic risk for T1DM is between 4 and 5 months of age. Breastfeeding while introducing new foods may reduce T1DM risk.
doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.317
PMCID: PMC4038357  PMID: 23836309
3.  Exploring Differences in Adiposity in Two US Hispanic Populations of Mexican Origin Using Social, Behavioral, Physiologic and Genetic Markers: The IRAS Family Study 
Ethnicity & disease  2012;22(1):65-71.
Objective
The census classification of Hispanic origin is used in epidemiological studies to group individuals, even though there is geographical, cultural, and genetic diversity within Hispanic Americans of purportedly similar backgrounds. We observed differences in our measures of adiposity between our two Mexican American populations, and examined whether these differences were attributed to social, behavioral, physiologic or genetic differences between the two populations.
Research Design and Methods
In the IRAS Family Study, we examined 478 Hispanics from San Antonio, Texas and 447 Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Associations with body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) using social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic variables were examined.
Results
Hispanics of Mexican origin in our clinic population in San Antonio had significantly higher mean BMI (31.09 vs 28.35 kg/m2), VAT (126.3 vs 105.5 cm2), and SAT (391.6 vs 336.9 cm2), than Hispanics of Mexican origin in the San Luis Valley. The amount of variation in adiposity explained by clinic population was 4.5% for BMI, 2.8% for VAT, and 2.7% for SAT. After adjustment, clinic population was no longer associated with VAT and SAT, but remained associated with BMI, although the amount of variation explained by population was substantially less (1.0% for BMI).
Conclusion
Adiposity differences within this population of Mexican origin can be largely explained by social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic differences. (Ethn Dis. 2012;22(1):65–71)
PMCID: PMC4020784  PMID: 22774311
Hispanics; Adiposity; Admixture; Environmental Differences; Social Factors; Behavior; Genetics
4.  Evidence of Stage- and Age-Related Heterogeneity of Non-HLA SNPs and Risk of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young 
Previously, we examined 20 non-HLA SNPs for association with islet autoimmunity (IA) and/or progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our objective was to investigate fourteen additional non-HLA T1D candidate SNPs for stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D. Of 1634 non-Hispanic white DAISY children genotyped, 132 developed IA (positive for GAD, insulin, or IA-2 autoantibodies at two or more consecutive visits); 50 IA positive children progressed to T1D. Cox regression was used to analyze risk of IA and progression to T1D in IA positive children. Restricted cubic splines were used to model SNPs when there was evidence that risk was not constant with age. C1QTNF6 (rs229541) predicted increased IA risk (HR: 1.57, CI: 1.20–2.05) but not progression to T1D (HR: 1.13, CI: 0.75–1.71). SNP (rs10517086) appears to exhibit an age-related effect on risk of IA, with increased risk before age 2 years (age 2 HR: 1.67, CI: 1.08–2.56) but not older ages (age 4 HR: 0.84, CI: 0.43–1.62). C1QTNF6 (rs229541), SNP (rs10517086), and UBASH3A (rs3788013) were associated with development of T1D. This prospective investigation of non-HLA T1D candidate loci shows that some SNPs may exhibit stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D.
doi:10.1155/2013/417657
PMCID: PMC3866813  PMID: 24367383
5.  Components of metabolic syndrome and 5-year change in insulin clearance - The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) 
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism  2013;15(5):10.1111/dom.12049.
Aims
Cross-sectional evidence indicates that abdominal adiposity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and glycemia are associated with reduced metabolic clearance of insulin (MCRI). Little is known about the progression of MCRI and whether components of metabolic syndrome are associated with the change in MCRI. In this study, we examined the association between components of metabolic syndrome and the 5-year change of MCRI.
Methods and Materials
At baseline and 5-year follow-up, we measured fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) in 784 non-diabetic participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. MCRI, insulin sensitivity (SI) and acute insulin response (AIR) were determined from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests.
Results
We observed a 29% decline of MCRI at follow-up. TG, systolic BP and WC at baseline were inversely associated with a decline of MCRI regression models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy expenditure, family history of diabetes, BMI, SI and AIR (β= −0.057 [95% CI −0.11, −0.0084] for TG, β= −0.0019 [95% CI −0.0035, −0.00023] for systolic BP, β= −0.0084 [95% CI −0.013, −0.0039] for WC; all p<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol at baseline was associated with an increase in MCRI (multivariable-adjusted β= 0.0029 [95% CI 0.0010, 0.0048], p=0.002). FBG at baseline was not associated with MCRI at follow-up (multivariable-adjusted β= 0.0014 [95% CI −0.0026, 0.0029]).
Conclusions
MCRI declined progressively over 5 years in a non-diabetic cohort. Components of metabolic syndrome at baseline were associated with a significant change in MCRI.
doi:10.1111/dom.12049
PMCID: PMC3810428  PMID: 23216702
6.  A Metabolically Healthy Obese Phenotype in Hispanic Participants in the IRAS Family Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2013;21(11):2303-2309.
Objective
Some obese individuals appear to be protected from developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This has led to characterizing body size phenotypes based on cardiometabolic risk factors specifically as obese or overweight, and as metabolically healthy (MH) or metabolically abnormal (MA) based upon blood pressure, lipids, glucose homeostasis and inflammatory parameters. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of and describe fat distribution across these phenotypes in a minority population.
Design and Methods
Hispanic participants (N=1054) in the IRAS Family Study were categorized into different body size phenotypes. Computed tomography (CT) abdominal scans were evaluated for measures of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and abdominal fat distribution. Statistical models adjusting for familial relationships were estimated.
Results
Seventy percent (70%) of the Hispanic cohort was overweight (32%) or obese (38%). Forty-one percent (n=138) of overweight participants and 19% (n=74) of obese participants met criteria for MH. Adjusted analyses showed the MH phenotype was associated with lower visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and higher liver density (indicating lower fat content) in obese participants (p=0.0005 and p=0.0002, respectively), and lower VAT but not liver density in overweight participants (p=0.008 and p=0.162, respectively) compared to their MA counterparts. Odds of NAFLD were reduced in MH obese (OR=0.34, p=0.0007) compared to MA obese. VAT did not differ between MH obese or overweight and normal weight groups.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that lower levels of visceral and liver fat, despite overall increased total body fat, may be a defining feature of MH obesity in Hispanic Americans.
doi:10.1002/oby.20326
PMCID: PMC3661693  PMID: 23418072
7.  Variant in the 3′ Region of the IκBα Gene Associated With Insulin Resistance in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2009;18(3):555-562.
The IKKβ/NF-κB pathway is known to play an important role in inflammatory response and has also recently been implicated in the process of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that one or more variants in the IκBα gene (NFKBIA) or surrounding untranslated regions would be associated with insulin sensitivity (SI) in Hispanic-American families. We tested for association between 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and near NFKBIA and SI in 981 individuals in 90 Hispanic-American families from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis (IRAS) Family Study. SNP rs1951276 in the 3′ flanking region of NFKBIA was associated with SI in the San Antonio (SA) sample after adjusting for age, gender, and admixture (uncorrected P = 1.69 × 10−5; conservative Bonferroni correction P = 3.38 × 10−4). Subjects with at least one A allele for NFKBIA rs1951276 had ~29% lower SI compared to individuals homozygous for the G allele in the SA sample. Although not statistically significant, the effect was in the same direction in the San Luis Valley (SLV) sample alone (P = 0.348) and was significant in the combined SA and SLV samples (P = 5.37 × 10−4; presence of A allele associated with ~20% lower SI). In SA, when adjusted for subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT, cm2), the association was modestly attenuated (P = 1.25 × 10−3), but the association remained highly significant after adjustment for visceral adipose tissue area (VAT, cm2; P = 4.41 × 10−6). These results provide corroborating evidence that the NF-κB/IKKβ pathway may mediate obesity-induced insulin resistance in humans.
doi:10.1038/oby.2009.303
PMCID: PMC3992855  PMID: 19798070
8.  RGS6 Variants Are Associated With Dietary Fat Intake in Hispanics: The IRAS Family Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;19(7):1433-1438.
Recently, a genome-wide association scan was completed in the IRAS (Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study) Family Study (IRASFS) Hispanic-American cohort. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) gene were found to be associated with adiposity phenotypes. RGS6 has shown downstream antagonistic interplay with opioid receptors, targets of fatty/sugary food agonists. The possibility that RGS6 promotes tolerance and tachyphylaxis among the opioid receptor is a plausible pathway for overconsuming fat/sugar-laden food. Therefore, we hypothesized that RGS6 variants are associated with intake of fatty/sugary foods. In 932 Hispanics from San Antonio and San Luis Valley, CO, the following dietary intake variables were assessed using the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire: total calories, total fat, % calories from fat, % calories from saturated fat, protein, % calories from protein, carbohydrates, % calories from carbohydrates, and daily frequency of servings of fats/oils/sweets. We tested for association between 23 SNPs in RGS6 and dietary intake using a variance components measured genotype approach. All models were adjusted for gender, recruitment site, admixture, BMI, and age. Using an additive genetic model, rs1402064 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets, total calories, total fat and saturated fat (P = 0.0007, 0.026, 0.023, and 0.024). SNPs rs847330 and rs847354 were associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002 and 0.018), total fat (P = 0.040 and 0.048) and saturated fat (P = 0.044 and 0.041). Finally, rs769148 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002). RGS6 is a new candidate gene for adiposity traits that may be associated with a behavioral tendency toward fat-laden food intake.
doi:10.1038/oby.2010.333
PMCID: PMC3683650  PMID: 21233807
9.  Genetics of Glucose Homeostasis Implications for Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome 
This review summarizes the current understanding of the genetic basis of glucose homeostasis through genome-wide association scans and candidate gene studies of case–control and family-based designs. We highlight the implications of phenotype-direct (euglycemic clamp or frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) and indirect (fasting insulin and fasting glucose) measures on the determinants of insulin resistance and β-cell response that precede and contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the metabolic syndrome. Finally, we examine future approaches that may aid in understanding the biology of insulin resistance and T2DM. Over the past 2 decades, the prevalence of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and T2DM has increased. Ethnic differences in T2DM and insulin resistance are evident, with nonwhite populations having the greatest risk. There continue to be significant gaps in our knowledge regarding the metabolic, behavioral, and genetic determinants of these conditions. Understanding the genetic basis of glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and T2DM should provide insight on known and novel metabolic pathways that identify potential therapeutic targets and mechanisms for intervention.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.255463
PMCID: PMC3988457  PMID: 22895670
insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; diabetes mellitus; genetics; epidemiology
10.  Insulin Clearance and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Hispanics and African Americans 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(4):901-907.
OBJECTIVE
We aimed to identify factors that are independently associated with the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) and to examine the association of MCRI with incident type 2 diabetes in nondiabetic Hispanics and African Americans.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We investigated 1,116 participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study with baseline examinations from 2000 to 2002 and follow-up examinations from 2005 to 2006. Insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), and MCRI were determined at baseline from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. MCRI was calculated as the ratio of the insulin dose over the incremental area under the curve of insulin. Incident diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic medication use by self-report.
RESULTS
We observed that SI and HDL cholesterol were independent positive correlates of MCRI, whereas fasting insulin, fasting glucose, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and AIR were independent negative correlates (all P < 0.05) at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up, 71 (6.4%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. Lower MCRI was associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, HDL cholesterol, indexes of obesity and adiposity, and insulin secretion (odds ratio 2.01 [95% CI 1.30–3.10], P = 0.0064, per one-SD decrease in loge-transformed MCRI).
CONCLUSIONS
Our data showed that lower MCRI predicts the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1316
PMCID: PMC3609510  PMID: 23223351
11.  Rheumatoid factor seropositivity is inversely associated with oral contraceptive use in women without rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2006;66(2):267-269.
Objectives
To examine whether oral contraceptive use is associated with the presence of serum rheumatoid factor in women of reproductive age without rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods
304 women selected from parents of children who were at increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes were studied, because they were enriched with the human leucocyte antigen‐DR4 allele, a susceptibility marker for both type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Participants visited a clinic where blood was drawn for rheumatoid factor testing, and exposure data were collected via questionnaires. A medical history and joint examination were performed to rule out rheumatoid arthritis. Participants and examiners were unaware of the participants' rheumatoid factor status at the time of examination and questionnaire.
Results
Use of oral contraceptives at any time was inversely associated with rheumatoid factor positivity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.52) independent of age, education and smoking. Smoking ⩾20 pack‐years was also associated with rheumatoid factor positivity (adjusted OR 56.38, 95% CI 4.31 to 736.98) compared with never smoking. Smoking 1–19 pack‐years was not associated with a positive rheumatoid factor.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that oral contraceptive use, and possibly cigarette smoking, act early in the development of the immune dysregulation that occurs in rheumatoid arthritis.
doi:10.1136/ard.2006.060004
PMCID: PMC1798510  PMID: 16868018
12.  Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants 
Gut  2013;63(3):415-422.
Background
The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD.
Objective
We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing.
Design
We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals.
Results
Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations.
Conclusions
Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD.
doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-304110
PMCID: PMC3933173  PMID: 23704318
Coeliac Disease; Genetic Testing; Hla; Molecular Genetics; Celiac Disease
13.  Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels and omega-3 fatty acid intake are not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with islet autoimmunity: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) 
Pediatric diabetes  2011;12(8):669-675.
Aim
We investigated whether omega-3 fatty acid intake and erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with islet autoimmunity (IA).
Methods
The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young is following children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of persistent IA, as defined as being positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, i, or insulin autoantibodies on two consecutive visits, and then for the development of type 1 diabetes, as diagnosed by a physician. One hundred and sixty-seven children with persistent IA were followed for a mean of 4.8 yr, and 45 of these developed type 1 diabetes at a mean age of 8.7 yr. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (as a percent of total lipid) and dietary fatty acid intake (estimated via food frequency questionnaire) were analyzed as time-varying covariates in proportional hazards survival analysis, with follow-up time starting at detection of the first autoantibody.
Results
Neither dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids nor omega-6 fatty acids were associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes, adjusting for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, family history of type 1 diabetes, age at first IA positivity, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal ethnicity. Adjusting for HLA-DR, family history of type 1 diabetes and age at first IA positivity, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels of erythrocyte membranes were not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes.
Conclusions
In this observational study, omega-3 fatty acid intake and status are not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with IA.
doi:10.1111/j.1399-5448.2011.00760.x
PMCID: PMC3475955  PMID: 21435137
dietary intake; IA; omega-3 fatty acids; type 1 diabetes mellitus
14.  ESTIMATING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF RARE AND COMMON GENETIC VARIATIONS AND CLINICAL MEASURES TO A MODEL TRAIT: ADIPONECTIN 
Genetic epidemiology  2012;37(1):13-24.
Common genetic variation frequently accounts for only a modest amount of inter-individual variation in quantitative traits and complex disease susceptibility. Circulating adiponectin, an adipocytokine implicated in metabolic disease, is a model for assessing the contribution of genetic and clinical factors to quantitative trait variation. The adiponectin locus, ADIPOQ, is the primary source of genetically-mediated variation in plasma adiponectin levels. This study sought to define the genetic architecture of ADIPOQ in the comprehensively phenotyped Hispanic (n=1151) and African American (n=574) participants from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Through resequencing and bioinformatic analysis, rare/low frequency (<5% MAF) and common variants (>5% MAF) in ADIPOQ were identified. Genetic variants and clinical variables were assessed for association with adiponectin levels and contribution to adiponectin variance in the Hispanic and African American cohorts. Clinical traits accounted for the greatest proportion of variance (POV) at 31% (p=1.16×10−47) and 47% (p=5.82×10−20), respectively. Rare/low frequency variants contributed more than common variants to variance in Hispanics: POV=18% (p= 6.40×10−15) and POV=5% (p=0.19), respectively. In African Americans, rare/low frequency and common variants both contributed approximately equally to variance: POV=6% (p=5.44×10−12) and POV=9% (P=1.44×10−10), respectively. Importantly, single low frequency alleles in each ethnic group were as important as, or more important than, common variants in explaining variation in adiponectin. Cumulatively, these clinical and ethnicity-specific genetic contributors explained half or more of the variance in Hispanic and African Americans and provide new insight into the sources of variation for this important adipocytokine.
doi:10.1002/gepi.21685
PMCID: PMC3736586  PMID: 23032297
adiponectin; proportion of variation; rare variants; common variants; clinical traits
15.  Lifestyle Factors and 5-Year Abdominal Fat Accumulation in a Minority Cohort: The IRAS Family Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;20(2):10.1038/oby.2011.171.
The objective of this study was to examine whether lifestyle factors were associated with 5-year change in abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) in the Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis (IRAS) Family Study. We obtained abdominal CT scans at baseline and at 5 years, from African Americans (AA) (N = 339) and Hispanic Americans (N = 775), aged 18–81 years. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue was measured at the L4/L5 vertebral level. Physical activity was documented by self-report of vigorous activity and a 1-year recall instrument. Dietary intake was assessed at follow-up using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire referencing the previous year. Generalized linear models, accounting for family structure, were used to assess the associations between percent change in fat accumulation and smoking, physical activity, total calories, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, protein, and saturated fat intake, percent of calories from sweets, and soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber intake and participation in vigorous activity were inversely related to change in VAT, independent of change in BMI. For each 10 g increase in soluble fiber, rate of VAT accumulation decreased by 3.7% (P = 0.01). Soluble fiber was not associated with change in SAT (0.2%, P = 0.82). Moderately active participants had a 7.4% decrease in rate of VAT accumulation and a 3.6% decrease in rate of SAT accumulation versus less active participants (P = 0.003 and P = 0.01, respectively). Total energy expenditure was also inversely associated with accumulation of VAT. Soluble fiber intake and increased physical activity were related to decreased VAT accumulation over 5 years.
doi:10.1038/oby.2011.171
PMCID: PMC3856431  PMID: 21681224
16.  ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADIPOQ SNPS WITH PLASMA ADIPONECTIN AND GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS AND ADIPOSITY PHENOTYPES IN THE IRAS FAMILY STUDY 
Molecular genetics and metabolism  2012;107(4):721-728.
Context
Adiponectin is an adipocytokine associated with a variety of metabolic traits. These associations in human studies, in conjunction with functional studies in model systems, have implicated adiponectin in multiple metabolic processes.
Objective
We hypothesize that genetic variants associated with plasma adiponectin would also be associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity phenotypes.
Design and Setting
The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study was designed to identify the genetic and environmental basis of insulin resistance and adiposity in the Hispanic- (n=1,424) and African-American (n=604) population.
Main Outcome Measures
High quality metabolic phenotypes, e.g. insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI), fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and waist circumference, were explored.
Results
Based on association analysis of more than 40 genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ), we found no consistent association of ADIPOQ variants with plasma adiponectin levels and adiposity phenotypes. However, there were two promoter variants, rs17300539 and rs822387, associated with plasma adiponectin levels (P=0.0079 and 0.021, respectively) in the Hispanic-American cohort that were also associated with SI (P=0.0067 and 0.013, respectively). In contrast, there was only a single promoter SNP, rs17300539, associated with plasma adiponectin levels (P=0.0018) and fasting glucose (P=0.042) in the African-American cohort. Strikingly, high impact coding variants did not show evidence of association.
Conclusions
The lack of consistent patterns of association between variants, adiponectin levels, glucose homeostasis, and adiposity phenotypes suggests a reassessment of the influence of adiponectin in these pathways.
doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.10.003
PMCID: PMC3504195  PMID: 23102667
adiponectin; single nucleotide polymorphisms; glucose homeostasis; adiposity; African Americans; Hispanic Americans
17.  Early Childhood Infections and the Risk of Islet Autoimmunity 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(12):2553-2558.
OBJECTIVE
Type 1 diabetes is a common chronic childhood disease, and the incidence is increasing globally. Childhood infections are considered a potential environmental trigger of type 1 diabetes. Alternatively, improved hygiene and reduced childhood infections could explain the increase in type 1 diabetes in developed countries. The association of reported illnesses during infancy and later development of islet autoimmunity (IA) were examined in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Complete illness interviews through 9 months of age were collected for 1,729 children—1,174 without a family history of type 1 diabetes and 555 with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes. Persistent IA was defined as positive antibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, or tyrosine phosphatase on at least two consecutive study visits.
RESULTS
There were 109 children with persistent IA among the 1,729 children with illness records. A greater number of gastrointestinal illnesses were associated with an increased risk of IA, but only among children who were exposed to gluten-containing grains (wheat or barley) either <4 months of age (hazard ratio 1.37 [95% CI 1.22–1.55]; P < 0.0001) or ≥7 months of age (1.12 [1.05–1.19]; P = 0.0005) compared with 4–6 months of age (P for interaction = 0.02). There were no associations of upper respiratory symptoms, respiratory illnesses, or fevers with IA.
CONCLUSIONS
Specific pathogens such as enteroviruses or rotavirus may increase the risk of IA in the presence of existing inflammation induced by diet.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0423
PMCID: PMC3507568  PMID: 23043167
18.  Epidemiology of Environmental Exposures and Human Autoimmune Diseases: Findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop 
Journal of autoimmunity  2012;39(4):259-271.
Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.
doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2012.05.002
PMCID: PMC3496812  PMID: 22739348
autoimmune disease; environmental risk factors; biologic agents; chemical agents; physical factors; research priorities
19.  Porphyromonas gingivalis and Disease-Related Autoantibodies in Individuals at Increased Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2012;64(11):10.1002/art.34595.
Purpose
To examine the relationship of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) with the presence of autoantibodies in individuals at risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods
Participants included: 1) a cohort enriched with HLA-DR4 and 2) those at risk for RA by virtue of having a first-degree relative with RA. None satisfied 1987 ACR RA classification criteria. Autoantibodies measured included anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF; nephelometry, IgA, IgM, IgG). Individuals were considered autoantibody positive (n = 113) with ≥ 1 positive autoantibody with individuals further categorized as `high-risk' (n = 38; positive ACPA or ≥ 2 RF assays). Autoantibody negative individuals served as comparators (n = 171). Antibody to Pg, P. intermedia (Pi), and F. nucleatum (Fn) were measured. Associations of bacterial antibodies with group status were examined using logistic regression.
Results
Anti-Pg concentrations were higher in high-risk (p = 0.011) and autoantibody positive group (p = 0.010) than in the autoantibody negative group. There were no group differences in anti-Pi or anti-Fn concentrations. After multivariable adjustment, anti-Pg concentrations (but not anti-Pi or anti-Fn) were significantly associated with autoantibody positive and high-risk status (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Immunity to Pg, but not Pi or Fn, is significantly associated with the presence of RA-related autoantibodies in individuals at risk for RA. These results support the hypothesis that infection with Pg may play a central role in the early loss of tolerance to self-antigens in RA pathogenesis.
doi:10.1002/art.34595
PMCID: PMC3467347  PMID: 22736291
rheumatoid arthritis; periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Prevotella intermedia; Fusobacterium nucleatum; rheumatoid factor; anti-citrullinated protein antibody
20.  Early-Life Predictors of Higher Body Mass Index in Healthy Children 
Background/Aims
Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity.
Methods
The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. We examined longitudinal data for 1,178 DAISY subjects (mean age at last follow-up: 6.59 years (range: 2.0–11.5 years). Birth size and diabetes exposure in utero were collected in the enrollment interview. Infant diet information was collected via interviews throughout infancy. Infant weight gain and childhood BMI were measured at clinic visits.
Results
Female gender, diabetes exposure in utero, larger size for gestational age, shorter breastfeeding duration, and more rapid infant weight gain predicted higher childhood BMI. Formal mediation analysis suggests the effect of shorter breastfeeding duration on childhood BMI may be mediated by more rapid infant weight gain. Also, the effect of diabetes exposure in utero on childhood BMI may be mediated by larger size for gestational age.
Conclusion
We identified strong interrelationships between early life factors and childhood BMI. Understanding these pathways may aid childhood obesity prevention efforts.
doi:10.1159/000261899
PMCID: PMC2855270  PMID: 19940472
Breastfeeding duration; Infant weight gain; Diabetes exposure in utero; Birth size; Mediator
21.  The Duration of Pre-Clinical Rheumatoid Arthritis-Related Autoantibody Positivity Increases in Subjects with Older Age at Time of Disease Diagnosis 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2007;67(6):801-807.
Objectives
This study investigated factors that may influence the prevalence and timing of appearance of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies during the pre-clinical phase of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development.
Methods
243 serial pre-diagnosis serum samples from 83 subjects with RA were examined for the presence of RF and anti-CCP antibodies.
Results
57% and 61% of subjects had at least one pre-diagnosis sample positive for RF or anti-CCP, respectively. Gender and race were not significantly associated with the prevalence or timing of pre-clinical antibody appearance. Pre-clinical anti-CCP positivity was strongly associated with the development of erosive RA (OR 4.64; 95% CI 1.71–12.63; p=0.003), but RF was not (p=0.11). Additionally, as age at the time of diagnosis of RA increased the duration of pre-diagnosis antibody positivity for RF and anti-CCP increased, with the longest duration of pre-clinical antibody positivity seen in patients diagnosed with RA over the age of 40. In no subjects did symptom onset precede the appearance of RF or anti-CCP antibodies.
Conclusions
The period of time that RF and anti-CCP are present prior to diagnosis lengthens as the age at the time of diagnosis of RA increases. This finding suggests that factors such as genetic risk or environmental exposures influencing the temporal relationship between the development of RA-related autoantibodies and clinically-apparent disease onset may differ with age.
doi:10.1136/ard.2007.076679
PMCID: PMC3761074  PMID: 17974596
autoantibody; rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid factor; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody
22.  Comparison between omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in young children 
Objective
We conducted a dietary validation study in youth aged 1 to 11 years by comparing dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as assessed by a parent-completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) over time to erythrocyte membrane composition of the same fatty acids.
Design
The study population included youth aged 1 to 11 years who were participants in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a longitudinal study in Denver, Colorado that is following a cohort of youth at risk for developing Type I diabetes. Four hundred four children who had erythrocyte membrane fatty acid data matched to an FFQ corresponding to the same time frame for a total of 917 visits (matches) were included. PUFA intake was expressed as both g/day (adjusted for total energy) and as percent of total fat intake. We used mixed models to test the association and calculate the correlation between the erythrocyte membrane estimates and PUFA intake using all records of data for each youth.
Results
Intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids (β=0.52, p<0.0001, ρ=0.23) and marine PUFAs (β=1.62, p<0.0001, ρ=0.42), as a percent of total fat in the diet, were associated with percent of omega-3 and marine PUFAs in the erythrocyte membrane. Intakes of omega-6 PUFAs (β=0.04, p=0.418, ρ=0.05) and arachidonic acid (β=0.31, p=0.774, ρ=0.01) were not associated.
Conclusions
In these young children, a FFQ using parental report provided estimates of average long-term intakes of marine PUFAs that correlated well with their erythrocyte cell membrane fatty acid status.
doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602763
PMCID: PMC2896066  PMID: 17440518
23.  Plasma 25, OH vitamin D Levels are not Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis-Related Autoantibodies in Individuals at Elevated Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis 
The Journal of rheumatology  2009;36(5):943-946.
Objective
To evaluate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoantibodies and plasma 25, OH vitamin D in subjects at risk for RA.
Methods
In 1210 subjects without RA, 76 were positive for either anti-CCP antibodies or for at least two or more RFs (RF measured by nephelometry, RF-IgM, -IgG, -IgA). 25, OH vitamin D was measured in these cases and 154 autoantibody-negative controls from this cohort.
Results
25, OH vitamin D levels did not differ between cases and controls (adjusted OR:1.23, 95% CI: 0.93–1.63).
Conclusion
Vitamin D levels are not associated with RA-related autoimmunity in unaffected subjects at increased risk for RA.
doi:10.3899/jrheum.080764
PMCID: PMC2745328  PMID: 19286844
vitamin D; rheumatoid arthritis; autoantibodies
24.  Genome Wide Association Study and Follow-Up Analysis of Adiposity Traits in Hispanic-Americans: the IRAS Family Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2009;17(10):1932-1941.
We investigated candidate genomic regions associated with computed tomography (CT)-derived measures of adiposity in Hispanic from the IRAS Family Study. In 1190 Hispanic individuals from 92 families from the San Luis Valley, CO and San Antonio, TX, we measured CT-derived visceral adipose tissue (VAT); subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT); and visceral: subcutaneous ratio (VSR). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was completed using the Illumina HumanHap 300 BeadChip (~317K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) in 229 individuals from the San Antonio site (Stage 1). Two hundred ninety-seven SNPs with evidence for association with VAT, SAT, or VSR, adjusting for age and sex (p<0.001), were genotyped in the remaining 961 Hispanic samples. The entire Hispanic cohort (n = 1190) was then tested for association, adjusting for age, sex, site of recruitment and admixture estimates (Stage 2). In Stage 3, additional SNPs were genotyped in four genic regions showing evidence of association in Stage 2.
Several SNPs were associated in the GWAS (p<1×10−5) and were confirmed to be significantly associated in the entire Hispanic cohort (p<0.01), including: rs7543757 for VAT; rs4754373, and rs11212913 for SAT; and rs4541696, and rs4134351 for VSR. Numerous SNPs were associated with multiple adiposity phenotypes. Targeted analysis of four genes whose SNPs were significant in Stage 2 suggest candidate genes for influencing the distribution (RGS6) and amount of adiposity (NGEF).
Several candidate loci, including RGS6 and NGEF, are associated with CT-derived adipose fat measures in Hispanic Americans in a three-stage genetic association study.
doi:10.1038/oby.2009.143
PMCID: PMC2832211  PMID: 19461586
genetic association; visceral fat; subcutaneous fat; obesity; body mass index
25.  Association ofPNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a minority cohort: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study 
Background
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent condition, particularly among Hispanic Americans. A genetic variant in PNPLA3 (rs738409) has been identified as a strong predictor of hepatic fat content.
Aims
To confirm the association of this variant with NAFLD in two minority cohorts, Hispanic Americans and African Americans, in whom liver density was quantified by computed tomography (CT).
Methods
This analysis was conducted in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis (IRAS) Family Study. Participants were recruited from the general community and included 843 Hispanic American and 371 African American adults aged 18–81 years. A single variant in PNPLA3 (rs738409) was genotyped. Liver density was calculated in Hounsfield Units from abdominal CT scans.
Results
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs738409 was strongly associated with reduced liver density (i.e. NAFLD) in Hispanic Americans (1.18 × 10−9) and in African Americans (P = 4.99 × 10−6). The association followed an additive genetic model with the G allele conferring risk. The allele was two times more common in Hispanic Americans than in African Americans (40 vs 19%), consistent with the greater prevalence of NAFLD in Hispanic Americans (24 vs 9%). The SNP explained 4.4 and 5.6% of the variance of the adjusted liver density outcome in Hispanic Americans and African Americans, respectively.
Conclusions
We confirmed the association of a PNPLA3 variant with NAFLD in Hispanic Americans and African Americans, suggesting that PNPLA3 contributes to the variation in NAFLD across multiple ethnicities. This study adds to the growing evidence that some of the ethnic variation in NAFLD is genetic.
doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02444.x
PMCID: PMC3703938  PMID: 21281435
African Americans; computed tomography; genetic epidemiology; hepatic steatosis; Hispanic Americans; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; PNPLA3

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