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1.  Admixture Mapping of Coronary Artery Calcified Plaque in African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes 
Background
The presence and severity of coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) differs markedly between individuals of African and European descent, suggesting that admixture mapping (AM) may be informative for identifying genetic variants associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods and Results
AM of CAC was performed in 1,040 unrelated African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and Family Heart Study (FamHS) using the Illumina custom ancestry informative marker (AIM) panel. All cohorts obtained computed tomography scanning of the coronary arteries using identical protocols. For each AIM, the probability of inheriting 0, 1, and 2 copies of a European-derived allele was determined. Linkage analysis was performed by testing for association between each AIM using these probabilities and CAC, accounting for global ancestry, age, gender and study. Markers on 1p32.3 in the GLIS1 gene (rs6663966, LOD=3.7), 1q32.1 near CHIT1 (rs7530895, LOD=3.1), 4q21.2 near PRKG2 (rs1212373, LOD=3.0) and 11q25 in the OPCML gene (rs6590705, LOD=3.4) had statistically significant LOD scores, while markers on 8q22.2 (rs6994682, LOD=2.7), 9p21.2 (rs439314, LOD=2.7), and 13p32.1 (rs7492028, LOD=2.8) manifested suggestive evidence of linkage. These regions were uniformly characterized by higher levels of European ancestry associating with higher levels or odds of CAC. Findings were replicated in 1,350 AAs without diabetes and 2,497 diabetic European Americans from MESA and the Diabetes Heart Study.
Conclusions
Fine mapping these regions will likely identify novel genetic variants that contribute to CAC and clarify racial differences in susceptibility to subclinical CVD.
doi:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.964114
PMCID: PMC3578054  PMID: 23233742
ancestry; cardiovascular disease risk factors; type 2 diabetes; admixture mapping
2.  Relevance of the ACTN4 gene in African Americans with non-diabetic ESRD 
American journal of nephrology  2012;36(3):252-260.
Background
African Americans (AAs) are predisposed to non-diabetic (non-DM) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and studies have shown a genetic component to this risk. Rare mutations in ACTN4 (α-actinin-4) an actin binding protein expressed in podocytes cause familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Methods
We assessed the contribution of coding variants in ACTN4 to non-DM ESRD risk in AAs. Nineteen exons, 2800 bases of the promoter and 392 bases of the 3’ untranslated region of ACTN4 were sequenced in 96 AA non-DM ESRD cases and 96 non-nephropathy controls (384 chromosomes). Sixty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 51 novel SNPs were identified. The SNPs comprised 33 intronic, 21 promoter, 12 exonic, and 1 3’ variant. Sixty-two of the SNPs were genotyped in 296 AA non-DM ESRD cases and 358 non-nephropathy controls.
Results
One SNP, rs10404257, was associated with non-DM ESRD (p<1.0E-4, odds ratio (OR)=0.76, confidence interval (CI)=0.59–0.98; additive model). Forty-seven SNPs had minor allele frequencies less than 5%. These SNPs were segregated into risk and protective SNPs and each category was collapsed into a single marker, designated by the presence or absence of any rare allele. The presence of any rare allele at a risk SNP was significantly associated with non-DM ESRD (p = 0.001, dominant model). The SNPs with the strongest evidence for association (n = 20) were genotyped in an independent set of 467 non-DM ESRD cases and 279 controls. Although, rs10404257 was not associated in this replication sample, when the samples were combined rs10404257 was modestly associated (p=0.032, OR=0.78, CI=0.63–0.98; dominant model). SNPs were tested for interaction with markers in the APOL1 gene, previously associated with non-DM ESRD in AAs and rs10404257 was modestly associated (p = 0.0261, additive model).
Conclusions
This detailed evaluation of ACTN4 variation revealed limited evidence of association with non-DM ESRD in AAs.
doi:10.1159/000342205
PMCID: PMC3510331  PMID: 22965004
ACTN4; non-diabetic ESRD; FSGS; kidney; hypertensive nephrosclerosis; African Americans
3.  Polymorphisms in MYH9 are associated with diabetic nephropathy in European Americans 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2011;27(4):1505-1511.
Background.
Polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin IIA gene (MYH9) are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans and FSGS in European Americans. We tested for association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MYH9 with T2DM–ESRD in European Americans; additionally, three APOL1 gene variants were evaluated.
Methods.
Fifteen MYH9 SNPs and two APOL1 SNPs plus a 6-bp deletion were genotyped in 1963 European Americans, 536 cases with T2DM–ESRD and 1427 non-nephropathy controls (467 with T2DM and 960 without diabetes).
Results.
Comparing T2DM–ESRD cases with the 467 T2DM non-nephropathy controls, single variant associations trending toward significance were detected with SNPs rs4821480, rs2032487 and rs4281481 comprising part of the major MYH9 E1 risk haplotype [P-values 0.053–0.055 recessive, odds ratio (OR) 6.08–6.14]. Comparing T2DM–ESRD cases to all 1427 non-nephropathy controls, we confirmed evidence of association in these three SNPs as well as in the fourth E1 SNP (rs3752462) (P-values 0.017–0.035, OR 1.41–3.72). APOL1 G1/G2 nephropathy risk variants were rare in individuals of European American heritage, present in 0.28% of chromosomes in T2DM–ESRD cases and 0.32% of controls.
Conclusions.
MYH9 SNPs rs4821480, rs2032487, rs4281481 and rs3752462 are associated with T2DM–ESRD susceptibility in European Americans. The APOL1 risk variants are not present at appreciable frequency in this cohort with T2DM–ESRD. Therefore, polymorphisms in MYH9 appear to influence nephropathy risk in this sample.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr522
PMCID: PMC3315672  PMID: 21968013
APOL1; diabetic nephropathy; end-stage renal disease; MYH9; type 2 diabetes mellitus
4.  Association of APOL1 variants with mild kidney disease in first-degree relatives of African American patients with non-diabetic end stage renal disease 
Kidney international  2012;82(7):805-811.
Familial aggregation of non-diabetic end stage renal disease (ESRD) is found in African Americans and variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) contribute to this risk. To detect genetic associations with milder forms of nephropathy in high-risk families, analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations to assess relationships between kidney disease phenotypes and APOL1 variants in 786 relatives of 470 families. Adjusting for familial correlations, 23.1, 46.7, and 30.2 percent of genotyped relatives possessed two, one, or no APOL1 risk variants, respectively. Relatives with two compared to one or no risk variants had statistically indistinguishable median systolic blood pressure, urine albumin to creatinine ratio, estimated GFR (MDRD equation) and serum cystatin C levels. After adjusting for age, gender, age at ESRD in families, and African ancestry, significant associations were detected between APOL1 with overt proteinuria and estimated GFR (CKD-EPI equation), with a trend toward significance for quantitative albuminuria. Thus, relatives of African Americans with non-diabetic ESRD are enriched for APOL1 risk variants. After adjustment, two APOL1 risk variants weakly predict mild forms of kidney disease. Second hits appear necessary for the initiation of APOL1-associated nephropathy.
doi:10.1038/ki.2012.217
PMCID: PMC3443536  PMID: 22695330
African American; APOL1; end-stage renal disease; FSGS; kidney; screening
5.  Examination of Rare Variants in HNF4 α in European Americans with Type 2 Diabetes 
Journal of diabetes & metabolism  2011;2(145):1000145.
The hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4α) gene codes for a transcription factor which is responsible for regulating gene transcription in pancreatic beta cells, in addition to its primary role in hepatic gene regulation. Mutations in this gene can lead to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), an uncommon, autosomal dominant, non-insulin dependent form of diabetes. Mutations in HNF4α have been found in few individuals, and infrequently have they segregated completely with MODY in families. In addition, due to similarity of phenotypes, it is unclear what proportion of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the general population is due to MODY or HNF4α mutations specifically. In this study, 27 documented rare and common variants were genotyped in a European American population of 1270 T2DM cases and 1017 controls from review of databases and literature implicating HNF4α variants in MODY and T2DM. Seventeen variants were found to be monomorphic. Two cases and one control subject had one copy of a 6-bp P2 promoter deletion. The intron 1 variant (rs6103716; MAF = 0.31) was not significantly associated with disease status (p>0.8) and the missense variant Thr130Ile (rs1800961; MAF = 0.027) was also not significantly different between cases and controls (p>0.2), but showed a trend consistent with association with T2DM. Four variants were found to be rare as heterozygotes in small numbers of subjects. Since many variants were infrequent, a pooled chi-squared analysis of rare variants was used to assess the overall burden of variants between cases and controls. This analysis revealed no significant difference (P=0.22). We conclude there is little evidence to suggest that HNF4α variants contribute significantly to risk of T2DM in the general population, but a modest contribution cannot be excluded. In addition, the observation of some mutations in controls suggests they are not highly penetrant MODY-causing variants.
doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000145
PMCID: PMC3515062  PMID: 23227446
Type 2 Diabetes; HNF4A; Rare variants
6.  Apolipoprotein L1 nephropathy risk variants associate with HDL subfraction concentration in African Americans 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2011;26(11):3805-3810.
Background. Coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with non-diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. ApoL1 proteins associate with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in the circulation. Plasma HDL particle subclass concentrations were compared in 73 African Americans based on APOL1 genotypes to detect differences potentially contributing to renal disease.
Methods. HDL subclass concentrations were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in African American first-degree relatives of patients with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease. Participants had estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) > 80 mL/min and lacked albuminuria. Additive effects of the number of APOL1 risk variants on natural logarithm-transformed HDL subclass concentrations were computed.
Results. Participants were 58.9% female with mean ± SD age 47.2 ± 13.3 years and GFR 92.4 ± 18.8 mL/min. The numbers with 2, 1 and 0 APOL1 nephropathy risk variants, respectively, were 36, 17 and 20. Mean ± SD medium-sized HDL concentrations were significantly lower for each additional APOL1 risk variant (2 versus 1 versus 0 risk variants: 9.0 ± 5.6 versus 10.1 ± 5.5 versus 13.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L, respectively; P = 0.0222 unadjusted; P = 0.0162 triglyceride- and ancestry adjusted).
Conclusions. Lower medium-sized HDL subclass concentrations are present in African Americans based on increasing numbers of APOL1 nephropathy risk variants. Potential mechanistic roles of altered medium HDL concentrations on APOL1-associated renal microvascular diseases should be evaluated.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr542
PMCID: PMC3203631  PMID: 21931123
APOL1; arteriolar nephrosclerosis; FSGS; HDL cholesterol; kidney
7.  Genome-Wide Association Scan for Survival on Dialysis in African-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(6):502-509.
Background
African-Americans (AAs) with diabetes have high incidence rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with associated high mortality. Genetic factors modulating the risk of mortality on dialysis are poorly understood. Meth ods: A genome-wide association study was performed in 610 AAs with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and ESRD on dialysis, using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform (868,155 SNPs). Time to death was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for ancestry and other confounding variables. Cases were censored at kidney transplant or (if living) at study conclusion.
Results
Mean follow-up was 5.4 ± 3.5 years; 434 deaths were recorded. Five SNPs were associated with time to death at p < 1.00 × 10−6: rs2681019 (HR = 2.58, PREC = 8.00 × 10−8), rs815815 in CALM2 (HR = 1.51, PADD = 6.50 × 10−7), rs926392 (HR = 2.37, PREC = 4.80 × 10−7), and rs926391 (HR = 2.30, PREC = 7.30 × 10−7) near DHX35, and rs11128347 in PDZRN3 (HR = 0.57, PADD = 6.00 × 10−7). Other SNPs had nominal associations with time to death (p < 1.00 × 10−5).
Conclusion
Genetic variation may modify the risk of death on dialysis. SNPs in proximity to genes regulating vascular extracellular matrix, cardiac ventricular repolarization, and smoking cessation are associated with dialysis survival in AAs with T2D. These results warrant replication in other cohorts and races.
doi:10.1159/000327985
PMCID: PMC3202959  PMID: 21546767
African-Americans; Diabetes mellitus; Dialysis; Genome-wide association study; Survival
8.  The APOL1 gene and allograft survival after kidney transplantation 
Coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with nephropathy in African Americans (AAs). The effect of transplanting kidneys from AA donors with two APOL1 nephropathy risk variants is unknown. APOL1 risk variants were genotyped in 106 AA deceased organ donors and graft survival assessed in 136 resultant kidney transplants. Cox proportional-hazard models tested for association between time to graft failure and donor APOL1 genotypes. Mean follow-up was 26.4 ± 21.8 months. Twenty-two of 136 transplanted kidneys (16%) were from donors with two APOL1 nephropathy risk variants. Twenty five grafts failed; eight (32%) had two APOL1 risk variants. A multivariate model accounting for donor APOL1 genotype, overall African ancestry, expanded criteria donation, recipient age and gender, HLA mismatch, CIT, and PRA revealed that graft survival was significantly shorter in donor kidneys with two APOL1 risk variants (hazard ratio [HR] 3.84; p=0.008) and higher HLA mismatch (HR 1.52; p=0.03), but not for overall African ancestry excluding APOL1. Kidneys from AA deceased donors harboring two APOL1 risk variants failed more rapidly after renal transplantation than those with zero or one risk variants. If replicated, APOL1 genotyping could improve the donor selection process and maximize long term renal allograft survival.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03513.x
PMCID: PMC3083491  PMID: 21486385
African Americans; APOL1; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; graft survival; kidney donor; kidney transplantation
9.  A GENOME WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDY FOR DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY GENES IN AFRICAN AMERICANS 
Kidney international  2010;79(5):563-572.
A genome-wide association study was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 chip to identify genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Association analysis was performed adjusting for admixture in 965 type 2 diabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 1029 African Americans without type 2 diabetes or kidney disease as controls. The top 724 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of association to diabetic nephropathy were then genotyped in a replication sample of an additional 709 type 2 diabetes-ESRD patients and 690 controls. SNPs with evidence of association in both the original and replication studies were tested in additional African American cohorts consisting of 1246 patients with type 2 diabetes without kidney disease and 1216 with non-diabetic ESRD to differentiate candidate loci for type 2 diabetes-ESRD, type 2 diabetes, and/or all-cause ESRD. Twenty-five SNPs were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes-ESRD in the genome-wide association and initial replication. Although genome-wide significance with type 2 diabetes was not found for any of these 25 SNPs, several genes, including RPS12, LIMK2, and SFI1 are strong candidates for diabetic nephropathy. A combined analysis of all 2890 patients with ESRD showed significant association SNPs in LIMK2 and SFI1 suggesting that they also contribute to all-cause ESRD. Thus, our results suggest that multiple loci underlie susceptibility to kidney disease in African Americans with type 2 diabetes and some may also contribute to all-cause ESRD.
doi:10.1038/ki.2010.467
PMCID: PMC3056271  PMID: 21150874
10.  Genome-Wide Association of BMI in African Americans 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;20(3):622-627.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with obesity in Europeans but results in other ethnicities are less convincing. Here, we report a two-stage GWAS of BMI in African Americans. The GWAS was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform in 816 nondiabetic and 899 diabetic nephropathy subjects. 746,626 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with BMI after adjustment for age, gender, disease status, and population structure. Sixty high scoring SNPs that showed nominal association in both GWAS cohorts were further replicated in 3,274 additional subjects in four replication cohorts and a meta-analysis was computed. Meta-analysis of 4,989 subjects revealed five SNPs (rs6794092, rs268972, rs2033195, rs815611, and rs6088887) at four loci showing consistent associations in both GWAS (P < 0.0001) and replication cohorts (P < 0.05) with combined P values range from 2.4 × 10−6 to 5 × 10−5. These loci are located near PP13439-TMEM212, CDH12, MFAP3-GALNT10, and FER1L4 and had effect sizes between 0.091 and 0.167 s.d. unit (or 0.67–1.24 kg/m2) of BMI for each copy of the effect allele. Our findings suggest the presence of novel loci potentially associated with adiposity in African Americans. Further replication and meta-analysis in African Americans and other populations will shed light on the role of these loci in different ethnic populations.
doi:10.1038/oby.2011.154
PMCID: PMC3291470  PMID: 21701570
11.  Sickle cell trait is not independently associated with susceptibility to end-stage renal disease in African Americans 
Kidney International  2011;80(12):1339-1343.
Conflicting reports exist as to whether sickle cell trait is a risk factor for the progression of nephropathy. In order to determine whether African Americans with sickle cell trait are at increased risk for kidney disease, we assessed the genetic association between sickle cell trait and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemoglobin S, non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9), and apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants were genotyped in 3258 unrelated African Americans: 1085 with non-diabetic ESRD, 996 with type 2 diabetes-associated ESRD, and 1177 controls. Since APOL1 is strongly associated with ESRD in African Americans, interactions between APOL1 and MYH9 risk variants and hemoglobin S were assessed using case-only and case-control centered two-way logistic regression interaction analyses. The sickle cell trait genotype frequencies were 8.7% in non-diabetic ESRD, 7.1% in type 2 diabetes-ESRD, and 7.2% in controls. There was no age-, gender-, and admixture-adjusted significance for sickle cell trait association with non-diabetic ESRD (odds ratio 1.16); type 2 diabetes-ESRD (odds ratio 1.01); or all-cause ESRD (combined non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic-ESRD patients compared to the controls; odds ratio 1.05) in dominant models. In addition, no evidence of APOL1 or MYH9 interactions with sickle cell trait was detected. Hence, sickle cell trait is not associated with diabetic or non-diabetic ESRD in a large sample of African Americans.
doi:10.1038/ki.2011.286
PMCID: PMC3280424  PMID: 21849968
African American; APOL1; diabetes; end-stage kidney disease; hemoglobin S; hypertension
12.  Coincident idiopathic FSGS collapsing variant and diabetic nephropathy in an African American homozygous for MYH9 risk variants 
Human pathology  2010;42(2):291-294.
Familial clustering of disparate kidney diseases including clinically diagnosed hypertensive and diabetic nephropathy, idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated nephropathy are often observed in African Americans. Admixture mapping recently identified the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) as a susceptibility factor strongly associated with several non-diabetic etiologies of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans, less strongly with diabetes-associated ESRD. MYH9-associated nephropathies reside in the spectrum of FSGS/focal global glomerulosclerosis. The renal histology in proteinuric African Americans homozygous for MYH9 risk variants with longstanding type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown. We report a case of coincident idiopathic FSGS, collapsing variant; and diabetic nephropathy in an African American homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype. This case demonstrates that diabetic African Americans with overt proteinuria can have mixed renal lesions, including those in the spectrum of MYH9-associated nephropathy. Careful interpretation of kidney biopsies in proteinuric African Americans with diabetes is necessary to exclude coincident non-diabetic forms of nephropathy, precisely define etiologies of kidney disease, and determine the natural history and treatment response in mixed lesions of diabetes-associated and MYH9-associated kidney disease.
Summary
We report a case of coincident idiopathic FSGS, collapsing variant; and diabetic nephropathy in an African American homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype.
doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2010.07.016
PMCID: PMC3022108  PMID: 21074826
African American; collapsing variant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; diabetes; diabetic nephropathy; MYH9
13.  A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e29202.
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10−8). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10−9, OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67–0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10−5) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029202
PMCID: PMC3251563  PMID: 22238593
14.  Association of polymorphisms in the klotho gene with severity of non-diabetic ESRD in African Americans 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2010;25(10):3348-3355.
Background. Non-diabetic forms of nephropathy commonly lead to end-stage renal disease (non-DM ESRD). Previous studies have demonstrated that African Americans are more susceptible to non-DM ESRD compared to other ethnic groups, and this risk has a strong genetic component. A genome-wide scan for ESRD in African American families enriched for non-DM ESRD showed evidence for linkage in chromosome 13q33.3, and a candidate gene in this region, klotho, was selected for a detailed analysis in a follow-up case-control association study.
Methods. Thirty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the klotho gene were genotyped in 317 unrelated African American non-DM ESRD cases and 354 non-nephropathy controls, including 12 SNPs identified by re-sequencing a region around exon 4.
Results. Two SNPs demonstrated modest admixture-adjusted evidence of association with non-DM ESRD, rs650439 (P = 0.013, recessive model) and rs643780 (P = 0.017, recessive model), while rs17643698 approached significance (P = 0.0953, two degrees of freedom test). Eight of the most significant SNPs were tested for replication in a second case-control collection (557 African American non-DM ESRD cases and 187 controls), and there was no evidence of association in replicate cases and controls; nor when the samples were combined for a total of 874 non-DM cases and 541 controls. Cox proportional hazards models were computed to test for association between polymorphisms in klotho and age at onset of ESRD. A three-SNP haplotype, rs526906, rs525014 and rs571118 (T/T/A), was associated with age of onset of ESRD [P = 0.007, recessive model; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.70]. Subjects homozygous for this haplotype had a mean 4 years later onset of ESRD, suggesting a slower disease progression. HapMap subjects homozygous for this haplotype had increased expression of klotho, further supporting a protective role of this variant in ESRD.
Conclusion. We conclude that three SNPs in intron 1 of the klotho gene are associated with delayed age at onset of non-DM ESRD in African Americans.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfq214
PMCID: PMC2948839  PMID: 20466664
genetics; klotho; non-diabetic ESRD
15.  Differential Effects of MYH9 and APOL1 Risk Variants on FRMD3 Association with Diabetic ESRD in African Americans 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(6):e1002150.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MYH9 and APOL1 on chromosome 22 (c22) are powerfully associated with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans (AAs). Many AAs diagnosed with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) have non-diabetic kidney disease, potentially masking detection of DN genes. Therefore, genome-wide association analyses were performed using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 in 966 AA with T2DN and 1,032 non-diabetic, non-nephropathy (NDNN) controls, with and without adjustment for c22 nephropathy risk variants. No associations were seen between FRMD3 SNPs and T2DN before adjusting for c22 variants. However, logistic regression analysis revealed seven FRMD3 SNPs significantly interacting with MYH9—a finding replicated in 640 additional AA T2DN cases and 683 NDNN controls. Contrasting all 1,592 T2DN cases with all 1,671 NDNN controls, FRMD3 SNPs appeared to interact with the MYH9 E1 haplotype (e.g., rs942280 interaction p-value = 9.3E−7 additive; odds ratio [OR] 0.67). FRMD3 alleles were associated with increased risk of T2DN only in subjects lacking two MYH9 E1 risk haplotypes (rs942280 OR = 1.28), not in MYH9 E1 risk allele homozygotes (rs942280 OR = 0.80; homogeneity p-value = 4.3E−4). Effects were weaker stratifying on APOL1. FRMD3 SNPS were associated with T2DN, not type 2 diabetes per se, comparing AAs with T2DN to those with diabetes lacking nephropathy. T2DN-associated FRMD3 SNPs were detectable in AAs only after accounting for MYH9, with differential effects for APOL1. These analyses reveal a role for FRMD3 in AA T2DN susceptibility and accounting for c22 nephropathy risk variants can assist in detecting DN susceptibility genes.
Author Summary
African Americans have high rates of kidney disease attributed to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, approximately 25% of patients are misclassified and have non-diabetic kidney disease on renal biopsy. The APOL1-MYH9 gene region on chromosome 22 is powerfully associated with non-diabetic kidney diseases in African Americans. Therefore, we tested for interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome with APOL1 and MYH9 non-diabetic nephropathy risk variants in African Americans with presumed diabetic nephropathy. Markers in FRMD3, a gene associated with type 1 diabetic nephropathy in Caucasians, appeared to interact with MYH9; however, increased nephropathy risk was seen in diabetic cases lacking two MYH9 risk haplotypes, and protective effects were seen in those with two MYH9 risk haplotypes. Stratified analyses based on the chromosome 22 nephropathy risk haplotypes demonstrated that FRMD3 variants were associated with diabetic nephropathy risk in cases without two MYH9 (or APOL1) risk haplotypes. It appears that African Americans with diabetes and kidney disease who are not chromosome 22 nephropathy risk variant homozygotes are enriched for the presence of diabetic nephropathy and FRMD3 risk alleles. This genetic dissection ultimately allowed for detection of the FRMD3 diabetic nephropathy gene association in a subset of cases enriched for this disorder.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002150
PMCID: PMC3116917  PMID: 21698141
16.  Is Collapsing C1q Nephropathy Another MYH9-Associated Kidney Disease? A Case Report 
C1q nephropathy is a rare kidney disease that can present with nephrotic syndrome and typically has the histological phenotype of either minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Disagreement exists as to whether it is a distinct immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy or whether it resides in the spectrum of FSGS-MCD. Two African American patients with C1q nephropathy histologically presenting as the collapsing variant of FSGS (collapsing C1q nephropathy) and rapid loss of kidney function were genotyped for polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9). Both cases were homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype; the variant strongly associated with idiopathic FSGS, collapsing FSGS in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated nephropathy and focal global glomerulosclerosis (historically attributed to hypertensive nephrosclerosis). Collapsing C1q nephropathy with rapid progression to ESRD appears to reside in the MYH9-associated disease spectrum.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.10.060
PMCID: PMC2864358  PMID: 20116156
African American; C1q nephropathy; collapsing variant; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; HIVAN; MYH9
17.  Genetic Analysis of Diabetic Nephropathy on Chromosome 18 in African Americans: Linkage Analysis and Dense SNP Mapping 
Human genetics  2009;126(6):805-817.
Genetic studies in Turkish, Native American, European American, and African American (AA) families have linked chromosome 18q21.1-23 to susceptibility for diabetes associated nephropathy. In this study we have carried out fine linkage mapping in the 18q region previously linked to diabetic nephropathy in AAs by genotyping both microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage analysis in an expanded set of 223 AA families multiplexed for type 2 diabetes associated ESRD (T2DM-ESRD). Several approaches were used to evaluate evidence of linkage with the strongest evidence for linkage in ordered subset analysis with an earlier age of T2DM diagnosis compared to the remaining pedigrees (LOD 3.9 at 90.1cM, ΔP=0.0161, NPL P value = 0.00002). Overall, the maximum LODs and LOD-1 intervals vary in magnitude and location depending upon analysis. The linkage mapping was followed up by performing a dense SNP map, genotyping 2,814 SNPs in the refined LOD-1 region in 1,029 AA T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,027 AA controls. Of the top 25 most associated SNPs, 10 resided within genic regions. Two candidate genes stood out: NEDD4L and SERPINB7. SNP rs512099, located in intron 1 of NEDD4L, was associated under a dominant model of inheritance (P value = 0.0006; Odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) (OR (95%CI)) = 0.70 (0.57-0.86)). SNP rs1720843, located in intron 2 of SERPINB7, was associated under a recessive model of inheritance (P value = 0.0017; OR (95% CI) = 0.65 (0.50-0.85)). Collectively, these results suggest that multiple genes in this region may influence diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in AAs.
doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0732-8
PMCID: PMC2937163  PMID: 19690890
African American; diabetes type 2; nephropathy; linkage analysis; SNP; association analysis
18.  Association of Trypanolytic ApoL1 Variants with Kidney Disease in African-Americans 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;329(5993):841-845.
African-Americans have higher rates of kidney disease than European-Americans. Here we show that in African-Americans, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertension-attributed end-stage kidney disease (H-ESKD) are associated with two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene on chromosome 22 [FSGS odds ratio = 10.5 (95% CI 6.0–18.4); H-ESKD odds ratio = 7.3 (95% CI 5.6–9.5)]. The two APOL1 variants are common in African chromosomes but absent from European chromosomes and both reside within haplotypes that harbor signatures of positive selection. ApoL1 is a serum factor that lyses trypanosomes. In vitro assays revealed that only the kidney disease-associated ApoL1 variants lysed Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. We speculate that evolution of a critical survival factor in Africa may have contributed to the high rates of renal disease in African-Americans.
doi:10.1126/science.1193032
PMCID: PMC2980843  PMID: 20647424
19.  Non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene MYH9 associations in African Americans with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated ESRD 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2009;24(11):3366-3371.
Background. Although MYH9 is strongly associated with biopsy-proven idiopathic and HIV-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and clinically diagnosed ‘hypertension-associated’ end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans, its role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-associated ESRD is unclear.
Methods. To assess whether MYH9 was associated with T2DM-ESRD, 751 African Americans with T2DM-ESRD, 227 with T2DM lacking nephropathy and 925 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls were genotyped for 14 MYH9 SNPs. Association analyses used SNPGWA and Dandelion.
Results. Comparing T2DM-ESRD cases with non-diabetic controls, single SNP associations were detected with 8 of 14 SNPs, gender- and admixture-adjusted P-values 0.047–0.005 [recessive model, odds ratio (OR) range 1.30–1.55]. The previously associated MYH9 E1 and L1 haplotypes were associated with T2DM-ESRD (E1: OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.56, P = 0.021 recessive and L1: OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09–1.87, P = 0.009 dominant). Contrasting the 751 T2DM-ESRD cases with 227 T2DM non-nephropathy controls revealed that E1 haplotype SNPs rs4821480, rs2032487 and rs4821481 were associated with kidney failure (OR 1.38–1.40 recessive, all P < 0.048). Among E1 and L1 risk homozygotes, respectively, mean (SD) diabetes duration prior to renal replacement therapy was 16.6 (9.7) and 16.4 (10.0) years, and 65% had diabetic retinopathy.
Conclusions. Genetic dissection of T2DM-associated ESRD reveals that MYH9 underlies a portion of this clinically diagnosed disorder in African Americans. It is likely that a subset of African Americans with T2DM and coincident nephropathy have primary MYH9-related kidney disease (e.g. FSGS or global glomerulosclerosis), although renal biopsy studies need to be performed.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfp316
PMCID: PMC2910323  PMID: 19567477
African American; diabetic nephropathy; kidney; MYH9; type 2 diabetes mellitus
20.  The Influence of Carnosinase Gene Polymorphisms on Diabetic Nephropathy Risk in African Americans 
Human genetics  2009;126(2):265-275.
Four genome wide linkage scans for diabetic nephropathy have mapped susceptibility loci to chromosome 18q22.3-23 in the region of the carnosinase genes, CNDP1 and CNDP2. CNDP1 has been associated with diabetic nephropathy in Europeans and European Americans, but not African Americans. Individuals homozygous for a five tri-nucleotide repeat allele (5L; D18S880) are protected from diabetic nephropathy. We identified 64 variants after sequencing the exons, promoter, and 3′ UTR of CNDP1 and CNDP2 in African American and European American DNA samples. After scanning 44 of these variants, extensive genotyping of 12 SNPs and D18S880 was performed in 1025 African American cases with type 2 diabetes (DM)-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 1064 African American non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls to assess whether the carnosinase genes influence risk for DM-ESRD in African Americans. Evidence of association with DM-ESRD was seen with 2 SNPs: rs6566810 and rs4892247; 3 two-marker haplotypes: rs6566810 and rs17089362, rs17089362 and rs890336, and rs890334 and rs12717111 (global empirical p=0.0034, 0.0275, and 0.0002 respectively) and 3 three-marker haplotypes: rs6566810, rs17089362, and rs890336; rs890335, rs890334, and rs12717111; and rs890334, rs12717111, and D18S880 (global empirical p=0.0074, 1.5E-05, and 0.0032 respectively). The risk haplotypes (rs6566810, rs17089362 [A,T] and rs6566810, rs17089362, rs890336 [A,T,C]) were most strongly associated with DM-ESRD among African Americans in the non 5L-5L group. Variants in the carnosinase genes appear to contribute to diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in African Americans. Protection from diabetic nephropathy afforded by 5L-5L homozygosity in CNDP1 may be masked by the effects of additional risk haplotypes in CNDP1 and CNDP2.
doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0667-0
PMCID: PMC2885788  PMID: 19373489
African Americans; carnosinase; End Stage Renal Disease; DNA polymorphisms; type 2 diabetes; nephropathy
21.  Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with Blood Pressure in Predominantly 25-hydroxyvitamin D Deficient Hispanic and African Americans 
American journal of hypertension  2009;22(8):867-870.
Background
Several observational studies have recently suggested an inverse association of circulating levels of vitamin D with blood pressure. These findings have been based mainly on Caucasian populations; whether this association also exists among Hispanic and African Americans has yet to be definitively determined. This study investigates the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) with blood pressure in Hispanic and African Americans.
Methods
The data source for this study is the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS), which consists of Hispanic- and African-American families from three U.S. recruitment centers (n=1334). A variance components model was used to analyze the association of plasma 25[OH]D levels with blood pressure.
Results
An inverse association was found between 25[OH]D and both systolic (β for 10 ng/mL difference= −2.05; p<0.01) and diastolic (β for 10 ng/mL difference= −1.35; p<0.001) blood pressure in all populations combined, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity and season of blood draw. Further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) weakened this association (β for 10 ng/mL difference= −0.94; p=0.14 and β for 10 ng/mL difference = −0.64; p=0.09, respectively).
Conclusions
25[OH]D levels are significantly inversely associated with blood pressure in Hispanic and African Americans from the IRASFS. However, this association was not significant after adjustment for BMI. Further research is needed to determine the role of BMI in this association. Large, well-designed prospective studies of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure may be warranted.
doi:10.1038/ajh.2009.88
PMCID: PMC2865679  PMID: 19444222
Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; blood pressure; hypertension; race; ethnic groups; Hispanic; African American
22.  Dense mapping of MYH9 localizes the strongest kidney disease associations to the region of introns 13 to 15 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;19(9):1805-1815.
Admixture mapping recently identified MYH9 as a susceptibility gene for idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and end-stage kidney disease attributed to hypertension (H-ESKD) in African Americans (AA). MYH9 encodes the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA, a cellular motor involved in motility. A haplotype and its tagging SNPs spanning introns 12–23 were most strongly associated with kidney disease (OR 2–7; P < 10−8, recessive). To narrow the region of association and identify potential causal variation, we performed a dense-mapping study using 79 MYH9 SNPs in AA populations with FSGS, HIVAN and H-ESKD (typed for a subset of 46 SNPs), for a total of 2496 cases and controls. The strongest associations were for correlated SNPs rs5750250, rs2413396 and rs5750248 in introns 13, 14 and 15, a region of 5.6 kb. Rs5750250 showed OR 5.0, 8.0 and 2.8; P = 2 × 10−17, 2 × 10−10 and 3 × 10−22, respectively, for FSGS, HIVAN and H-ESKD; OR 5.7; P = 9 × 10−27 for combined FSGS and HIVAN, recessive. An independent association was observed for rs11912763 in intron 33. Neither the highly associated SNPs nor the results of resequencing MYH9 in 40 HIVAN or FSGS cases and controls revealed non-synonymous changes that could account for the disease associations. Rs2413396 and one of the highly associated SNPs in intron 23, rs4821480, are predicted splicing motif modifiers. Rs5750250 combined with rs11912763 had receiver operator characteristic (ROC) C statistics of 0.80, 0.73 and 0.65 for HIVAN, FSGS and H-ESKD, respectively, allowing prediction of genetic risk by typing two SNPs.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq039
PMCID: PMC2850614  PMID: 20124285
23.  Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms With Type 2 Diabetes in an African American Population Enriched for Nephropathy 
Diabetes  2009;58(2):499-504.
OBJECTIVE—Polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) have been associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, in mostly European-derived populations.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A comprehensive association analysis of 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene was performed for type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in African Americans.
RESULTS—The minor allele (A) in a single SNP in intron 1 (rs182052) was associated with diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0015, odds ratio [OR] 1.37, CI 1.13–1.67, dominant model) in an African American sample of 851 case subjects with diabetic nephropathy and 871 nondiabetic control subjects in analyses incorporating adjustment for varying levels of racial admixture. This association remained significant after adjustment of the data for BMI, age, and sex (P = 0.0013–0.0004). We further tested this SNP for association with longstanding type 2 diabetes without nephropathy (n = 317), and evidence of association was also significant (P = 0.0054, OR 1.46, CI 1.12–1.91, dominant model) when compared with the same set of 871 nondiabetic control subjects. Combining the type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy samples into a single group of case subjects (n = 1,168) resulted in the most significant evidence of association (P = 0.0003, OR 1.40, CI 1.17–1.67, dominant model). Association tests between age at onset of type 2 diabetes and the rs182052 genotypes also revealed significant association between the presence of the minor allele (A/A or A/G) and earlier onset of type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS—The SNP rs182052 in intron 1 of the adiponectin gene is associated with type 2 diabetes in African Americans.
doi:10.2337/db08-0598
PMCID: PMC2628626  PMID: 19056609
24.  Polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) are strongly associated with end-stage renal disease historically attributed to hypertension in African Americans 
Kidney international  2009;75(7):736-745.
African Americans have high incidence rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) labeled as due to hypertension. As recent studies showed strong association with idiopathic and HIV-related focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene polymorphisms in this ethnic group, we tested for MYH9 associations in a variety of kidney diseases. Fifteen MYH9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated in 175 African Americans with chronic glomerulonephritis-associated ESRD, 696 African Americans reportedly with hypertension-associated ESRD, and 948 control subjects without kidney disease. Significant associations were detected with 14 of the 15 polymorphisms in all 871 non-diabetic patients with ESRD. In hypertension-associated ESRD cases alone, significant associations were found with 13 MYH9 polymorphisms and the previously reported E1 haplotype. Thus, hypertension-associated ESRD in African Americans is substantially related to MYH9 gene polymorphisms and this may explain the poor response to blood pressure control in those diagnosed with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. It is possible that many African Americans classified as having hypertension-associated ESRD have occult MYH9-associated segmental or global glomerulosclerosis. Our study shows that gene-environment and/or gene–gene interactions may initiate kidney disease in genetically susceptible individuals, because African Americans homozygous for MYH9 risk alleles do not universally develop kidney disease.
doi:10.1038/ki.2008.701
PMCID: PMC2698223  PMID: 19177153
African American; end-stage renal disease; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; hypertension; hypertensive nephrosclerosis; MYH9
25.  Polymorphisms in the Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain 9 Gene (MYH9) Are Associated with Albuminuria in Hypertensive African Americans: The HyperGEN Study 
American journal of nephrology  2009;29(6):626-632.
Background
MYH9 is a podocyte-expressed gene encoding nonmuscle myosin IIA that is associated with idiopathic and human immunodeficiency virus-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertensive end-stage renal disease in African Americans.
Methods
Four single nucleotide polymorphisms comprising the major MYH9 E1 risk haplotype were tested for association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) in 2,903 HyperGEN participants (1,458 African Americans (AA) in 895 families and 1,445 European Americans (EA) in 859 families) to determine the role of MYH9 in subclinical nephropathy. Association analyses employed general linear models in unrelated probands and generalized estimating equations in families. Adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes, BMI, medications, and mean arterial pressure separately in each race.
Results
Mean (SD) eGFR and ACR were 74.3 (16.0) ml/min/1.73 m2 and 20.3 (119.9) mg/g in EA, and 88.6 (20.9) ml/min/1.73 m2 and 76.8 (394.5) mg/g in AA (both p < 0.0001 across ethnicities). Urine ACR was associated with rs3752462 (p = 0.01) and rs4821481 (p = 0.05) in unrelated AA and with rs4821481 (p = 0.03), rs2032487 (p = 0.04) and the E1 3224 haplotype (p = 0.013) in AA families. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and the haplotype were not associated with ACR in EA or with eGFR in either ethnic group.
Conclusions
MYH9 variants are associated with albuminuria in hypertensive AA. The strength of the association was weaker than that in FSGS and hypertensive end-stage renal disease. MYH9 risk variants appear to be associated with primary FSGS with secondary hypertension, although nephrosclerosis may develop in response to hypertension in subjects homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype.
doi:10.1159/000194791
PMCID: PMC2749685  PMID: 19153477
African Americans; Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Essential hypertension; HyperGEN study; MYH9 gene

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