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author:("Ghosh, saurat")
1.  Genome wide association study of uric acid in Indian population and interaction of identified variants with Type 2 diabetes 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:21440.
Abnormal level of Serum Uric Acid (SUA) is an important marker and risk factor for complex diseases including Type 2 Diabetes. Since genetic determinant of uric acid in Indians is totally unexplored, we tried to identify common variants associated with SUA in Indians using Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). Association of five known variants in SLC2A9 and SLC22A11 genes with SUA level in 4,834 normoglycemics (1,109 in discovery and 3,725 in validation phase) was revealed with different effect size in Indians compared to other major ethnic population of the world. Combined analysis of 1,077 T2DM subjects (772 in discovery and 305 in validation phase) and normoglycemics revealed additional GWAS signal in ABCG2 gene. Differences in effect sizes of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene variants were observed between normoglycemics and T2DM patients. We identified two novel variants near long non-coding RNA genes AL356739.1 and AC064865.1 with nearly genome wide significance level. Meta-analysis and in silico replication in 11,745 individuals from AUSTWIN consortium improved association for rs12206002 in AL356739.1 gene to sub-genome wide association level. Our results extends association of SLC2A9, SLC22A11 and ABCG2 genes with SUA level in Indians and enrich the assemblages of evidence for SUA level and T2DM interrelationship.
PMCID: PMC4763273  PMID: 26902266
2.  Common Variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 Genes Confer Disease Susceptibility in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0147345.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified association with variants in X-linked CLDN2 and MORC4, and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in North American patients of European ancestry. We selected 9 variants from the reported GWAS and replicated the association with CP in Indian patients by genotyping 1807 unrelated Indians of Indo-European ethnicity, including 519 patients with CP and 1288 controls. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 83.62% and alcoholic in 16.38% of 519 patients. Our study confirmed a significant association of 2 variants in CLDN2 gene (rs4409525—OR 1.71, P = 1.38 x 10-09; rs12008279—OR 1.56, P = 1.53 x 10-04) and 2 variants in MORC4 gene (rs12688220—OR 1.72, P = 9.20 x 10-09; rs6622126—OR 1.75, P = 4.04x10-05) in Indian patients with CP. We also found significant association at PRSS1-PRSS2 locus (OR 0.60; P = 9.92 x 10-06) and SAMD12-TNFRSF11B (OR 0.49, 95% CI [0.31–0.78], P = 0.0027). A variant in the gene MORC4 (rs12688220) showed significant interaction with alcohol (OR for homozygous and heterozygous risk allele -14.62 and 1.51 respectively, P = 0.0068) suggesting gene-environment interaction. A combined analysis of the genes CLDN2 and MORC4 based on an effective risk allele score revealed a higher percentage of individuals homozygous for the risk allele in CP cases with 5.09 fold enhanced risk in individuals with 7 or more effective risk alleles compared with individuals with 3 or less risk alleles (P = 1.88 x 10-14). Genetic variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 genes were associated with CP in Indian patients.
PMCID: PMC4731142  PMID: 26820620
3.  Magnetism and exchange interaction of small rare-earth clusters; Tb as a representative 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:19676.
Here we follow, both experimentally and theoretically, the development of magnetism in Tb clusters from the atomic limit, adding one atom at a time. The exchange interaction is, surprisingly, observed to drastically increase compared to that of bulk, and to exhibit irregular oscillations as a function of the interatomic distance. From electronic structure theory we find that the theoretical magnetic moments oscillate with cluster size in exact agreement with experimental data. Unlike the bulk, the oscillation is not caused by the RKKY mechanism. Instead, the inter-atomic exchange is shown to be driven by a competition between wave-function overlap of the 5d shell and the on-site exchange interaction, which leads to a competition between ferromagnetic double-exchange and antiferromagnetic super-exchange. This understanding opens up new ways to tune the magnetic properties of rare-earth based magnets with nano-sized building blocks.
PMCID: PMC4726341  PMID: 26795239
4.  Smokeless tobacco consumption impedes metabolic, cellular, apoptotic and systemic stress pattern: A study on Government employees in Kolkata, India 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:18284.
Smokeless tobacco (SLT) remains a threat amongst a large population across the globe and particularly in India. The oral use of tobacco has been implicated to cause physiological stress leading to extreme toxicological challenge. The study included 47 SLT-users and 44 non-users providing a spectrum of pathophysiological, clinico-biochemical, antioxidant parameters, cell cycle progression study of PBMC and morphological changes of red blood cells (RBC). The expressions of p53, p21, Bax, Bcl-2, IL-6, TNF- α, Cox-2, iNOS were analyzed from thirteen representative SLT-users and twelve non-users. Difference in CRP, random glucose, serum cholesterol, TG, HLDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, neutrophil count, monocyte count, ESR, SOD (PBMC) and TBARS (RBC membrane) were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) between the studied groups. The current study confers crucial insight into SLT mediated effects on systemic toxicity and stress. This has challenged the metabolic condition leading to a rise in the inflammatory status, increased apoptosis and RBC membrane damage. The above findings were substantiated with metabolic, clinical and biochemical parameters. This is possibly the first ever in-depth report and remains an invaluable document on the fatal effects of SLT.
PMCID: PMC4680924  PMID: 26669667
5.  Polymorphisms in CaSR and CLDN14 Genes Associated with Increased Risk of Kidney Stone Disease in Patients from the Eastern Part of India 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0130790.
Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a major clinical problem imposing a large burden for both healthcare and economy globally. In India, the prevalence of kidney stone disease is rapidly increasing. This study aimed to evaluate the association between genetic defects in vitamin D receptor (VDR), calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) and claudin 14 (CLDN14) genes and kidney stone disease in patients from eastern India. We enrolled 200 consecutive kidney stone patients (age 18–60 years) (cases) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (controls). To identify genetic variants responsible for KSD, we performed sequence analysis of VDR, CaSR and CLDN14 genes. Four non-synonymous (rs1801725, rs1042636, rs1801726 and rs2228570), one synonymous (rs219780) and three intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs731236, rs219777 and rs219778) were identified. Genotype and allele frequency analysis of these SNPs revealed that, rs1801725 (Ala986Ser), rs1042636 (Arg990Gly) of CaSR gene and rs219778, rs219780 (Thr229Thr) of CLDN14 gene were significantly associated with KSD. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in subjects carrying 986Ser allele and calcium excretion was higher in subjects bearing 990Gly allele. In conclusion, rs1801725, rs1042636, rs219778 and rs219780 SNPs were associated with kidney stone risk in patients from the eastern part of India.
PMCID: PMC4480968  PMID: 26107257
6.  Combined genetic effects of EGLN1 and VWF modulate thrombotic outcome in hypoxia revealed by Ayurgenomics approach 
Extreme constitution “Prakriti” types of Ayurveda exhibit systemic physiological attributes. Our earlier genetic study has revealed differences in EGLN1, key modulator of hypoxia axis between Prakriti types. This was associated with differences in high altitude adaptation and susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). In this study we investigate other molecular differences that contribute to systemic attributes of Prakriti that would be relevant in predictive marker discovery.
Genotyping of 96 individuals of the earlier cohort was carried out in a panel of 2,800 common genic SNPs represented in Indian Genomic Variation Consortium (IGVC) panel from 24 diverse populations. Frequency distribution patterns of Prakriti differentiating variations (FDR correction P < 0.05) was studied in IGVC and 55 global populations (HGDP–CEPH) panels. Genotypic interactions between VWF, identified from the present analysis, and EGLN1 was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression in Prakriti and Indian populations from contrasting altitudes. Spearman’s Rank correlation was used to study this genotypic interaction with respect to altitude in HGDP–CEPH panel. Validation of functional link between EGLN1 and VWF was carried out in a mouse model using chemical inhibition and siRNA studies.
Significant differences in allele frequencies were observed in seven genes (SPTA1, VWF, OLR1, UCP2, OR6K3, LEPR, and OR10Z1) after FDR correction (P < 0.05). A non synonymous variation (C/T, rs1063856) associated with thrombosis/bleeding susceptibility respectively, differed significantly between Kapha (C-allele) and Pitta (T-allele) constitution types. A combination of derived EGLN1 allele (HAPE associated) and ancestral VWF allele (thrombosis associated) was significantly high in Kapha group compared to Pitta (p < 10–5). The combination of risk-associated Kapha alleles was nearly absent in natives of high altitude. Inhibition of EGLN1 using (DHB) and an EGLN1 specific siRNA in a mouse model lead to a marked increase in vWF levels as well as pro-thrombotic phenotype viz. reduced bleeding time and enhanced platelet count and activation.
We demonstrate for the first time a genetic link between EGLN1 and VWF in a constitution specific manner which could modulate thrombosis/bleeding susceptibility and outcomes of hypoxia. Integration of Prakriti in population stratification may help assemble common variations in key physiological axes that confers differences in disease occurrence and patho-phenotypic outcomes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0542-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4457985  PMID: 26047609
Endophenotypes; Prakriti; High altitude; Deep vein thrombosis; Ayurveda; Bleeding; rs1063856; rs480902; PHD2; Predictive medicine
7.  A novel transmission-based test of association for multivariate phenotypes: an application to systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels 
BMC Proceedings  2014;8(Suppl 1):S71.
Unlike case-control studies, family-based tests for association are protected against population stratification. Complex genetic traits are often governed by quantitative precursors and it has been argued that it may be a more powerful strategy to analyze these quantitative precursors instead of the clinical end point trait. Although methods have been developed for family-based association tests for single quantitative traits, it is of interest to develop such methods for multivariate phenotypes. We propose a novel transmission-based approach based on a trio design using a simple logistic regression to test for association with a multivariate phenotype. We use our proposed method to analyze data on systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels provided in Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. However, we find that the bivariate analysis of the two phenotypes did not provide more promising results compared to univariate analyses, suggesting a possibility of a different set of major genetic variants modulating the two phenotypes.
PMCID: PMC4143884  PMID: 25519341
8.  Association mapping of blood pressure levels in a longitudinal framework using binomial regression 
BMC Proceedings  2014;8(Suppl 1):S74.
Heritable quantitative characters underline complex genetic traits. However, a single quantitative phenotype may not be a suitably good surrogate for a clinical end point trait.
It may be more optimal to use a multivariate phenotype vector correlated with the end point trait to carry out an association analysis. Existing methods, such as variance components and principal components, suffer from inherent limitations, such as lack of robustness or difficulty in biological interpretation of association findings. In an effort to circumvent these limitations, we propose a novel regression approach based on a conditional binomial model to detect association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism and a multivariate phenotype vector. We use our proposed method to analyze data on systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels provided in Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. We find that the bivariate analysis of the two phenotypes yields more promising results in terms of lower p-values compared to univariate analyses.
PMCID: PMC4143679  PMID: 25519402
9.  Genetic Analysis Workshop 18: Methods and strategies for analyzing human sequence and phenotype data in members of extended pedigrees 
BMC Proceedings  2014;8(Suppl 1):S1.
Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 provided a platform for developing and evaluating statistical methods to analyze whole-genome sequence data from a pedigree-based sample. In this article we present an overview of the data sets and the contributions that analyzed these data. The family data, donated by the Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Exploration by Next-Generation Sequencing in Ethnic Samples Consortium, included sequence-level genotypes based on sequencing and imputation, genome-wide association genotypes from prior genotyping arrays, and phenotypes from longitudinal assessments. The contributions from individual research groups were extensively discussed before, during, and after the workshop in theme-based discussion groups before being submitted for publication.
PMCID: PMC4143625  PMID: 25519310
10.  Genome-Wide Association Study for Type 2 Diabetes in Indians Identifies a New Susceptibility Locus at 2q21 
Diabetes  2013;62(3):977-986.
Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes–associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10−9). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10−12) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely the same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D.
PMCID: PMC3581193  PMID: 23209189
13.  Histologically proven epithelial ingrowth in failed Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) managed by repeat DSAEK 
To report a case of corneal graft failure due to epithelial ingrowth after an uneventful combined Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens implant treated successfully with a repeat DSAEK.
A 77-year-old male patient underwent combined DSAEK and phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implant implantation for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy plus cataract in the right eye. The donor cornea was cut on the Moria ALTK system and introduced using a suture pull-through technique. After an episode of endothelial rejection, the graft failed, with signs suggesting epithelial ingrowth. It was stripped from the host cornea using a Descemet’s membrane stripper, and a Simcoe irrigation-aspiration cannula was used to remove all traces of interface material. The excised lenticule was examined histologically using a hematoxylin and eosin stain.
The patient regained and maintained excellent visual acuity with no sign of recurrence of epithelial ingrowth. Histopathological evaluation of the donor tissue of the first graft showed epithelial ingrowth on the stromal surface of the graft and very few endothelial cells, in keeping with the diagnosis of graft failure.
Epithelial ingrowth is a possible cause of endothelial graft failure, but histologically proven cases are rare. Surgical intervention can achieve successful clearance, with the potential for cure and an excellent outcome.
PMCID: PMC3674752  PMID: 23754868
epithelial ingrowth; Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty; graft failure
14.  Effect of Population Stratification On False Positive Rates Of Population-based Association Analyses Of Quantitative Traits 
Annals of Human Genetics  2012;76(3):237-245.
It is now well established that population stratification can result in spurious association findings in genetic case-control studies. However, very few studies have addressed similar issues for mapping quantitative traits. Since quantitative phenotypes are often precursors of clinical end-point traits and carry more information on within-genotype trait variability, it has been argued that studying these quantitative traits may be a more powerful strategy to map genes than the binary clinical end-points. Thus, it is of interest to evaluate the adverse effects of population stratification on the analyses of quantitative traits. The popular statistical tests of association for quantitative traits using population level data are ANOVA, linear regression with an additive allelic effect and Kruskal-Wallis. We have theoretically studied the marginal effects of genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic heterogeneity as well as their joint effects on the false positive rate of the three tests mentioned above. We have carried out extensive simulations under different genetic models and probability distributions of quantitative traits to assess the rate of false positives in the presence of population stratification. We find that the rate of false positives increases at a very fast rate with simultaneous increase in differences in the standardized phenotypic means and marker allele frequencies in the subpopulations.
PMCID: PMC3334349  PMID: 22497479
allelic additivity; ANOVA; genetic heterogeneity; Kruskal-Wallis test; phenotypic heterogeneity
15.  Common Variants of IL6, LEPR, and PBEF1 Are Associated With Obesity in Indian Children 
Diabetes  2012;61(3):626-631.
The increasing prevalence of obesity in urban Indian children is indicative of an impending crisis of metabolic disorders. Although perturbations in the secretion of adipokines and inflammatory molecules in childhood obesity are well documented, the contribution of common variants of genes encoding them is not well investigated. We assessed the association of 125 common variants from 21 genes, encoding adipocytokines and inflammatory markers in 1,325 urban Indian children (862 normal weight [NW group] and 463 overweight/obese [OW/OB group]) and replicated top loci in 1,843 Indian children (1,399 NW children and 444 OW/OB children). Variants of four genes (PBEF1 [rs3801266] [P = 4.5 × 10−4], IL6 [rs2069845] [P = 8.7 × 10−4], LEPR [rs1137100] [P = 1.8 × 10−3], and IL6R [rs7514452] [P = 2.1 × 10−3]) were top signals in the discovery sample. Associations of rs2069845, rs1137100, and rs3801266 were replicated (P = 7.9 × 10−4, 8.3 × 10−3, and 0.036, respectively) and corroborated in meta-analysis (P = 2.3 × 10−6, 3.9 × 10−5, and 4.3 × 10−4, respectively) that remained significant after multiple testing corrections. These variants also were associated with quantitative measures of adiposity (weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences). Allele dosage analysis of rs2069845, rs1137100, and rs3801266 revealed that children with five to six risk alleles had an approximately four times increased risk of obesity than children with less than two risk alleles (P = 1.2 × 10−7). In conclusion, our results demonstrate the association of the common variants of IL6, LEPR, and PBEF1 with obesity in Indian children.
PMCID: PMC3282821  PMID: 22228719
16.  Comprehensive SNP Scan of DNA Repair and DNA Damage Response Genes Reveal Multiple Susceptibility Loci Conferring Risk to Tobacco Associated Leukoplakia and Oral Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56952.
Polymorphic variants of DNA repair and damage response genes play major role in carcinogenesis. These variants are suspected as predisposition factors to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). For identification of susceptible variants affecting OSCC development in Indian population, the “maximally informative” method of SNP selection from HapMap data to non-HapMap populations was applied. Three hundred twenty-five SNPs from 11 key genes involved in double strand break repair, mismatch repair and DNA damage response pathways were genotyped on a total of 373 OSCC, 253 leukoplakia and 535 unrelated control individuals. The significantly associated SNPs were validated in an additional cohort of 144 OSCC patients and 160 controls. The rs12515548 of MSH3 showed significant association with OSCC both in the discovery and validation phases (discovery P-value: 1.43E-05, replication P-value: 4.84E-03). Two SNPs (rs12360870 of MRE11A, P-value: 2.37E-07 and rs7003908 of PRKDC, P-value: 7.99E-05) were found to be significantly associated only with leukoplakia. Stratification of subjects based on amount of tobacco consumption identified SNPs that were associated with either high or low tobacco exposed group. The study reveals a synergism between associated SNPs and lifestyle factors in predisposition to OSCC and leukoplakia.
PMCID: PMC3577702  PMID: 23437280
17.  Common Variants of FTO Are Associated with Childhood Obesity in a Cross-Sectional Study of 3,126 Urban Indian Children 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47772.
FTO variants are robustly associated with obesity and related traits in many population and shown to have variable impact during life course. Although studies have shown association of FTO variants with adiposity in adult Indian, its association in Indian children is yet to be confirmed.
Here we examined association of FTO variants (rs9939609 and rs8050136) with obesity and related anthropometric and biochemical traits in 3,126 Indian children (aged 11–17 years) including 2,230 normal-weight and 896 over-weight/obese children. We also compared effects observed in the present study with that observed in previous studies on South Asian adults and children of other ethnic groups.
The variant rs9939609 showed significant association with risk of obesity [OR = 1.21, P = 2.5×10−3] and its measures BMI, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference [β range = 0.11 to 0.14 Z-score units; P range = 1.3×10−4 to 1.6×10−7] in children. The observed effect sizes in Indian children were similar to those reported for European children. Variant rs9939609 explained 0.88% of BMI variance in Indian children. The effect sizes of rs9939609 on BMI and WC were ∼2 fold higher in children than adults. Interestingly rs9939609 was also associated with serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) [β = 0.10 Z-score, P = 5.8×10−3]. The other variant rs8050136 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs9939609 (r2 = 0.97) and provided similar association results.
The study provides first report of association of FTO variants with obesity and related anthropometric traits in Indian children with higher impact in children compared to adults. We also demonstrated association of FTO variant with serum levels of TSH, indicating putative influence of FTO in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.
PMCID: PMC3472993  PMID: 23091647
18.  Association between polymorphisms at N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) & risk of oral leukoplakia & cancer 
Background & objectives:
N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) are important enzymes for metabolism of tobacco carcinogens. Due to polymorphisms, improper activities of these enzymes might lead to the formation of DNA adducts that may modulate risk of tobacco related oral precancer and cancer. Previously, it was shown that NAT2 polymorphisms did not modulate the risk of oral precancer and cancer. We undertook this study to check whether polymorphisms at NAT1 can modulate the risk of oral leukoplakia and cancer either alone or in combination with NAT2.
Genotypes at four SNPs on NAT1 were determined by TaqMan method in 389 controls, 224 leukoplakia and 310 cancer patients. Genotype data were analyzed to know haplotypes and acetylation status of individuals and, then to estimate the risk of diseases. Using our previously published NAT2 data, combination of NAT1 and NAT2 acetylation genotypes of patients and controls were also analyzed to estimate the risk of diseases.
Analysis of NAT1 genotype data revealed that 1088T and 1095C alleles exist in strong linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.97, P<0.0001) and SNPs are in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (P=0.1). Wild type or normal acetylating and variant or rapid acetylating alleles were two major alleles (frequencies 0.62 and 0.36, respectively) present in the control population. NAT1 rapid acetylation could not modulate the risk of leukoplakia and cancer (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.6-1.3; OR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.7-1.4, respectively). Analysis of combined NAT1 and NAT2 acetylating data also showed no significant enhancement of the risk of diseases.
Interpretation & conclusions:
NAT1 rapid acetylation alone as well as combination of NAT1 rapid-NAT2 slow acetylation did not modulate the risk of oral precancer and cancer in our patient population. So, NAT1/NAT2 metabolized carcinogen products may not be involved in tobacco related oral precancer and cancer. It may be interpreted that large sample size as well as combination of polymorphisms at other candidate loci may be important to estimate the risk of a complex disease like oral cancer.
PMCID: PMC3516028  PMID: 23168701
Combination of polymorphisms; leukoplakia; NAT1; NAT2; oral cancer
19.  Genetic Variant of AMD1 Is Associated with Obesity in Urban Indian Children 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e33162.
Hyperhomocysteinemia is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity. Manifestation of these chronic metabolic disorders starts in early life marked by increase in body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that perturbations in homocysteine metabolism in early life could be a link between childhood obesity and adult metabolic disorders. Thus here we investigated association of common variants from homocysteine metabolism pathway genes with obesity in 3,168 urban Indian children.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We genotyped 90 common variants from 18 genes in 1,325 children comprising of 862 normal-weight (NW) and 463 over-weight/obese (OW/OB) children in stage 1. The top signal obtained was replicated in an independent sample set of 1843 children (1,399 NW and 444 OW/OB) in stage 2. Stage 1 association analysis revealed association between seven variants and childhood obesity at P<0.05, but association of only rs2796749 in AMD1 [OR = 1.41, P = 1.5×10-4] remained significant after multiple testing correction. Association of rs2796749 with childhood obesity was validated in stage 2 [OR = 1.28, P = 4.2×10-3] and meta-analysis [OR = 1.35, P = 1.9×10-6]. AMD1 variant rs2796749 was also associated with quantitative measures of adiposity and plasma leptin levels that was also replicated and corroborated in combined analysis.
Our study provides first evidence for the association of AMD1 variant with obesity and plasma leptin levels in children. Further studies to confirm this association, its functional significance and mechanism of action need to be undertaken.
PMCID: PMC3322123  PMID: 22496743
20.  Identifying rare variants from exome scans: the GAW17 experience 
BMC Proceedings  2011;5(Suppl 9):S1.
Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) provided a platform for evaluating existing statistical genetic methods and for developing novel methods to analyze rare variants that modulate complex traits. In this article, we present an overview of the 1000 Genomes Project exome data and simulated phenotype data that were distributed to GAW17 participants for analyses, the different issues addressed by the participants, and the process of preparation of manuscripts resulting from the discussions during the workshop.
PMCID: PMC3287821  PMID: 22373325
21.  Integrating binary traits with quantitative phenotypes for association mapping of multivariate phenotypes 
BMC Proceedings  2011;5(Suppl 9):S73.
Clinical binary end-point traits are often governed by quantitative precursors. Hence it may be a prudent strategy to analyze a clinical end-point trait by considering a multivariate phenotype vector, possibly including both quantitative and qualitative phenotypes. A major statistical challenge lies in integrating the constituent phenotypes into a reduced univariate phenotype for association analyses. We assess the performances of certain reduced phenotypes using analysis of variance and a model-free quantile-based approach. We find that analysis of variance is more powerful than the quantile-based approach in detecting association, particularly for rare variants. We also find that using a principal component of the quantitative phenotypes and the residual of a logistic regression of the binary phenotype on the quantitative phenotypes may be an optimal method for integrating a binary phenotype with quantitative phenotypes to define a reduced univariate phenotype.
PMCID: PMC3287913  PMID: 22373144
22.  Common Variants of Homocysteine Metabolism Pathway Genes and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Related Traits in Indians 
Experimental Diabetes Research  2011;2012:960318.
Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disorder, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, is prevalent among Indians who are at high risk of these metabolic disorders. We evaluated association of common variants of genes involved in homocysteine metabolism or its levels with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits in North Indians. We genotyped 90 variants in initial phase (2.115 subjects) and replicated top signals in an independent sample set (2.085 subjects). The variant MTHFR-rs1801133 was the top signal for association with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.78 (95%  CI = 0.67–0.92), P = 0.003) and was also associated with 2 h postload plasma glucose (P = 0.04), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.004), and total cholesterol (P = 0.01) in control subjects. These associations were neither replicated nor significant after meta-analysis. Studies involving a larger study population and different ethnic groups are required before ruling out the role of these important candidate genes in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits.
PMCID: PMC3179901  PMID: 21960995
23.  Common Variants in CRP and LEPR Influence High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in North Indians 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24645.
High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels are shown to be influenced by genetic variants in Europeans; however, little is explored in Indian population.
Herein, we comprehensively evaluated association of all previously reported genetic determinants of hsCRP levels, including 18 cis (proximal to CRP gene) and 73 trans-acting (distal to CRP gene) variants in 4,200 North Indians of Indo-European ethnicity. First, we evaluated association of 91 variants from 12 candidate loci with hsCRP levels in 2,115 North Indians (1,042 non-diabetic subjects and 1,073 patients with type 2 diabetes). Then, cis and trans-acting variants contributing maximally to hsCRP level variation were further replicated in an independent 2,085 North Indians (1,047 patients with type 2 diabetes and 1,038 non-diabetic subjects).
We found association of 12 variants from CRP, LEPR, IL1A, IL6, and IL6R with hsCRP levels in non-diabetic subjects. However, only rs3093059-CRP [β = 0.33, P = 9.6×10−5] and the haplotype harboring rs3093059 risk allele [β = 0.32 µg/mL, P = 1.4×10−4/Pperm = 9.0×10−4] retained significance after correcting for multiple testing. The cis-acting variant rs3093059-CRP had maximum contribution to the variance in hsCRP levels (1.14%). Among, trans-acting variants, rs1892534-LEPR was observed to contribute maximally to hsCRP level variance (0.59%). Associations of rs3093059-CRP and rs1892534-LEPR were confirmed by replication and attained higher significance after meta-analysis [βmeta = 0.26/0.22; Pmeta = 4.3×10−7/7.4×10−3 and βmeta = −0.15/−0.12; Pmeta = 2.0×10−6/1.6×10−6 for rs3093059 and rs1892534, respectively in non-diabetic subjects and all subjects taken together].
In conclusion, we identified rs3093059 in CRP and rs1892534 in LEPR as major cis and trans-acting contributor respectively, to the variance in hsCRP levels in North Indian population.
PMCID: PMC3169613  PMID: 21931794
24.  No association of TNFRSF1B variants with type 2 diabetes in Indians of Indo-European origin 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:110.
There has been no systematic evaluation of the association between genetic variants of type 2 receptor for TNFα (TNFR2) and type 2 diabetes, despite strong biological evidence for the role of this receptor in the pathogenesis of this complex disorder. In view of this, we performed a comprehensive association analysis of TNFRSF1B variants with type 2 diabetes in 4,200 Indo-European subjects from North India.
The initial phase evaluated association of seven SNPs viz. rs652625, rs496888, rs6697733, rs945439, rs235249, rs17883432 and rs17884213 with type 2 diabetes in 2,115 participants (1,073 type 2 diabetes patients and 1,042 control subjects). Further, we conducted replication analysis of three associated SNPs in 2,085 subjects (1,047 type 2 diabetes patients and 1,038 control subjects).
We observed nominal association of rs945439, rs235249 and rs17884213 with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.05) in the initial phase. Haplotype CC of rs945439 and rs235249 conferred increased susceptibility for type 2 diabetes [OR = 1.19 (95%CI 1.03-1.37), P = 0.019/Pperm = 0.076] whereas, TG haplotype of rs235249 and rs17884213 provided protection against type 2 diabetes [OR = 0.83 (95%CI 0.72-0.95, P = 7.2 × 10-3/Pperm = 0.019]. We also observed suggestive association of rs496888 with plasma hsCRP levels [P = 0.042]. However, the association of rs945439, rs235249 and rs17884213 with type 2 diabetes was not replicated in the second study population. Meta-analysis of the two studies also failed to detect any association with type 2 diabetes.
Our two-stage association analysis suggests that TNFRSF1B variants are not the determinants of genetic risk of type 2 diabetes in North Indians.
PMCID: PMC3179441  PMID: 21849023
25.  Impact of Common Variants of PPARG, KCNJ11, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A, IGF2BP2, and CDKAL1 on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in 5,164 Indians 
Diabetes  2010;59(8):2068-2074.
Common variants in PPARG, KCNJ11, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A, IGF2BP2, and CDKAL1 genes have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes in European populations by genome-wide association studies. We have studied the association of common variants in these eight genes with type 2 diabetes and related traits in Indians by combining the data from two independent case–control studies.
We genotyped eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (PPARG-rs1801282, KCNJ11-rs5219, TCF7L2-rs7903146, SLC30A8-rs13266634, HHEX-rs1111875, CDKN2A-rs10811661, IGF2BP2-rs4402960, and CDKAL1-rs10946398) in 5,164 unrelated Indians of Indo-European ethnicity, including 2,486 type 2 diabetic patients and 2,678 ethnically matched control subjects.
We confirmed the association of all eight loci with type 2 diabetes with odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.18 to 1.89 (P = 1.6 × 10−3 to 4.6 × 10−34). The strongest association with the highest effect size was observed for TCF7L2 (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.71–2.09], P = 4.6 × 10−34). We also found significant association of PPARG and TCF7L2 with homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (P = 6.9 × 10−8 and 3 × 10−4, respectively), which looked consistent with recessive and under-dominant models, respectively.
Our study replicates the association of well-established common variants with type 2 diabetes in Indians and shows larger effect size for most of them than those reported in Europeans.
PMCID: PMC2911051  PMID: 20424228

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