Insulin resistance is not fully explained on a molecular level, though several genes and proteins have been tied to this defect. Knockdowns of the SEPP1 gene, which encodes the Selenoprotein P (SeP) protein, have been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in mice. SeP is a liver-derived plasma protein and a major supplier of selenium, which is a proposed insulin mimetic and antidiabetic agent.
SEPP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for analysis with glucometabolic measures.
Participants and Measures
1424 Hispanics from families in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Additionally, the multi-ethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study was used. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was used to obtain precise measures of acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (SI).
21 SEPP1 SNPs (tagging SNPs (n=12) from HapMap, 4 coding variants and 6 SNPs in the promoter region) were genotyped and analyzed for association.
Two highly correlated (r2=1) SNPs showed association with AIR (rs28919926; Cys368Arg; p=0.0028 and rs146125471; Ile293Met; p=0.0026) while rs16872779 (intronic) was associated with fasting insulin levels (p=0.0097). In the smaller IRAS Hispanic cohort, few of the associations seen in the IRASFS were replicated, but meta-analysis of IRASFS and all 3 IRAS cohorts (N= 2446) supported association of rs28919926 and rs146125471 with AIR (p=0.013 and 0.0047, respectively) as well as rs7579 with SI (p=0.047).
Overall, these results in a human sample are consistent with the literature suggesting a role for SEPP1 in insulin resistance.
Acute Insulin Response (AIR); Selenium; Selenoproteins; Insulin Resistance; Fibrinogen; Hispanic Americans
Linkage analysis of complex traits has had limited success in identifying trait-influencing loci. Recently, coding variants have been implicated as the basis for some biomedical associations. We tested whether coding variants are the basis for linkage peaks of complex traits in 42 African-American (n = 596) and 90 Hispanic (n = 1,414) families in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) using Illumina HumanExome Beadchips. A total of 92,157 variants in African Americans (34%) and 81,559 (31%) in Hispanics were polymorphic and tested using two-point linkage and association analyses with 37 cardiometabolic phenotypes. In African Americans 77 LOD scores greater than 3 were observed. The highest LOD score was 4.91 with the APOE SNP rs7412 (MAF = 0.13) with plasma apolipoprotein B (ApoB). This SNP was associated with ApoB (P-value = 4 × 10−19) and accounted for 16.2% of the variance in African Americans. In Hispanic families, 104 LOD scores were greater than 3. The strongest evidence of linkage (LOD = 4.29) was with rs5882 (MAF = 0.46) in CETP with HDL. CETP variants were strongly associated with HDL (0.00049 < P-value <4.6 × 10−12), accounting for up to 4.5% of the variance. These loci have previously been shown to have effects on the biomedical traits evaluated here. Thus, evidence of strong linkage in this genome wide survey of primarily coding variants was uncommon. Loci with strong evidence of linkage was characterized by large contributions to the variance, and, in these cases, are common variants. Less compelling evidence of linkage and association was observed with additional loci that may require larger family sets to confirm.
Hispanic; African American; genetic variance
Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has been implicated in a variety
of metabolic disorders, including T2D and cardiovascular disease. Studies
evaluating genetic variants in ADIPOQ have been
contradictory when testing association with T2D in different ethnic
Design and Methods
In this study, 18 SNPs in ADIPOQ were tested for
association with plasma adiponectin levels and diabetes status. SNPs were
examined in two independent African-American cohorts
(nmax=1116) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis
Family Study (IRASFS) and the African American-Diabetes Heart Study
Five polymorphisms were nominally associated with plasma adiponectin
levels in the meta-analysis
(p=0.035–1.02x10−6) including a low
frequency arginine to cysteine mutation (R55C) which reduced plasma
adiponectin levels to <15% of the mean. Variants were then tested
for association with T2D in a meta-analysis of these and the Wake Forest T2D
Case-Control study (n=3233 T2D, 2645 non-T2D). Association with T2D
was not observed (p≥0.08), suggesting limited influence of
ADIPOQ variants on T2D risk.
Despite identification of variants associated with adiponectin
levels, a detailed genetic analysis of ADIPOQ revealed no
association with T2D risk. This puts into question the role of adiponectin
in T2D pathogenesis: whether low adiponectin levels are truly causal for or
rather a consequence.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it remains unclear whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) provides additional information about cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality beyond the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) factors.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 1,123 T2DM participants, ages 34–86 years, in the Diabetes Heart Study followed up for an average of 7.4 years were separated using baseline computed tomography scans of CAC (0–9, 10–99, 100–299, 300–999, and ≥1,000). Logistic regression was performed to examine the association between CAC and CVD mortality adjusting for FRS. Areas under the curve (AUC) with and without CAC were compared. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) compared FRS (model 1) versus FRS+CAC (model 2) using 7.4-year CVD mortality risk categories 0% to <7%, 7% to <20%, and ≥20%.
Overall, 8% of participants died of cardiovascular causes during follow-up. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratios (95% CI) for CVD mortality using CAC 0–9 as the reference group were, CAC 10–99: 2.93 (0.74–19.55); CAC 100–299: 3.17 (0.70–22.22); CAC 300–999: 4.41(1.15–29.00); and CAC ≥1,000: 11.23 (3.24–71.00). AUC (95% CI) without CAC was 0.70 (0.67–0.73), AUC with CAC was 0.75 (0.72–0.78), and NRI was 0.13 (0.07–0.19).
In T2DM, CAC predicts CVD mortality and meaningfully reclassifies participants, suggesting clinical utility as a risk stratification tool in a population already at increased CVD risk.
Common genetic variation frequently accounts for only a modest amount of inter-individual variation in quantitative traits and complex disease susceptibility. Circulating adiponectin, an adipocytokine implicated in metabolic disease, is a model for assessing the contribution of genetic and clinical factors to quantitative trait variation. The adiponectin locus, ADIPOQ, is the primary source of genetically-mediated variation in plasma adiponectin levels. This study sought to define the genetic architecture of ADIPOQ in the comprehensively phenotyped Hispanic (n=1151) and African American (n=574) participants from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Through resequencing and bioinformatic analysis, rare/low frequency (<5% MAF) and common variants (>5% MAF) in ADIPOQ were identified. Genetic variants and clinical variables were assessed for association with adiponectin levels and contribution to adiponectin variance in the Hispanic and African American cohorts. Clinical traits accounted for the greatest proportion of variance (POV) at 31% (p=1.16×10−47) and 47% (p=5.82×10−20), respectively. Rare/low frequency variants contributed more than common variants to variance in Hispanics: POV=18% (p= 6.40×10−15) and POV=5% (p=0.19), respectively. In African Americans, rare/low frequency and common variants both contributed approximately equally to variance: POV=6% (p=5.44×10−12) and POV=9% (P=1.44×10−10), respectively. Importantly, single low frequency alleles in each ethnic group were as important as, or more important than, common variants in explaining variation in adiponectin. Cumulatively, these clinical and ethnicity-specific genetic contributors explained half or more of the variance in Hispanic and African Americans and provide new insight into the sources of variation for this important adipocytokine.
adiponectin; proportion of variation; rare variants; common variants; clinical traits
African Americans (AAs) are predisposed to non-diabetic (non-DM) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and studies have shown a genetic component to this risk. Rare mutations in ACTN4 (α-actinin-4) an actin binding protein expressed in podocytes cause familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
We assessed the contribution of coding variants in ACTN4 to non-DM ESRD risk in AAs. Nineteen exons, 2800 bases of the promoter and 392 bases of the 3’ untranslated region of ACTN4 were sequenced in 96 AA non-DM ESRD cases and 96 non-nephropathy controls (384 chromosomes). Sixty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 51 novel SNPs were identified. The SNPs comprised 33 intronic, 21 promoter, 12 exonic, and 1 3’ variant. Sixty-two of the SNPs were genotyped in 296 AA non-DM ESRD cases and 358 non-nephropathy controls.
One SNP, rs10404257, was associated with non-DM ESRD (p<1.0E-4, odds ratio (OR)=0.76, confidence interval (CI)=0.59–0.98; additive model). Forty-seven SNPs had minor allele frequencies less than 5%. These SNPs were segregated into risk and protective SNPs and each category was collapsed into a single marker, designated by the presence or absence of any rare allele. The presence of any rare allele at a risk SNP was significantly associated with non-DM ESRD (p = 0.001, dominant model). The SNPs with the strongest evidence for association (n = 20) were genotyped in an independent set of 467 non-DM ESRD cases and 279 controls. Although, rs10404257 was not associated in this replication sample, when the samples were combined rs10404257 was modestly associated (p=0.032, OR=0.78, CI=0.63–0.98; dominant model). SNPs were tested for interaction with markers in the APOL1 gene, previously associated with non-DM ESRD in AAs and rs10404257 was modestly associated (p = 0.0261, additive model).
This detailed evaluation of ACTN4 variation revealed limited evidence of association with non-DM ESRD in AAs.
ACTN4; non-diabetic ESRD; FSGS; kidney; hypertensive nephrosclerosis; African Americans
Genetic variants in myocardial sodium and potassium channel genes are associated with prolonged QT interval and increased risk of sudden death. It is unclear whether these genetic variants remain relevant in subjects with underlying conditions such as diabetes that are associated with prolonged QT interval.
We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five candidate genes for association with QT interval in a family-based study of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty-six previously reported SNPs were genotyped in KCNQ1, HERG, SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2 in 901 European Americans from 366 families. The heart rate-corrected (QTc) durations were determined using the Marquette 12SL program. Associations between the QTc interval and the genotypes were evaluated using SOLAR adjusting for age, gender, T2DM status, and body mass index.
Within KCNQ1 there was weak evidence for association between the minor allele of IVS12+14T>C and increased QTc (p=0.02). The minor allele of rs2236609 in KCNE1 trended toward significance with longer QTc (p=0.06), while the minor allele of rs1805123 in HERG trended toward significance with shorter QTc (p=0.07). However, no statistically significant associations were observed between the remaining SNPs and QTc variation.
We found weak evidence of association between three previously-reported SNPs and QTc interval duration. While it appears as though genetic variants in previously identified candidate genes may be associated with QT duration in subjects with diabetes, the clinical implications of these associations in diabetic subjects at high risk for sudden death remains to be determined.
QT interval; diabetes; association study; genetics; ion channels
Polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin IIA gene (MYH9) are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans and FSGS in European Americans. We tested for association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MYH9 with T2DM–ESRD in European Americans; additionally, three APOL1 gene variants were evaluated.
Fifteen MYH9 SNPs and two APOL1 SNPs plus a 6-bp deletion were genotyped in 1963 European Americans, 536 cases with T2DM–ESRD and 1427 non-nephropathy controls (467 with T2DM and 960 without diabetes).
Comparing T2DM–ESRD cases with the 467 T2DM non-nephropathy controls, single variant associations trending toward significance were detected with SNPs rs4821480, rs2032487 and rs4281481 comprising part of the major MYH9 E1 risk haplotype [P-values 0.053–0.055 recessive, odds ratio (OR) 6.08–6.14]. Comparing T2DM–ESRD cases to all 1427 non-nephropathy controls, we confirmed evidence of association in these three SNPs as well as in the fourth E1 SNP (rs3752462) (P-values 0.017–0.035, OR 1.41–3.72). APOL1 G1/G2 nephropathy risk variants were rare in individuals of European American heritage, present in 0.28% of chromosomes in T2DM–ESRD cases and 0.32% of controls.
MYH9 SNPs rs4821480, rs2032487, rs4281481 and rs3752462 are associated with T2DM–ESRD susceptibility in European Americans. The APOL1 risk variants are not present at appreciable frequency in this cohort with T2DM–ESRD. Therefore, polymorphisms in MYH9 appear to influence nephropathy risk in this sample.
APOL1; diabetic nephropathy; end-stage renal disease; MYH9; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility have been identified in predominantly European-derived populations. These SNPs have not been extensively investigated for individual and cumulative effects on T2D risk in African Americans.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Seventeen index T2D risk variants were genotyped in 2,652 African American case subjects with T2D and 1,393 nondiabetic control subjects. Individual SNPs and cumulative risk allele loads were assessed for association with risk for T2D. Cumulative risk was assessed by counting risk alleles and evaluating the difference in cumulative risk scores between case subjects and control subjects. A second analysis weighted risk scores (ln [OR]) based on previously reported European-derived effect sizes.
Frequencies of risk alleles ranged from 8.6 to 99.9%. Eleven SNPs had ORs >1, and 5 from ADAMTS9, WFS1, CDKAL1, JAZF1, and TCF7L2 trended or had nominally significant evidence of T2D association (P < 0.05). Individuals carried between 13 and 29 risk alleles. Association was observed between T2D and increase in risk allele load (unweighted OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01–1.08], P = 0.010; weighted 1.06 [1.03–1.10], P = 8.10 × 10−5). When TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was included as a covariate, the risk score was no longer associated with T2D in either model (unweighted 1.02 [0.98–1.05], P = 0.33; weighted 1.02 [0.98–1.06], P = 0.40).
The trend of increase in risk for T2D with increasing risk allele load is similar to observations in European-derived populations; however, these analyses indicate that T2D genetic risk is primarily mediated through the effect of TCF7L2 in African Americans.
The hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4α) gene codes for a transcription factor which is responsible for regulating gene transcription in pancreatic beta cells, in addition to its primary role in hepatic gene regulation. Mutations in this gene can lead to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), an uncommon, autosomal dominant, non-insulin dependent form of diabetes. Mutations in HNF4α have been found in few individuals, and infrequently have they segregated completely with MODY in families. In addition, due to similarity of phenotypes, it is unclear what proportion of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the general population is due to MODY or HNF4α mutations specifically. In this study, 27 documented rare and common variants were genotyped in a European American population of 1270 T2DM cases and 1017 controls from review of databases and literature implicating HNF4α variants in MODY and T2DM. Seventeen variants were found to be monomorphic. Two cases and one control subject had one copy of a 6-bp P2 promoter deletion. The intron 1 variant (rs6103716; MAF = 0.31) was not significantly associated with disease status (p>0.8) and the missense variant Thr130Ile (rs1800961; MAF = 0.027) was also not significantly different between cases and controls (p>0.2), but showed a trend consistent with association with T2DM. Four variants were found to be rare as heterozygotes in small numbers of subjects. Since many variants were infrequent, a pooled chi-squared analysis of rare variants was used to assess the overall burden of variants between cases and controls. This analysis revealed no significant difference (P=0.22). We conclude there is little evidence to suggest that HNF4α variants contribute significantly to risk of T2DM in the general population, but a modest contribution cannot be excluded. In addition, the observation of some mutations in controls suggests they are not highly penetrant MODY-causing variants.
Type 2 Diabetes; HNF4A; Rare variants
A genome-wide association study was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 chip to identify genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Association analysis was performed adjusting for admixture in 965 type 2 diabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 1029 African Americans without type 2 diabetes or kidney disease as controls. The top 724 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of association to diabetic nephropathy were then genotyped in a replication sample of an additional 709 type 2 diabetes-ESRD patients and 690 controls. SNPs with evidence of association in both the original and replication studies were tested in additional African American cohorts consisting of 1246 patients with type 2 diabetes without kidney disease and 1216 with non-diabetic ESRD to differentiate candidate loci for type 2 diabetes-ESRD, type 2 diabetes, and/or all-cause ESRD. Twenty-five SNPs were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes-ESRD in the genome-wide association and initial replication. Although genome-wide significance with type 2 diabetes was not found for any of these 25 SNPs, several genes, including RPS12, LIMK2, and SFI1 are strong candidates for diabetic nephropathy. A combined analysis of all 2890 patients with ESRD showed significant association SNPs in LIMK2 and SFI1 suggesting that they also contribute to all-cause ESRD. Thus, our results suggest that multiple loci underlie susceptibility to kidney disease in African Americans with type 2 diabetes and some may also contribute to all-cause ESRD.
Variation in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) locus is associated with type 2 diabetes across multiple ethnicities. The aim of this study was to elucidate which variant in TCF7L2 confers diabetes susceptibility in African Americans.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Through the evaluation of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), type 2 diabetes susceptibility was limited to a 4.3-kb interval, which contains the YRI (African) linkage disequilibrium (LD) block containing rs7903146. To better define the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk and genetic variation we resequenced this 4.3-kb region in 96 African American DNAs. Thirty-three novel and 13 known SNPs were identified: 20 with minor allele frequencies (MAF) >0.05 and 12 with MAF >0.10. These polymorphisms and the previously identified DG10S478 microsatellite were evaluated in African American type 2 diabetic cases (n = 1,033) and controls (n = 1,106).
Variants identified from direct sequencing and databases were genotyped or imputed. Fifteen SNPs showed association with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.05) with rs7903146 being the most significant (P = 6.32 × 10−6). Results of imputation, haplotype, and conditional analysis of SNPs were consistent with rs7903146 being the trait-defining SNP. Analysis of the DG10S478 microsatellite, which is outside the 4.3-kb LD block, revealed consistent association of risk allele 8 with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33; P = 0.022) as reported in European populations; however, allele 16 (MAF = 0.016 cases and 0.032 controls) was strongly associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.39; P = 5.02 × 10−5) in contrast with previous studies.
In African Americans, these observations suggest that rs7903146 is the trait-defining polymorphism associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Collectively, these results support ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes associations.
SUDOSCAN® non-invasively measures peripheral small fiber and autonomic nerve activity using electrochemical skin conductance. Since neuropathy and nephropathy are microvascular type 2 diabetes (T2D) complications, relationships between skin conductance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed.
205 African Americans (AA) with T2D, 93 AA non-diabetic controls, 185 European Americans (EA) with T2D, and 73 EA non-diabetic controls were evaluated. Linear models were fitted stratified by population ancestry and T2D, adjusted for covariates.
Relative to EA, AA had lower skin conductance (T2D cases p<0.0001; controls p<0.0001). Skin conductance was also lower in T2D cases vs. controls in each population (p<0.0001, AA and EA). Global skin conductance was significantly associated with eGFR in AA and EA with T2D; adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and HbA1c, positive association was detected between skin conductance and eGFR in AA T2D cases (parameter estimate 3.38, standard error 1.2; p=5.2E−3), without association in EA T2D cases (p=0.22).
Non-invasive measurement of skin conductance strongly associated with eGFR in AA with T2D, replicating results in Hong Kong Chinese. SUDOSCAN® may prove useful as a low cost, non-invasive screening tool to detect undiagnosed diabetic kidney disease in populations of African ancestry.
African Americans; diabetes; kidney disease; neuropathy; skin conductance
Background. Non-diabetic forms of nephropathy commonly lead to end-stage renal disease (non-DM ESRD). Previous studies have demonstrated that African Americans are more susceptible to non-DM ESRD compared to other ethnic groups, and this risk has a strong genetic component. A genome-wide scan for ESRD in African American families enriched for non-DM ESRD showed evidence for linkage in chromosome 13q33.3, and a candidate gene in this region, klotho, was selected for a detailed analysis in a follow-up case-control association study.
Methods. Thirty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the klotho gene were genotyped in 317 unrelated African American non-DM ESRD cases and 354 non-nephropathy controls, including 12 SNPs identified by re-sequencing a region around exon 4.
Results. Two SNPs demonstrated modest admixture-adjusted evidence of association with non-DM ESRD, rs650439 (P = 0.013, recessive model) and rs643780 (P = 0.017, recessive model), while rs17643698 approached significance (P = 0.0953, two degrees of freedom test). Eight of the most significant SNPs were tested for replication in a second case-control collection (557 African American non-DM ESRD cases and 187 controls), and there was no evidence of association in replicate cases and controls; nor when the samples were combined for a total of 874 non-DM cases and 541 controls. Cox proportional hazards models were computed to test for association between polymorphisms in klotho and age at onset of ESRD. A three-SNP haplotype, rs526906, rs525014 and rs571118 (T/T/A), was associated with age of onset of ESRD [P = 0.007, recessive model; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.70]. Subjects homozygous for this haplotype had a mean 4 years later onset of ESRD, suggesting a slower disease progression. HapMap subjects homozygous for this haplotype had increased expression of klotho, further supporting a protective role of this variant in ESRD.
Conclusion. We conclude that three SNPs in intron 1 of the klotho gene are associated with delayed age at onset of non-DM ESRD in African Americans.
genetics; klotho; non-diabetic ESRD
Chromosome 20q12-q13.1 has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in multiple populations. We examined the influence of genes in this region on T2D and BMI in two European American case-control populations. SNPs were genotyped in 300 diabetic patients and 310 controls. A subset of 72 SNPs were further genotyped in 470 cases and 442 controls. All genes examined showed evidence of association with T2D in the initial sample (additive P-value [Pa] =0.00090–0.045). SNPs near PREX1 were also associated in the second case-control population (Pa=0.017–0.042). The combined analysis resulted in the same SNPs, among others, associated with T2D (Pa=0.0013–0.041). Stratification analysis by T2D status showed that association with BMI was observed solely in cases (Pa=0.0018–0.041). Mediation testing revealed 30–40% of the effects of these SNPs on T2D were significantly mediated by BMI. SNPs near PREX1 may contribute to T2D susceptibility mediated through effects of adiposity in European Americans
association; type 2 diabetes; genetics; adiposity; mediation analysis
Vascular calcified plaque, a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), is unlikely to be limited to a single vascular bed in patients with multiple risk factors. Consideration of vascular calcified plaque as a global phenomenon may allow for a more accurate assessment of the CVD burden. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of a combined vascular calcified plaque score in the prediction of mortality.
Vascular calcified plaque scores from the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic vascular beds and a derived multi-bed score were examined for associations with all-cause and CVD-mortality in 699 European-American type 2 diabetes (T2D) affected individuals from the Diabetes Heart Study. The ability of calcified plaque to improve prediction beyond Framingham risk factors was assessed.
Over 8.4 ± 2.3 years (mean ± standard deviation) of follow-up, 156 (22.3%) participants were deceased, 74 (10.6%) from CVD causes. All calcified plaque scores were significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 1.4-1.8; p < 1x10−5) and CVD-mortality (HR: 1.5-1.9; p < 1×10−4) following adjustment for Framingham risk factors. Associations were strongest for coronary calcified plaque. Improvement in prediction of outcome beyond Framingham risk factors was greatest using coronary calcified plaque for all-cause mortality (AUC: 0.720 to 0.757, p = 0.004) and the multi-bed score for CVD mortality (AUC: 0.731 to 0.767, p = 0.008).
Although coronary calcified plaque and the multi-bed score were the strongest predictors of all-cause mortality and CVD-mortality respectively in this T2D-affected sample, carotid and abdominal aortic calcified plaque scores also significantly improved prediction of outcome beyond traditional risk factors and should not be discounted as risk stratification tools.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12933-014-0160-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Vascular calcified plaque; Mortality; Computed tomography; Type 2 diabetes
Genetic studies in Turkish, Native American, European American, and African American (AA) families have linked chromosome 18q21.1-23 to susceptibility for diabetes associated nephropathy. In this study we have carried out fine linkage mapping in the 18q region previously linked to diabetic nephropathy in AAs by genotyping both microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage analysis in an expanded set of 223 AA families multiplexed for type 2 diabetes associated ESRD (T2DM-ESRD). Several approaches were used to evaluate evidence of linkage with the strongest evidence for linkage in ordered subset analysis with an earlier age of T2DM diagnosis compared to the remaining pedigrees (LOD 3.9 at 90.1cM, ΔP=0.0161, NPL P value = 0.00002). Overall, the maximum LODs and LOD-1 intervals vary in magnitude and location depending upon analysis. The linkage mapping was followed up by performing a dense SNP map, genotyping 2,814 SNPs in the refined LOD-1 region in 1,029 AA T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,027 AA controls. Of the top 25 most associated SNPs, 10 resided within genic regions. Two candidate genes stood out: NEDD4L and SERPINB7. SNP rs512099, located in intron 1 of NEDD4L, was associated under a dominant model of inheritance (P value = 0.0006; Odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) (OR (95%CI)) = 0.70 (0.57-0.86)). SNP rs1720843, located in intron 2 of SERPINB7, was associated under a recessive model of inheritance (P value = 0.0017; OR (95% CI) = 0.65 (0.50-0.85)). Collectively, these results suggest that multiple genes in this region may influence diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in AAs.
African American; diabetes type 2; nephropathy; linkage analysis; SNP; association analysis
Evaluate discs large homolog 2 (DLG2) as a positional candidate gene for disposition index (DI) in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRAS-FS) African-American sample.
SNPs (n=193) were selected for genotyping in 580 African-American individuals using a modified tagging algorithm. Follow-up genotyping was carried out within regions associated with DI. A subset of highly associated, uncorrelated SNPs were used as covariates in the linkage analysis to assess their contribution to linkage.
Evidence of association with DI was observed at the DLG2 locus (admixture-adjusted P=0.050-8.7×10-5) with additional signals observed in follow-up genotyping of 17 SNPs (P=0.033-0.0012). Inclusion of highly associated, uncorrelated SNPs as covariates in the linkage analysis explained linkage at the DLG2 locus (90.8cM) and reduced the maximal LOD score (72.0cM) from 4.37 to 3.71.
Evidence of association and an observed contribution to evidence for linkage to DI was observed for SNPs in DLG2 genotyped on the African-American individuals from the IRAS-FS. Although not the only gene in the region, these results suggest that variation at the DLG2 locus contributes to maintenance of glucose homeostasis through regulation of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function as measured by DI.
African Americans; Glucose Homeostasis; Disposition Index; SNPs; Linkage; Association
The genome-wide association study by Herbert and colleagues identified the INSIG2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7566605 as contributing to increased BMI in ethnically distinct cohorts. The present study sought to further clarify by testing whether SNPs of INSIG2 influenced quantitative adiposity or glucose homeostasis traits in Hispanics of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Using a tagging SNP approach, rs7566605 and 31 additional SNPs were genotyped in 1425 IRASFS Hispanics. SNPs were tested for association with six adiposity measures: BMI, waist circumference (WAIST), waist to hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and VAT to SAT ratio (VSR). SNPs were also tested for association with fasting glucose (GFAST), fasting insulin (FINS), and three measures obtained from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test: insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), and disposition index (DI). Most prominent association was observed with direct CT-measured adiposity phenotypes, including VAT, SAT, and VSR (P-values range from 0.007 to 0.044 for rs17586756, rs17047718, rs17047731, rs9308762, rs12623648, and rs11673900). Multiple SNP associations were observed with all glucose homeostasis traits (P-values range from 0.001 to 0.031 for rs17047718, rs17047731, rs2161829, rs10490625, rs889904, and rs12623648). Using BMI as a covariate in evaluation of glucose homeostasis traits slightly reduced their association. However, association with adiposity and glucose homeostasis phenotypes is not significant following multiple comparisons adjustment. Trending association after multiple comparisons adjustment remains suggestive of a role for genetic variation of INSIG2 in obesity, but these results require validation.
Insulin-induced gene 2; single nucleotide polymorphism; genetic association; adiposity; glucose homeostasis
We describe the GUARDIAN (Genetics UndeRlying DIAbetes in HispaNics) consortium, along with heritability estimates and genetic and environmental correlations of insulin sensitivity and metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI).
Design and Methods
GUARDIAN is comprised of seven cohorts, consisting of 4336 Mexican-American individuals in 1346 pedigrees. Insulin sensitivity (SI), MCRI, and acute insulin response (AIRg) were measured by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test in four cohorts. Insulin sensitivity (M, M/I) and MCRI were measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in three cohorts. Heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated within the family cohorts (totaling 3925 individuals) using variance components.
Across studies, age and gender-adjusted heritability of insulin sensitivity (SI, M, M/I) ranged from 0.23–0.48 and of MCRI from 0.35–0.73. The ranges for the genetic correlations were 0.91 to 0.93 between SI and MCRI; and −0.57 to −0.59 for AIRg and MCRI (all P<0.0001). The ranges for the environmental correlations were 0.54 to 0.74 for SI and MCRI (all P<0.0001); and −0.16 to −0.36 for AIRg and MCRI (P <0.0001−0.06).
These data support a strong familial basis for insulin sensitivity and MCRI in Mexican Americans. The strong genetic correlations between MCRI and SI suggest common genetic determinants.
insulin sensitivity; insulin clearance; heritability; genetic correlation; environmental correlation
Prior studies involving inner city populations detected higher cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) scores in African Americans (AAs), relative to European Americans (EAs). This finding may be attributable to excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in AAs and poorer access to healthcare. Despite racial differences in CVD risk factor profiles, AAs have paradoxically lower levels of subclinical CVD. We hypothesized that AAs with diabetes and access to healthcare would have comparable or lower levels of WMH as EAs.
Racial differences in the distribution of WMH were analyzed in 46 AAs and 156 EAs with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS)-MIND, and replicated in a sample of 113 AAs and 61 EAs patients who had clinically-indicated cerebral MRIs. Wilcoxon two-sample tests and linear models were used to compare the distribution of WMH in AAs and EAs and test for association between WMH and race.
The unadjusted mean WMH score in AAs from DHS-MIND was 1.9, compared to 2.3 in EAs (p=0.3244). Among those with clinically-indicated MRIs, WMH scores were 2.9 in AAs and 3.9 in EAs (p=0.0503). Adjustment for age and gender showed no statistically significant differences in WMH score between AAs and EAs.
These independent datasets reveal comparable WMH scores between AAs and EAs. This result suggests that disparities in access to healthcare and environmental exposures likely underlie the previously reported excess burden of WMH in AAs.
African American; cognitive performance; diabetes mellitus; MRI; race; white matter hyperintensity
Four genome wide linkage scans for diabetic nephropathy have mapped susceptibility loci to chromosome 18q22.3-23 in the region of the carnosinase genes, CNDP1 and CNDP2. CNDP1 has been associated with diabetic nephropathy in Europeans and European Americans, but not African Americans. Individuals homozygous for a five tri-nucleotide repeat allele (5L; D18S880) are protected from diabetic nephropathy. We identified 64 variants after sequencing the exons, promoter, and 3′ UTR of CNDP1 and CNDP2 in African American and European American DNA samples. After scanning 44 of these variants, extensive genotyping of 12 SNPs and D18S880 was performed in 1025 African American cases with type 2 diabetes (DM)-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 1064 African American non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls to assess whether the carnosinase genes influence risk for DM-ESRD in African Americans. Evidence of association with DM-ESRD was seen with 2 SNPs: rs6566810 and rs4892247; 3 two-marker haplotypes: rs6566810 and rs17089362, rs17089362 and rs890336, and rs890334 and rs12717111 (global empirical p=0.0034, 0.0275, and 0.0002 respectively) and 3 three-marker haplotypes: rs6566810, rs17089362, and rs890336; rs890335, rs890334, and rs12717111; and rs890334, rs12717111, and D18S880 (global empirical p=0.0074, 1.5E-05, and 0.0032 respectively). The risk haplotypes (rs6566810, rs17089362 [A,T] and rs6566810, rs17089362, rs890336 [A,T,C]) were most strongly associated with DM-ESRD among African Americans in the non 5L-5L group. Variants in the carnosinase genes appear to contribute to diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in African Americans. Protection from diabetic nephropathy afforded by 5L-5L homozygosity in CNDP1 may be masked by the effects of additional risk haplotypes in CNDP1 and CNDP2.
African Americans; carnosinase; End Stage Renal Disease; DNA polymorphisms; type 2 diabetes; nephropathy
This study evaluated the influence of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) polymorphisms on measures of glucose homeostasis in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). SSTR2 is a G-protein–coupled receptor that, in response to somatostatin, mediates inhibition of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone release and thus may affect glucose homeostasis.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the gene were chosen using a SNP density selection algorithm and genotyped on 1,425 Hispanic-American individuals from 90 families in the IRASFS. These families comprised two samples (set 1 and set 2), which were analyzed individually and as a combined set. Single SNP tests of association were performed for four glucose homeostasis measures—insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)—using generalized estimating equations.
The SSTR2 locus was encompassed by a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block (D′ = 0.91–1.00; r2 = 0.09–0.97) that contained four of the ten SNPs evaluated. Within the SSTR2-containing LD block, evidence of association was observed in each of the two sets and in a combined analysis with decreased SI(βhomozygous = −0.16; Pmeta-analysis = 0.0024–0.0030), decreased DI (βhomozygous = −0.35 to −5.16; Pmeta-analysis = 0.0075–0.027), and increased FBG (βhomozygous = 2.30; Pmeta-analysis = 0.045). SNPs outside the SSTR2-containing LD block were not associated with measures of glucose homeostasis.
We observed evidence for association of SSTR2 polymorphisms with measures of glucose homeostasis. Thus, variants in SSTR2 may influence pathways of SIto modulate glucose homeostasis.
Multiple studies have identified FTO gene variants associated with measures of adiposity in European-derived populations. The study objective was to determine whether FTO variants were associated with adiposity, including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT; SAT), and glucose homeostasis measures in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). A total of 27 SNPs in FTO intron 1, including SNPs prominent in the literature (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs1121980, rs17817449, rs1421085, and rs3751812), were genotyped in 1,424 Hispanic Americans and 604 African Americans. Multiple SNPs were associated with BMI and SAT (p-values ranging from 0.001 to 0.033), and trending or associated with waist circumference (p-values ranging from 0.008 to 0.099) in the Hispanic Americans. No association was observed with VAT, illustrating that FTO variants are associated with overall fat mass instead of specific fat depots. For the glucose homeostasis measures, variants were associated with fasting insulin but, consistent with other studies, after BMI adjustment, no evidence of association remained. The lack of association of FTO SNPs with insulin sensitivity is consistent with the lack of association with VAT, since these traits are strongly correlated. In the African Americans, only rs8050136 and rs9939609 were associated with BMI and WAIST (p-values of 0.011 and 0.034), and associated or trending towards association with SAT (p-values of 0.038 and 0.058). These results confirm that FTO variants are associated with adiposity measures, predisposing individuals to obesity by increasing overall fat mass in Hispanic Americans and to a lesser degree in African Americans.
fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; genetic association; adiposity; glucose homeostasis