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1.  Paediatric Acute Kidney Injury in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria: Prevalence, Causes and Mortality Rate 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51229.
Background
The modest decline in child mortality in Africa raises the question whether the pattern of diseases associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in children in Nigeria has changed.
Methods
A database of children, aged between one month and 16 years, with AKI (using modified pediatric RIFLE criteria) was reviewed. The cause of AKI was defined as the major underlying disease. The clinical and laboratory features of children with AKI who survived were compared to those who died.
Results
Of the 4 015 children admitted into Lagos University Teaching Hospital between July 2010 and July 2012, 70 episodes of AKI were recorded equalling 17.4 cases per 1000 children. The median age of the children with AKI was 4.8 (range 0.1–14.4) years and 68.6% were males. Acute kidney injury was present in 58 (82.9%) children at admission with 70% in ‘failure’ category. Primary kidney disease (38.6%), sepsis (25.7%) and malaria (11.4%) were the commonest causes. The primary kidney diseases were acute glomerulonephritis (11) and nephrotic syndrome (8). Nineteen (28.4%) children with AKI died. Need for dialysis [odds ratio: 10.04 (2.94–34.33)], white cell >15 000/mm3 [odds ratio: 5.72 (1.65–19.89)] and platelet <100 000/mm3 [odds ratio: 9.56 (2.63–34.77)] were associated with death.
Conclusion
Acute kidney injury is common in children admitted to hospitals. The common causes remain primary kidney diseases, sepsis and malaria but the contribution of sepsis is rising while malaria and gastroenteritis are declining. Acute kidney injury-related mortality remains high.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051229
PMCID: PMC3519588  PMID: 23251463
2.  Obesity and elevated blood pressure among adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:616.
Background
Childhood obesity and associated hypertension are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and the associated risk of high blood pressure among Nigerian adolescents.
Methods
A cross-sectional school-based study of 885 apparently healthy adolescents was performed. Weight, height and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized by age, sex and percentile. Obesity and overweight were defined as: ≥ 95th and 85th to < 95th percentiles, respectively, for age, sex and height. Subjects were sub-categorized into age 10–13 years (A) and 14–17 years (B). The odds ratio for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive range BP by age and BMI were generated. Significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results
The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 13.8% and 9.4%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertensive range systolic BP in obese versus normal BMI females was 16% versus 23% (p=0.00) and 12.1% versus 6.4% (p=0.27) in males. The prevalence of hypertensive range diastolic BP in obese versus normal BMI females was 12% versus 1.4% (p=0.00) and 15.2% versus 3.5% (p=0.01) in males. BMI in group B was significantly associated with pre-hypertensive and hypertensive range systolic BP in overweight (P = 0.01, P = 0.002) and obese subjects (P = 0.00, P = 0.00) and with hypertensive range diastolic BP (P = 0.00) only in obese subjects. The only significant association in group A was between obesity and pre-hypertensive range diastolic BP (P = 0.00).
Conclusion
The prevalence of hypertensive range BP among obese Nigerian adolescents was high. Screening for childhood obesity and hypertension, and long-term follow-up of obese adolescents into adulthood are recommended.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-616
PMCID: PMC3490830  PMID: 22867531
Adolescents; Blood pressure; Body mass index; Obesity; Overweight

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