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author:("Jina, purna")
1.  ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland 
The FASEB Journal  2011;25(4):1166-1175.
The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and gonadal biology. Disruption of SF-1 can lead to disorders of adrenal development, while increased SF-1 dosage has been associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify a novel subset of SF-1 target genes in the adrenal by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) combined with systems analysis. SF-1 ChIP-on-chip was performed in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells using promoter tiling arrays, leading to the identification of 445 gene loci where SF-1-binding regions were located from 10 kb upstream to 3 kb downstream of a transcriptional start. Network analysis of genes identified as putative SF-1 targets revealed enrichment for angiogenic process networks. A 1.1-kb SF-1-binding region was identified in the angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) promoter in a highly repetitive region, and SF-1-dependent activation was confirmed in luciferase assays. Angiogenesis is paramount in adrenal development and tumorigenesis, but until now a direct link between SF-1 and vascular remodeling has not been established. We have identified Ang2 as a potentially important novel target of SF-1 in the adrenal gland, indicating that regulation of angiogenesis might be an important additional mechanism by which SF-1 exerts its actions in the adrenal gland.—Ferraz-de-Souza, B., Lin, L., Shah, S., Jina, N., Hubank, M., Dattani, M. T., Achermann, J. C. ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland.
PMCID: PMC3058709  PMID: 21163858
adrenal development; adrenal tumorigenesis; transcriptional regulation; angiogenesis; NCI-H295R adrenocortical cells
2.  Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart 
Development (Cambridge, England)  2008;136(3):495-505.
Impaired cardiac muscle growth and aberrant myocyte arrangement underlie congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy. We show that cardiac-specific inactivation of the homeobox transcription factor Prox1 results in disruption of the expression and localisation of sarcomeric proteins, gross myofibril disarray and growth retarded hearts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Prox1 is required for direct transcriptional regulation of structural proteins α-actinin, N-RAP and Zyxin which collectively function to maintain an actin-α-actinin interaction as the fundamental association of the sarcomere. Aspects of abnormal heart development and manifestation of a subset of muscular-based disease have previously been attributed to mutations in key structural proteins. Our study demonstrates an essential requirement for direct transcriptional regulation of sarcomere integrity, in the context of enabling fetal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, maintenance of contractile function and progression towards inherited or acquired myopathic disease.
PMCID: PMC2655234  PMID: 19091769
Prox1; heart development; myocardium; sarcomere; hypertrophy; myopathy
3.  Comparison of dorsal root ganglion gene expression in rat models of traumatic and HIV-associated neuropathic pain 
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuropathic pain in the context of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, we measured gene expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats subjected to systemic treatment with the anti-retroviral agent, ddC (Zalcitabine) and concomitant delivery of HIV-gp120 to the rat sciatic nerve. L4 and L5 DRGs were collected at day 14 (time of peak behavioural change) and changes in gene expression were measured using Affymetrix whole genome rat arrays. Conventional analysis of this data set and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed to discover biological processes altered in this model. Transcripts associated with G protein coupled receptor signalling and cell adhesion were enriched in the treated animals, while ribosomal proteins and proteasome pathways were associated with gene down-regulation. To identify genes that are directly relevant to neuropathic mechanical hypersensitivity, as opposed to epiphenomena associated with other aspects of the response to a sciatic nerve lesion, we compared the gp120 + ddC-evoked gene expression with that observed in a model of traumatic neuropathic pain (L5 spinal nerve transection), where hypersensitivity to a static mechanical stimulus is also observed. We identified 39 genes/expressed sequence tags that are differentially expressed in the same direction in both models. Most of these have not previously been implicated in mechanical hypersensitivity and may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention. As an external control, the RNA expression of three genes was examined by RT-PCR, while the protein levels of two were studied using western blot analysis.
PMCID: PMC2706986  PMID: 18606552
Neuropathic pain; HIV; Mechanical hypersensitivity; Microarray
4.  Biologic predictors of extension of oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis as determined from synovial fluid cellular composition and gene expression 
Arthritis and Rheumatism  2010;62(3):896-907.
To identify biomarkers in the first synovial fluid (SF) aspirate obtained from children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which could be used to identify children whose disease is likely to extend to a more severe phenotype.
Patients with recent-onset oligoarticular JIA were identified and grouped according to those whose mild disease persisted (persistent disease) or those whose disease would extend from a mild to more severe phenotype (extended-to-be disease) at 1 year after diagnosis. Flow cytometry was used to delineate differences in the mononuclear cell populations between the first blood sample and first SF aspirate from the same patient and between outcome (persistent versus extended-to-be) groups. Proportions of lymphocytes in the joint were modeled on chemotaxis of lymphocytes to CCL5, using Transwell migration assays. Levels of CCL5 in the SF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RNA profiles of SF mononuclear cells were compared between groups using the Affymetrix GeneChip hybridization protocol and hierarchical clustering analyses.
Compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, SF mononuclear cells displayed an expansion of CD8+ T cells, reduced proportion of B cells, and expansion of CD16− natural killer cells. The lower CD4:CD8 ratio in the SF was recapitulated in vitro by the observed migration of blood T cells in response to CCL5. Synovial CCL5 levels were higher in children whose disease extended to a more severe phenotype. The CD4:CD8 ratio in the SF was significantly lower in patients with extended-to-be oligoarticular JIA (0.57 compared with 0.90 in the persistent disease group, difference 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.62; P = 0.009). Gene expression profiling revealed that 344 genes were >1.5-fold differentially expressed between outcome groups (P < 0.05), and these included genes associated with inflammation and macrophage differentiation, which showed increased levels in patients with extended disease at 1 year, and genes associated with immune regulation, which showed increased levels in patients with persistent disease at 1 year.
Analyses of the proportions of synovial lymphocytes, levels of CCL5, and differential gene expression yielded potential biomarkers with which to predict the likelihood of extension of oligoarticular JIA to a more severe disease phenotype.
PMCID: PMC2860766  PMID: 20127724

Results 1-4 (4)