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1.  Restoration of lymphatic function rescues obesity in Prox1-haploinsufficient mice 
JCI insight  2016;1(2):e85096.
Prox1 heterozygous mice have a defective lymphatic vasculature and develop late-onset obesity. Chyle abnormally leaks from those vessels, accumulates in the surrounding tissues, and causes an increase in adipose tissue. We characterized the lymphatics of Prox1+/− mice to determine whether the extent of obesity correlated with the severity of lymphatic defects. The lymphatic vasculature in Prox1+/− mice exhibited reduced tracer clearance from the ear skin, dysfunctional perfusion of the lower legs, and reduced tracer uptake into the deep lymphatic collectors during mechanostimulation prior to the onset of obesity. Ear lymphatic vessels and leg collectors in Prox1+/− mice were disorganized and irregular, further confirming that defective lymphatic vessels are associated with obesity in Prox1+/− mice. We now provide conclusive in vivo evidence that demonstrates that leaky lymphatics mediate obesity in Prox1+/− mice, as restoration of lymphatic vasculature function was sufficient to rescue the obesity features in Prox1+/− mice. Finally, depth-lipomic profiling of lymph contents showed that free fatty acids induce adipogenesis in vitro.
PMCID: PMC4786184  PMID: 26973883
2.  Canal Cristae Growth and Fiber Extension to the Outer Hair Cells of the Mouse Ear Require Prox1 Activity 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(2):e9377.
The homeobox gene Prox1 is required for lens, retina, pancreas, liver, and lymphatic vasculature development and is expressed in inner ear supporting cells and neurons.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We have investigated the role of Prox1 in the developing mouse ear taking advantage of available standard and conditional Prox1 mutant mouse strains using Tg(Pax2-Cre) and Tg(Nes-Cre). A severe reduction in the size of the canal cristae but not of other vestibular organs or the cochlea was identified in the E18.5 Prox1Flox/Flox; Tg(Pax2-Cre) mutant ear. In these mutant embryos, hair cell differentiated; however, their distribution pattern was slightly disorganized in the cochlea where the growth of type II nerve fibers to outer hair cells along Prox1 expressing supporting cells was severely disrupted. In the case of Nestin-Cre, we found that newborn Prox1Flox/Flox; Tg(Nestin-Cre) exhibit only a disorganized innervation of outer hair cells despite apparently normal cellular differentiation of the organ of Corti, suggesting a cell-autonomous function of Prox1 in neurons.
These results identify a dual role of Prox1 during inner ear development; growth of the canal cristae and fiber guidance of Type II fibers along supporting cells in the cochlea.
PMCID: PMC2826422  PMID: 20186345
3.  Lymph sacs are not required for the initiation of lymph node formation 
Development (Cambridge, England)  2009;136(1):29-34.
The lymphatic vasculature drains lymph fluid from the tissue spaces of most organs and returns it to the blood vasculature for recirculation. Before reaching the circulatory system, antigens and pathogens transported by the lymph are trapped by the lymph nodes. As proposed by Florence Sabin more than a century ago and recently validated, the mammalian lymphatic vasculature has a venous origin and is derived from primitive lymph sacs scattered along the embryonic body axis. Also as proposed by Sabin, it has been generally accepted that lymph nodes originate from those embryonic primitive lymph sacs. However, we now demonstrate that the initiation of lymph node development does not require lymph sacs. We show that lymph node formation is initiated normally in E14.5 Prox1-null mouse embryos devoid of lymph sacs and lymphatic vasculature, and in E17.5 Prox1 conditional mutant embryos, which have defective lymph sacs. However, subsequent clustering of hematopoietic cells within these developing lymph nodes is less efficient.
PMCID: PMC2648609  PMID: 19060331
PROX1; Lymphatic endothelial cells; Lymphoid tissue inducer cell; Lymph nodes; Lymph sacs
4.  Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart 
Development (Cambridge, England)  2008;136(3):495-505.
Impaired cardiac muscle growth and aberrant myocyte arrangement underlie congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy. We show that cardiac-specific inactivation of the homeobox transcription factor Prox1 results in disruption of the expression and localisation of sarcomeric proteins, gross myofibril disarray and growth retarded hearts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Prox1 is required for direct transcriptional regulation of structural proteins α-actinin, N-RAP and Zyxin which collectively function to maintain an actin-α-actinin interaction as the fundamental association of the sarcomere. Aspects of abnormal heart development and manifestation of a subset of muscular-based disease have previously been attributed to mutations in key structural proteins. Our study demonstrates an essential requirement for direct transcriptional regulation of sarcomere integrity, in the context of enabling fetal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, maintenance of contractile function and progression towards inherited or acquired myopathic disease.
PMCID: PMC2655234  PMID: 19091769
Prox1; heart development; myocardium; sarcomere; hypertrophy; myopathy

Results 1-4 (4)