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1.  A higher degree of LINE-1 methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a one-carbon nutrient related epigenetic alteration, is associated with a lower risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 
The objective of the study was to evaluate LINE-1 methylation as an intermediate biomarker for the effect of folate and vitamin B12 on the occurrence of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+).
Study included 376 women who tested positive for HR-HPVs and were diagnosed with CIN 2+ (cases) or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases). CIN 2+ (yes/no) was the dependent variable in logistic regression models that specified the degree of LINE-1 methylation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and of exfoliated cervical cells (CCs) as the independent predictors of primary interest. In analyses restricted to non-cases, PBMC LINE-1 methylation (≥70% vs. <70%) and CC LINE-1 methylation (≥54% vs. <54%) were the dependent variables in logistic regression models that specified the circulating concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 as the primary independent predictors.
Women in the highest tertile of PBMC LINE-1 methylation had 56% lower odds of being diagnosed with CIN 2+ (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.83; P = 0.011) while there was no significant association between degree of CC LINE-1 methylation and CIN 2+ (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.51-1.46; P = 0.578). Among non-cases, women with supra-physiologic concentrations of folate (>19.8 ng/mL) and sufficient concentrations of plasma vitamin B12 (≥ 200.6 ng/mL) were significantly more likely to have highly methylated PBMCs compared to women with lower folate and lower vitamin B12 (OR = 3.92; 95% CI, 1.06-14.52; P = 0.041). None of the variables including folate and vitamin B12 were significantly associated with CC LINE-1 methylation.
These results suggest that a higher degree of LINE-1 methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a one-carbon nutrient related epigenetic alteration, is associated with a lower risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
PMCID: PMC3070926  PMID: 21463750
methylation; cervical; neoplasia
2.  H. pylori-Induced Higher C-Reactive Protein in Obese African Americans 
Artery research  2009;3(1):39-42.
African Americans are more susceptible to develop insulin resistance, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD), and systemic inflammation is central to the pathophysiology of these chronic diseases. African Americans are also more likely to contract H. pylori (cagA) infections during their childhood. However, the contribution of H. pylori infection to the degree of overall systemic inflammation in these chronic diseases is not known. Therefore, we studied 46 apparently healthy African Americans, over 40 years of age who were, infected with H. pylori (cagA). These volunteers were assessed at baseline and after treatment with triple regimen drug therapy to eradicate H. pylori. All but 3 subjects were found to be free of this infection by urea breath test (UBT) after the treatment period. No hyperhomocysteinemia was found in these subjects and there were no significant changes in the level of homocysteine (tHcy), folate and B12; however, CRP levels measured by high sensitivity assay showed a significant (p=0.02) decrease 2 months after the eradication. We further stratified CRP values according to the BMI < 27 and > 27. There was more profound reduction in CRP in the more obese group (i.e., BMI>27) from 54.26 ± 23.67 to 18.73 ± 17.39 mg/l (p=0.01), compared with the leaner subjects in whom CRP decreases from 8.88 ± 6.23 to 4.94 ± 6.21 mg/L (p=0.04), after eradication of the H. pylori (cagA) infection. The level of CRP, however, remained significantly higher in the obese subjects even after the eradication of this infection, indicative of a smaller residual influence of adiposity on CRP. Thus, a major component of systemic inflammation in African Americans may be attributable to chronic H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC3218794  PMID: 22102851
H. pylori; Inflammation; Homocysteine; Obesity and African Americans

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