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1.  Meta-analysis in granulomatosis with polyangiitis reveals shared susceptibility loci with rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2012;64(10):3463-3471.
Objectives
To examine the association of previously identified autoimmune disease susceptibility loci with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis), and determine whether genetic susceptibility profiles of other autoimmune diseases are associated with GPA
Methods
Genetic data from two cohorts were meta-analyzed. Genotypes for 168 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with susceptibility to different autoimmune diseases were ascertained for a total of 880 GPA cases and 1969 controls of European descent. Single marker associations were identified using additive logistic regression models. Multi-SNP associations with GPA were assessed using genetic risk scores based on susceptibility loci for Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, and ulcerative colitis. Adjustment for population substructure was performed in all analyses using ancestry informative markers and principal components analysis.
Results
Genetic polymorphisms in CTLA4 were significantly associated with GPA in the single-marker meta-analysis (OR 0.79. 95% CI 0.70–0.89, p=9.8×10−5). A genetic risk score based on rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility markers was significantly associated with GPA (OR 1.05 per 1-unit increase in genetic risk score, 95% CI 1.02–1.08, p=5.1×10−5).
Conclusions
Rheumatoid arthritis and GPA may arise from a similar genetic predisposition. Aside from CTLA4, other loci previously found to be associated with common autoimmune diseases were not statistically associated with GPA in this study.
doi:10.1002/art.34496
PMCID: PMC3425721  PMID: 22508400
genetics; vasculitis; granulomatosis with polyangiitis; rheumatoid arthritis; CTLA4
2.  Value of ANCA measurements during remission to predict a relapse of ANCA-associated vasculitis—a meta-analysis 
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)  2011;51(1):100-109.
Objective. The value of repeated ANCA measurements among patients with an established diagnosis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore whether either of the two distinct patterns of ANCA values during remission, a rise in ANCA or persistently positive ANCA, predicted future relapse.
Methods. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were performed. Studies with at least 10 subjects with AAV from which both sensitivity and specificity of a rise in ANCA and/or persistent ANCA for future disease relapse could be calculated were included. Likelihood ratios were calculated for each study and pooled to arrive at summary estimates. I2-values were calculated as a measure of heterogeneity and meta-regression was used to explore sources of heterogeneity.
Results. Nine articles on a rise in ANCA and nine articles on persistent ANCA were included. The summary estimates for positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of a rise in ANCA during remission on subsequent relapse of disease were 2.84 (95% CI 1.65, 4.90) and 0.49 (95% CI 0.27, 0.87), respectively. The summary estimates for LR+ and LR− of persistent ANCA during remission for subsequent disease relapse were 1.97 (95% CI 1.43, 2.70) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.50, 1.06), respectively. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity, which was partially explained by the frequency of ANCA measurements.
Conclusion. Among patients with AAV, a rise in or persistence of ANCA during remission is only modestly predictive of future disease relapse. There is limited use to serial ANCA measurements during disease remission to guide treatment decisions for individual patients with AAV.
doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ker280
PMCID: PMC3276294  PMID: 22039267
vasculitis; anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; biomarker
3.  Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency–Related Alleles Z and S and the Risk of Wegener’s Granulomatosis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2010;62(12):3760-3767.
Objective
Deficiency of α1-antitrypsin (α1AT) may be a determinant of susceptibility to Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG). Several previous, mainly small, case–control studies have shown that 5–27% of patients with WG carried the α1AT deficiency Z allele. It is not clear whether the S allele, the other major α1AT deficiency variant, is associated with WG. This study investigated the relationship of the α1AT deficiency Z and S alleles with the risk of developing WG in a large cohort.
Methods
We studied the distribution of the α1AT deficiency alleles Z and S in 433 unrelated Caucasian patients with WG and 421 ethnically matched controls. Genotyping was performed using an allele discrimination assay. Results were compared between cases and controls using exact statistical methods.
Results
Among the patients with WG, the allele carriage frequencies of Z and S were 7.4% and 11.5%, respectively. The frequencies of the 6 possible genotypes differed in a statistically significant manner between cases and controls (P = 0.01). The general genetic 2-parameter codominant model provided the best fit to the data. Compared with the normal MM genotype, the odds ratio (OR) for MZ or MS genotypes was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.98–2.22), and the OR for ZZ, SS, or SZ genotypes was 14.58 (95% CI 2.33–∞). ORs of similar direction and magnitude were observed within the restricted cohorts that excluded cases and controls carrying ≥1 Z or ≥1 S allele.
Conclusion
Both Z and S alleles display associations with risk of WG in a codominant genetic pattern. These findings strengthen the evidence of a causal link between α1AT deficiency and susceptibility to WG.
doi:10.1002/art.27742
PMCID: PMC3123032  PMID: 20827781
4.  Progress Towards a Core Set of Outcome Measures in Small-vessel Vasculitis. Report from OMERACT 9 
The Journal of rheumatology  2009;36(10):2362-2368.
The past decade has seen a substantial increase in the number and quality of clinical trials of new therapies for vasculitis, including randomized, controlled, multicenter trials that have successfully incorporated measures of disease activity and toxicity. However, because current treatment regimens for severe disease effectively induce initial remission and reduce mortality, future trials will focus on any of several goals including: (a) treatment of mild—moderate disease; (b) prevention of chronic damage; (c) reduction in treatment toxicity; or (d) more subtle differences in remission induction or maintenance. Thus, new trials will require outcome measure instruments that are more precise and are better able to detect effective treatments for different disease states and measure chronic manifestations of disease. The OMERACT Vasculitis Working Group comprises international clinical investigators with expertise in vasculitis who, since 2002, have worked collaboratively to advance the refinement of outcome measures in vasculitis, create new measures to address domains of illness not covered by current research approaches, and harmonize outcome assessment in vasculitis. The focus of the OMERACT group to date has been on outcome measures in small-vessel vasculitis with an overall goal of creating a core set of outcome measures for vasculitis, each of which fulfills the OMERACT filter of truth, discrimination, feasibility, and identifying additional domains requiring further research. This process has been informed by several ongoing projects providing data on outcomes of disease activity, disease-related damage, multidimensional health-related quality of life, and patient-reported ratings of the burden of vasculitis.
doi:10.3899/jrheum.090373
PMCID: PMC3142467  PMID: 19820226
VASCULITIS; OUTCOMES; ACTIVITY; DAMAGE

Results 1-4 (4)