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1.  Efficacy profiles for different concentrations of Lactobacillus acidophilus in experimental colitis 
AIM: To determine the efficacy profiles of different concentrations of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) for treating colitis using an experimental murine model.
METHODS: Colitis was established in 64 BALB/c mice by adding 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to the drinking water and allowing ad libitum access for 7 d. The mice were then randomly divided into the following control and experimental model groups (n = 8 each; day 0): untreated model control; negative-treatment model control (administered gavage of 1 mL/10 g normal saline); experimental-treatment models C4-C8 (administered gavage of 104, 105, 106, 107, or 108 CFU/10 g L. acidophilus, respectively); positive-treatment model control (administration of the anti-inflammatory agent prednisone acetate at 45 μg/10 g). Eight mice given regular water (no DSS) and no subsequent treatments served as the normal control group. Body weight, fecal traits, and presence of fecal occult blood were assessed daily. All animals were sacrificed on post-treatment day 7 to measure colonic length, perform histological scoring, and quantify the major bacteria in the proximal and distal colon. Intergroup differences were determined by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls comparison.
RESULTS: All treatments (L. acidophilus and prednisone acetate) protected against colitis-induced weight loss (P < 0.05 vs model and normal control groups). The extent of colitis-induced colonic shortening was significantly reduced by all treatments (prednisone acetate > C4 > C5 > C7 > C8 > C6; P < 0.05 vs untreated model group), and the C6 group showed colonic length similar to that of the normal control group (P > 0.05). The C6 group also had the lowest disease activity index scores among the model groups. The bacterial profiles in the proximal colon were similar between all of the experimental-treatment model groups (all P > 0.05). In contrast, the bacterial profile in the distal colon of the C6 group showed the distinctive features (P < 0.05 vs all other experimental-treatment model groups) of Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. being the most abundant bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus being the least abundant bacteria.
CONCLUSION: The most therapeutically efficacious concentration of L. acidophilus (106 CFU/10 g) may exert its effects by modulating the bacterial profile in the distal colon.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i32.5347
PMCID: PMC3752571  PMID: 23983440
Lactobacillus acidophilus; Bifidobacterium; Colonic flora; Therapeutic dose; Experimental colitis; Efficacy profile
2.  Prevalence and risk factors of gallbladder polypoid lesions in Chinese petrochemical employees 
AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs) in petrochemical employees in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.
METHODS: All active and retired employees aged 20-90 years (n = 11098) of a refinery and chemical plant in eastern China were requested to participate in a health survey. The participants were subjected to interview, physical examination, laboratory assessments and ultrasonography. All the participants were invited to have a physical examination after a face-to-face interview. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, and the samples were used for the analysis of biochemical values. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted.
RESULTS: A total of 10461 (7331 men and 3130 women) current and former petrochemical employees attended for screening. The overall prevalence of post-cholecystectomy, gallstones and PLGs was 0.9%, 5.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Compared with the increased prevalence of either gallstones or post-cholecystectomy in older persons, PLGs were more common in the middle-aged, peaking in those aged 40-59 years. Excluding the patients with gallstones, gallstones mixed with PLGs, or those who had undergone cholecystectomy, in the remaining 9828 participants, the prevalence of PLGs in men (8.9%) was significantly higher than that in women (5.5%, P < 0.001). The analyzed risk factors with increased OR for the development of PLGs were male gender (OR = 1.799, P < 0.001), age ≥ 30 years (OR = 2.699, P < 0.001) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity (OR = 1.374, P = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: PLGs are not rare among Chinese petrochemical employees. Male gender, HBsAg positivity, and middle age are risk factors for developing PLGs.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i27.4393
PMCID: PMC3718909  PMID: 23885152
Prevalence; Risk factors; Polypoid lesions; Gallbladder; Chinese
3.  Asymmetric dimethylarginine: A novel biomarker of gastric mucosal injury? 
Nitric oxide (NO), a multifunctional endogenous gas molecule, is metabolized from L-arginine by enzymatic reaction in the presence of nitric oxide synthase. NO, an important gas signaling molecule, is a gastric mucosa protective factor that contributes significantly to maintain normal gastric mucosa integrity. NO increases gastric mucosa blood flow, regulates the secretion of mucus and bicarbonate, and inhibits the secretion of gastric juice. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been identified as the major endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The function of ADMA is to decrease NO production via inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity. Besides inhibiting NO synthesis, ADMA also directly induces oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, and participates in inflammation reaction. Its systemic accumulation was observed in conjunction with several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. ADMA also mediates gastric ulcer injury induced by ethanol, stress, helicobacter pylori and indomethacin. The mechanism of ADMA directly producing adverse effect in gastric mucosa is incompletely understood. It is widely accepted that NO bioavailability decrease is the majority reason. Promotion of apoptosis and aggravation of inflammation may be other important mechanisms of ADMA-induced gastric injury. ADMA might be a novel clinical and experimental biomarker related to gastric mucosa disorder. Although therapeutic tool targeting to ADMA is available in multiple cardiovascular diseases, it is unknown in gastrointestinal disease. The strategy to inhibit ADMA is beneficial to gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. Thus, ADMA might be a candidate of therapeutic target in gastric mucosa damage.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i17.2178
PMCID: PMC3092868  PMID: 21633526
Asymmetric dimethylarginine; Mucosal injury; Nitric oxide
5.  FCRL6 distinguishes mature cytotoxic lymphocytes and is upregulated in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia 
European journal of immunology  2008;38(11):3159-3166.
Fc receptor-like 6 (FCRL6), the most recently characterized member of the FCRL family, is a cell surface glycoprotein with tyrosine-based regulatory potential. An extensive survey of human hematopoietic tissues disclosed that FCRL6 expression by NK and T cell subpopulations increases as a function of differentiation and is remarkably restricted to mature lymphocytes with cytotoxic capability. In particular, FCRL6 distinguishes perforin-expressing CD56dim NK cells, Vδ1+ and Vδ2+ γδ T cells, effector and effector memory CD8+ T cells, and rare cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in adult tissues. Analysis of this receptor in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was also performed. FCRL6 was found to mark significantly expanded populations of cytotoxic CD8+ T, CD4+ T, and NK cells in patients with CLL. Despite sequence homology with the known Fc receptors for IgG and IgE, FCRL6 did not bind immunoglobulin. Although FCRL6 can be tyrosine-phosphorylated, its antibody-mediated ligation was unable to influence cellular activation. Collectively these results demonstrate that FCRL6 is a distinct indicator of cytotoxic effector lymphocytes that is upregulated in diseases characterized by chronic immune stimulation.
doi:10.1002/eji.200838516
PMCID: PMC2742621  PMID: 18991291
Human NK cells; Human cytotoxic T cells; Fc Receptor-like; Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
6.  Subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma mistaken for asthma 
Adenoid cystic carcinoma rarely occurs within the subglottic larynx. In this study, a case of subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma was reported. A 54 year-old Chinese woman developed a sudden onset of chest distress and cough worsening after physical exertion, and was diagnosed with, and treated as, bronchial asthma. Regular anti-asthmatic therapy did not improve the symptoms. Until a sudden dyspnea, a cervicothoracic computerized tomography (CT) revealed that her upper airway was obstructed by a laryngeal tumor. The patient was diagnosed with a subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma and treated with complete surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy. Follow-up endoscopy and laryngeal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at six months showed no recurrence of the tumor. The diagnosis of subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma should be considered in patients who are characterized by dyspnea, cough, and stridor, but do not respond to regular anti-asthmatic therapy.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B0920071
PMCID: PMC2738842  PMID: 19735105
Subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma; Larynx; Asthma

Results 1-6 (6)