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1.  Complex repetitive discharge on electromyography as a risk factor for malignancy in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy 
Background/Aims
We investigated the electromyography (EMG) findings and demographic, clinical, and laboratory features that may predict the development of malignancy in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM).
Methods
In total, 61 patients, 36 with dermatomyositis and 25 with polymyositis, were included. Patients were divided into those with and without malignancies, and comparisons were made between the groups in terms of their demographic, clinical, laboratory, and EMG findings.
Results
The frequencies of malignancies associated with dermatomyositis and polymyositis were 22% and 8%, respectively. Patients with malignancies showed a significantly higher incidence of dysphagia (odds ratio [OR], 21.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.84 to 120.49), absence of interstitial lung disease (ILD; OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.98), and complex repetitive discharge (CRD) on the EMG (OR, 26.25; 95% CI, 2.67 to 258.52), versus those without. After adjustment for age, dysphagia and CRD remained significant, while ILD showed a trend for a difference but was not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis revealed that the CRD conferred an OR of 25.99 (95% CI, 1.27 to 531.86) for malignancy. When the frequency of malignancy was analyzed according to the number of risk factors, patients with three risk factors showed a significantly higher incidence of malignancy, versus those with fewer than two (p = 0.014).
Conclusions
We demonstrated for the first time that CRD on the EMG was an additional independent risk factor for malignancy in IIM. Further studies on a larger scale are needed to confirm the importance of CRD as a risk factor for malignancy in IIM.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2014.29.6.814
PMCID: PMC4219972  PMID: 25378981
Dermatomyositis; Polymyositis; Malignancy; Risk factors; Electromyography
2.  Preventive Efficacy and Safety of Rebamipide in Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Mucosal Toxicity 
Gut and Liver  2013;8(4):371-379.
Background/Aims
The use of proton pump inhibitors or misoprostol is known to prevent the gastrointestinal complications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Rebamipide is known to increase the mucosal generation of prostaglandins and to eliminate free oxygen radicals, thus enhancing the protective function of the gastric mucosa. However, it is unknown whether rebamipide plays a role in preventing NSAID-induced gastropathy. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of rebamipide compared to misoprostol in preventing NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications in patients requiring continuous NSAID treatment.
Methods
We studied 479 patients who required continuous NSAID treatment. The patients were randomly assigned to groups that received 100 mg of rebamipide three times per day or 200 μg of misoprostol three times per day for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint of the analysis was the occurrence rate of gastric ulcers, as determined by endoscopy after 12 weeks of therapy.
Results
Of the 479 patients in the study, 242 received rebamipide, and 237 received misoprostol. Ultimately, 44 patients (18.6%) withdrew from the misoprostol group and 25 patients (10.3%) withdrew from the rebamipide group. There was a significant difference in withdrawal rate between the two groups (p=0.0103). The per protocol analysis set was not valid because of the dropout rate of the misoprostol group; thus, the intention to treat (ITT) analysis set is the main set for the efficacy analysis in this study. After 12 weeks, the occurrence rate of gastric ulcers was similar in the rebamipide and misoprostol groups (20.3% vs 21.9%, p=0.6497) according to ITT analysis. In addition, the therapeutic failure rate was similar in the rebamipide and misoprostol groups (13.6% vs 13.1%, p=0.8580). The total severity score of the gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly lower in the rebamipide group than in the misoprostol group (p=0.0002). The amount of antacid used was significantly lower in the rebamipide group than in the misoprostol group (p=0.0258).
Conclusions
Rebamipide can prevent gastric ulcers when used with NSAIDs and can decrease the gastrointestinal symptoms associated with NSAID administration. When the possibility of poor compliance and the potential adverse effects of misoprostol are considered, rebamipide appears to be a clinically effective and safe alternative.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2014.8.4.371
PMCID: PMC4113040  PMID: 25071901
Anti-inflammatory agents; non-steroidal; Rheumatic diseases; Complications; Rebamipide; Misoprostol
3.  Multicenter Retrospective Analysis of the Effectiveness and Safety of Rituximab in Korean Patients with Refractory Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Autoimmune Diseases  2012;2012:565039.
Objective. Although two recent randomized placebo-controlled trials of rituximab (RTX) failed to demonstrate efficacy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), clinicians continue to use off-label RTX for cases refractory to current treatments. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of rituximab for patients with refractory SLE in Korea. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed multicenter patients treated with RTX in Korea. Results. 39 SLE patients treated with RTX were included in the following manner: lupus nephritis 43.6%, hematologic 33.3%, arthritis 7.8%, myositis 7.8%, and others 7.7%. All patients had responded poorly to at least one conventional immunosuppressive agent (mean 2.5 ± 1.1, cyclophosphamide 43.6%, mycophenolate mofetil 48.7%, and other drugs) before RTX. Clinical improvements (complete or partial remission) occurred in patients with renal disease, hematologic disease, arthritis, myositis, and other manifestations at 6 months after RTX. The SLEDAI score was significantly decreased from 10.8 ± 7.1 at baseline to 6.7 ± 4.0 at 6 months, 6.2 ± 4.1 at 12 months, and 5.5 ± 3.6 at 24 months after RTX (P < 0.05). Among 28 clinical responders, 4 patients experienced a relapse of disease at 25 ± 4 months. Infections were noted in 3 patients (7.7%). Conclusion. RTX could be an effective and relatively safe therapeutic option in patients with severe refractory SLE until novel B-cell depletion therapy is available.
doi:10.1155/2012/565039
PMCID: PMC3523406  PMID: 23304457
4.  Variation in the ICAM1–ICAM4–ICAM5 locus is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility in multiple ancestries 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2012;71(11):1809-1814.
Objective
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a chronic autoimmune disease for which the aetiology includes genetic and environmental factors. ITGAM, integrin αΜ (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit) encoding a ligand for intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) proteins, is an established SLE susceptibility locus. This study aimed to evaluate the independent and joint effects of genetic variations in the genes that encode ITGAM and ICAM.
Methods
The authors examined several markers in the ICAM1–ICAM4–ICAM5 locus on chromosome 19p13 and the single ITGAM polymorphism (rs1143679) using a large-scale case–control study of 17 481 unrelated participants from four ancestry populations. The single marker association and gene–gene interaction were analysed for each ancestry, and a meta-analysis across the four ancestries was performed.
Results
The A-allele of ICAM1–ICAM4–ICAM5 rs3093030, associated with elevated plasma levels of soluble ICAM1, and the A-allele of ITGAM rs1143679 showed the strongest association with increased SLE susceptibility in each of the ancestry populations and the trans-ancestry meta-analysis (ORmeta=1.16, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.22; p=4.88×10−10 and ORmeta=1.67, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.79; p=3.32×10−46, respectively). The effect of the ICAM single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was independent of the effect of the ITGAM SNP rs1143679, and carriers of both ICAM rs3093030-AA and ITGAM rs1143679-AA had an OR of 4.08 compared with those with no risk allele in either SNP (95% CI 2.09 to 7.98; p=3.91×10−5).
Conclusion
These findings are the first to suggest that an ICAM–integrin-mediated pathway contributes to susceptibility to SLE.
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201110
PMCID: PMC3466387  PMID: 22523428
5.  Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus Infections and Cervical Cytological Abnormalities among Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(10):1431-1437.
We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study of 134 sexually active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cytological abnormalities among Korean women with SLE. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, HPV testing and routine cervical cytologic examination was performed. HPV was typed using a hybrid method or the polymerase chain reaction. Data on 4,595 healthy women were used for comparison. SLE patients had greater prevalence of high-risk HPV infection (24.6% vs. 7.9%, P<0.001, odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 2.5-5.7) and of abnormal cervical cytology (16.4 vs. 2.8%, P<0.001, OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-7.8) compared with controls. SLE itself was identified as independent risk factors for high risk HPV infection among Korean women (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7) along with ≥2 sexual partners (OR 8.5, 95% CI 1.2-61.6), and Pap smear abnormalities (OR 97.3, 95% CI 6.5-1,456.7). High-risk HPV infection and cervical cytological abnormalities were more common among Korean women with SLE than controls. SLE itself may be a risk factor for HPV infection among Korean women, suggesting the importance of close monitoring of HPV infections and abnormal Pap smears in SLE patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.10.1431
PMCID: PMC2946651  PMID: 20890422
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Human Papilloma Virus; Cervical Cytological Abnormalities
6.  Multiple Vertebral Involvement of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Thoracolumbar Spine: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):472-475.
Although little attention has been paid to the less common rheumatoid involvement of the thoracic and lumbar regions, some studies have shown that rheumatoid synovitis with erosive changes can develop in these diarthrodial joints. We report a patient with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involving the thoracic and lumbar vertebra with a collapse of the T12 vertebra, who was treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty. In this case of a painful pathological fracture due to RA, percutaneous vertebroplasty was found to be helpful in eliminating the pain. The paper presents the histological evidence, the pathogenesis and treatment of the thoracolumbar lesions affected by RA with a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.3.472
PMCID: PMC2826736  PMID: 20191050
Fractures, Bone; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Thoracolumbar; Vertebroplasty
7.  Relationship between cyclooxygenase 8473T>C polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer: a case-control study 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:70.
Background
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. DNA sequence variations in the COX-2 gene may lead to altered COX-2 production and/or activity, and so they cause inter-individual differences in the susceptibility to lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association between the 8473T>C polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the COX-2 gene and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population.
Methods
The COX-2 genotypes were determined using PCR-based primer-introduced restriction analysis in 582 lung cancer patients and in 582 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age and gender.
Results
The distribution of the COX-2 8473T>C genotypes was not significantly different between the overall lung cancer cases and the controls. However, when the cases were categorized by the tumor histology, the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of adenocarcinoma as compared with the 8473 TT genotype (adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46–0.90, P = 0.01). On the stratification analysis, the protective effect of the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype against adenocarcinoma was statistically significant in the males, older individuals and ever-smokers (adjusted OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.39–0.91, P = 0.02; adjusted OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.33–0.93, P = 0.03; and adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.37–0.87, P = 0.01, respectively).
Conclusion
These findings suggest that the COX-2 8473T>C polymorphism could be used as a marker for the genetic susceptibility to adenocarcinoma of the lung.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-70
PMCID: PMC1468421  PMID: 16542464
8.  CD8 T Cells Are Required for the Formation of Ectopic Germinal Centers in Rheumatoid Synovitis 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2002;195(10):1325-1336.
The assembly of inflammatory lesions in rheumatoid arthritis is highly regulated and typically leads to the formation of lymphoid follicles with germinal center (GC) reactions. We used microdissection of such extranodal follicles to analyze the colonizing T cells. Although the repertoire of follicular T cells was diverse, a subset of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences was detected in multiple independent follicles and not in interfollicular zones, suggesting recognition of a common antigen. Unexpectedly, the majority of shared TCR sequences were from CD8 T cells that were highly enriched in the synovium and present in low numbers in the periphery. To examine their role in extranodal GC reactions, CD8 T cells were depleted in human synovium-SCID mouse chimeras. Depletion of synovial CD8 T cells caused disintegration of the GC-containing follicles. In the absence of CD8 T cells, follicular dendritic cells disappeared, production of lymphotoxin-α1β2 markedly decreased, and immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion ceased. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that these CD8 T cells accumulated at the edge of the mantle zone. Besides their unique localization, they were characterized by the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, lack of the pore-forming enzyme perforin, and expression of CD40 ligand. Perifollicular IFN-γ+ CD8 T cells were rare in secondary lymphoid tissues but accounted for the majority of IFN-γ+ cells in synovial infiltrates. We propose that CD8+ T cells regulate the structural integrity and functional activity of GCs in ectopic lymphoid follicles.
doi:10.1084/jem.20011565
PMCID: PMC2193749  PMID: 12021312
lymphoid follicle; rheumatoid arthritis; lymphoid neogenesis; pathogenesis; CD40
9.  Two episodes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endocarditis of prosthetic mitral valve: report of a case and review of the literature. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(2):263-265.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (previously named Xanthomonas maltophilia) is an aerobic, non-fermentive, Gram-negative bacillus that is wide spread in the environment. It was considered to be an organism with limited pathogenic potential, which was rarely capable of causing diseases in human other than those who were in debilitated or immunocompromised state. More recent studies have established that Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can behave as a true pathogen. Endocarditis due to this organism is rare, and only 24 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endocarditis have been reported in the medical literature. Most cases were associated with risk factors, including intravenous drug abuse, dental treatment, infected intravenous devices, and previous cardiac surgery. We present a case with two episodes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endocarditis after mitral valve prosthesis implantation, which was treated with antibiotics initially, and a combination of antibiotics and surgery later. To our knowledge, this is the first case of repetitive endocarditis due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
PMCID: PMC3054864  PMID: 11961315

Results 1-9 (9)