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1.  Assessment of Cataract Surgery Outcome Using the Modified Catquest Short-Form Instrument in China 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(10):e0164182.
To assess cataract surgery outcome using the Rasch scaled Chinese version of the Catquest short-form.
The Chinese translated and culturally adapted version of the Catquest-9SF was interviewer-administered to patients, pre and post cataract surgery. Rasch analysis was performed on the baseline data to revise the Catquest. For the surgical outcome assessment, we stacked pre- and post-surgical Catquest data to demonstrate improvement in visual function scores and responsiveness of the instrument to cataract surgery.
A total of 247 cataract patients (median age, 70 yrs; male 51.0%) completed the Catquest 9SF at baseline.The Catquest-9SF possessed adequate measurement precision of 2.15. No disordering of response categories were observed and all the items perfectly fit to the Rasch model except item 7 (outfit >1.5). A slight reduction in precision was observed after removing misfitting item 7 (Catquest-8SF-CN), but the precision value was well above the acceptable value of 2.00. Notably, the instrument was well targeted (mean person location 0.30), demonstrated no evidence of multidimensionality and DIF. At 12 months post-surgery, 74 (30%) patients came for follow-up and completed the Catquest. There was a significant improvement in the Catquest scores post cataract surgery with a considerably large effect size.
The Catquest-8SF-CN demonstrated promising Rasch based psychometric properties and was highly responsive to cataract surgery.
PMCID: PMC5063336  PMID: 27736889
2.  Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2016;2016:6347236.
Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan) and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA) for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and aqueous depth (AD). Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59 ± 27.37 μm, 3.70 ± 0.30 mm, and 3.16 ± 0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14 ± 26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71 ± 0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17 ± 0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45 ± 6.07 μm, P < 0.05). The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.
PMCID: PMC4923600  PMID: 27403339
3.  Evaluation of Equivalent Keratometry Readings Obtained by Pentacam HR (High Resolution) 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(3):e0150121.
To assess the repeatability of Equivalent Keratometry Readings (EKRs) obtained by the Pentacam HR (high resolution) in untreated and post-LASIK eyes, and to compare them with the keratometry (K) values obtained by other algorithms.
In this prospective study, 100 untreated eyes and 71 post-LASIK eyes were included. In the untreated group, each eye received 3 consecutive scans using the Pentacam HR, and EKR values in all central corneal zone, the true net power (Knet) and the simulated K (SimK) were obtained for each scan. In the post-LASIK group, each eye received subjective refraction and 3 consecutive scans with the Pentacam HR preoperatively. During the 3-month post-surgery exam, the same examinations and the use of an IOLMaster were conducted for each eye. The EKRs in all zone, the Knet, the mean K (Km) by IOLMaster and the K values by clinical history method (KCHM) were obtained. The repeatability of the EKRs was assessed by the within-subject standard deviation (Sw), 2.77Sw, coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The bonferroni corrected multiple comparisons were performed to analyze the differences among the EKRs and K values calculated by other algorithms within the 2 groups. The 95% limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated.
The EKR values in all central corneal zone were repeatable in both the untreated group (Sw≦0.19 D, 2.77Sw≦0.52 D, CVw≦1%, ICC≧0.978) and the post-LASIK group (Sw≦0.22 D, 2.77Sw≦0.62 D, CVw≦1%, ICC≧0.980). In the untreated group, the EKR in 4mm zone was close to SimK (P = 1.000), and the 95% LoA was (-0.13 to 0.15 D). The difference between Knet and SimK was -1.30±0.13 D (95% LoA -1.55 to -1.55 D, P<0.001). In the post-LASIK group, all the EKRs were significantly higher than KCHM (all P<0.001). The differences between the EKR in 4mm zone and KCHM, the EKR in 7mm zone and KCHM, Knet and KCHM, Km and KCHM, SimK and Knet were 0.64±0.50 D (95% LoA, -0.33 to 1.62 D), 1.77±0.88 D (95% LoA, 0.04 to 3.51 D), -0.98±0.48 D (95% LoA, -1.92 to -0.04 D), 0.64±0.53 D (95% LoA, -0.40 to 1.68 D), and 1.73±0.20 D (95% LoA, 1.33 to 2.13 D), respectively.
The EKRs obtained by the Pentacam HR were repeatable in both untreated eyes and post-LASIK eyes. Compared to the total corneal power obtained by the clinical history method, the EKR values generally overestimated the total corneal power in post-LASIK eyes. So, further calibrations for the EKR values should be conducted, before they were used for the total corneal power assessment in post-LASIK eyes.
PMCID: PMC4780706  PMID: 26950834
4.  High intercorneal symmetry in corneal biomechanical metrics 
Eye and Vision  2016;3:7.
To evaluate the symmetry of corneal biomechanical metrics, measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA) and self-built corneal inflation test platform, in bilateral rabbit corneas and to investigate their relationship with physical intraocular pressure (IOPp).
Twenty fresh enucleated eyes from ten rabbits were used for ex vivo whole ocular globe inflation. IOP was increased from 7.5 to 37.5 mmHg with 7.5 mmHg steps and biomechanical metrics were acquired using the ORA. At least 3 examinations were performed at each pressure stage. Two biomechanical metrics, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were recorded and analyzed as a function of IOPp. Corneal specimens were then excised from the intact ocular globe and tested under inflation conditions up to 45.7 mmHg posterior pressure. The experimental pressure-deformation data was analyzed using an inverse modeling procedure to derive the stress-strain behavior of the cornea.
A comparison of corneal shape parameters showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between bilateral eyes. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in values of CH, CRF and corneal stiffness (as measured by the tangent modulus, Et) between bilateral eyes (CH: F = 0.94, P = 0.54; CRF: F = 4.42, P = 0.35; Et: F = 3.15, P = 0.12) at different pressure levels. IOPp was highly correlated with CRF while the relationship with CH was less pronounced.
An obvious interocular symmetry in biomechanical metrics is found in this research. IOP has been shown to have important influences on the value of CRF provided by ORA.
PMCID: PMC4779259  PMID: 26949709
Intercorneal symmetry; Corneal biomechanical metrics; Corneal stiffness; Ocular response analyzer
5.  Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Using Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer Corvis ST and Comparison with Pentacam Rotating Scheimpflug System and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Normal Eyes 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2015;2015:767012.
Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by corneal dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer Corvis ST in normal eyes and compare the agreement with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug System and ultrasound pachymetry. Methods. 84 right eyes underwent Corvis ST measurements performed by two operators. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. CCT measurements also were obtained from Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry by the first operator. The agreement between the three devices was evaluated with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland-Altman plots. Results. Corvis ST showed high repeatability as indicated by TRT ≤ 13.0 μm, CoV < 0.9%, and ICC > 0.97. The interoperator reproducibility was also excellent. The CoV was <0.9%, and ICC was >0.97. Corvis ST showed significantly lower values than Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry (P < 0.001). The 95% LoA between Corvis ST and Pentacam or ultrasound pachymetry were −15.8 to 9.5 μm and −27.9 to 12.3 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Corvis ST showed excellent repeatability and interoperator reproducibility of CCT measurements in normal eyes. Corvis ST is interchangeable with Pentacam but not with ultrasound pachymetry.
PMCID: PMC4678087  PMID: 26697213
6.  The Repeatability Assessment of Three-Dimensional Capsule-Intraocular Lens Complex Measurements by Means of High-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(11):e0142556.
To rebuild the three-dimensional (3-D) model of the anterior segment by high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) and evaluate the repeatability of measurement for the parameters of capsule-intraocular lens (C-IOL) complex.
Twenty-two pseudophakic eyes from 22 patients were enrolled. Three continuous SSOCT measurements were performed in all eyes and the tomograms obtained were used for 3-D reconstruction. The output data were used to evaluate the measurement repeatability. The parameters included postoperative aqueous depth (PAD), the area and diameter of the anterior capsule opening (Area and D), IOL tilt (IOL-T), horizontal, vertical, and space decentration of the IOL, anterior capsule opening, and IOL-anterior capsule opening.
PAD, IOL-T, Area, D, and all decentration measurements showed high repeatability. Repeated measure analysis showed there was no statistically significant difference among the three continuous measurements (all P > .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed high correlation between each pair of them (all r >0.90, P<0.001). ICCs were all more than 0.9 for all parameters. The 95% LoAs of all parameters were narrow for comparison of three measurements, which showed high repeatability for three measurements.
SSOCT is available to be a new method for the 3-D measurement of C-IOL complex after cataract surgery. This method presented high repeatability in measuring the parameters of the C-IOL complex.
PMCID: PMC4658094  PMID: 26600254
7.  Effect of Misalignment between Successive Corneal Videokeratography Maps on the Repeatability of Topography Data 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(11):e0139541.
To improve the reliability of corneal topographic data through the development of a method to estimate the magnitude of misalignment between successive corneal videokeratography (VK) maps and eliminate the effect of misalignment on the repeatability of topography data.
Anterior and posterior topography maps were recorded twice for 124 healthy eyes of 124 participants using a Pentacam, and the repeatability of measurements was assessed by calculating the differences in elevation between each two sets of data. The repeatability of measurements was re-assessed following the determination of the magnitude of misalignment components (translational displacements: x0, y0 and z0, and rotational displacements: α, β and γ) between each two data sets and using them to modify the second data set within each pair based on an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The method simultaneously considered the anterior and posterior maps taken for the same eye since they were assumed to have the same set of misalignment components. A new parameter, named Combined Misalignment parameter (CM), has been developed to combine the effect of all six misalignment components on topography data and so enable study of the association between misalignment and the data repeatability test results.
The repeatability tests resulted in average root mean square (RMS) differences in elevation data of 8.46±2.75 μm before ICP map matching when simultaneously considering anterior and posterior surfaces. With map matching and misalignment correction, the differences decreased to 7.28±2.58 μm (P = 0.00). When applied to only the anterior maps, misalignment correction led to a more pronounced reduction in elevation data differences from 4.58±1.84 μm to 2.97±1.29 μm (P = 0.00). CM was found to be associated with the repeatability error (P = 0.00), with posterior maps being responsible for most of the error due to their relatively lower accuracy compared to anterior maps.
The ICP algorithm can be used to estimate, and effectively correct for, the potential misalignment between successive corneal videokeratography maps.
PMCID: PMC4658180  PMID: 26599442
8.  Metabolic Engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae for the Production of 2-Butanone from Glucose 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0140508.
2-Butanone is an important commodity chemical of wide application in different areas. In this study, Klebsiella pneumoniae was engineered to directly produce 2-butanone from glucose by extending its native 2, 3-butanediol synthesis pathway. To identify the potential enzyme for the efficient conversion of 2, 3-butanediol to 2-butanone, we screened different glycerol dehydratases and diol dehydratases. By introducing the diol dehydratase from Lactobacillus brevis and deleting the ldhA gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase, the engineered K. pneumoniae was able to accumulate 246 mg/L of 2-butanone in shake flask. With further optimization of culture condition, the titer of 2-butanone was increased to 450 mg/L. This study lays the basis for developing an efficient biological process for 2-butanone production.
PMCID: PMC4605612  PMID: 26465746
9.  Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA:ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1 
SpringerPlus  2015;4:467.
Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:ethanol O-acyltransferases Eht1 or Eeb1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, these two yeast enzymes were selected to explore their preparations as the form of whole cell biocatalysts for the production of volatile flavour esters. Here, the novel whole cell biocatalysts Pichia pastoris yeasts with functional extracellular expression of Eht1 or Eeb1 were constructed. Flavour production was established through an integrated process with coupled enzyme formation and ester biosynthesis in the recombinant yeasts in one pot, leading to the formation of volatile C6–C14 methyl and ethyl esters from wort medium. Interestingly, there is no significant difference between P. pastoris-EHT1 and P. pastoris-EEB1 in substrate preference during flavour biosynthesis, indicating a similar role of Eht1 and Eeb1 in P. pastoris cells, in contradiction with previous findings in S. cerevisiae to some extent. Consequently the study not only provides a greater understanding of these two enzymes in a heterogeneous host, but also demonstrated the positive effect of the recombinant Eht1 and Eeb1 in ester formation by P. pastoris live cells, potentially paving the way towards achieving efficient production of volatile flavour by an integrated biocatalytic system composed of recombinant enzyme production and flavour biosynthesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40064-015-1195-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4556718  PMID: 26357598
Yeast; Biosynthesis; Ester; Enzyme; Integrated
10.  Efficacy and Acceptability of Orthokeratology for Slowing Myopic Progression in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2015;2015:360806.
Background. To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of orthokeratology for slowing myopic progression in children with a well conducted evidence-based analysis. Design. Meta-analysis. Participants. Children from previously reported comparative studies were treated by orthokeratology versus control. Methods. A systematic literature retrieval was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and The included studies were subjected to meta-analysis using Stata version 10.1. Main Outcome Measures. Axial length change (efficacy) and dropout rates (acceptability) during 2-year follow-up. Results. Eight studies involving 769 subjects were included. At 2-year follow-up, a statistically significant difference was observed in axial length change between the orthokeratology and control groups, with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of −0.25 mm (95% CI, −0.30 to −0.21). The pooled myopic control rate declined with time, with 55, 51, 51, and 41% obtained after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment, respectively. No statistically significant difference was obtained for dropout rates between the orthokeratology and control groups at 2-year follow-up (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.22). Conclusions. Orthokeratology is effective and acceptable for slowing myopic progression in children with careful education and monitoring.
PMCID: PMC4475749  PMID: 26221539
11.  Axial Length Measurement Failure Rates with the IOLMaster and Lenstar LS 900 in Eyes with Cataract 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0128929.
To evaluate axial length (AL) measurement failure rate with the IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss AG, Germany) and Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Switzerland) in eyes with cataract.
Two hundred and ninety-six eyes of 170 patients with cataract were enrolled. Cataract type and severity were graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) and AL measurements were attempted with IOLMaster (version 5.4) and Lenstar LS 900 (version 1.1). Chi-squared analysis was used to assess if the difference in AL measurement acquisition rate was statistically significant between the two devices. The association of the different cataract types and severity with the AL measurement acquisition rate was evaluated with logistic regression analysis.
AL measurements were obtained in 184 eyes (62.16%) using the IOLMaster and 191 eyes (64.53%) using the Lenstar, which corresponds to a failure rate of 37.84% and 35.47% respectively. Chi-square analysis indicated no significant difference between the Lenstar and IOLMaster for AL measurement failure rate (x2 = 0.356, P = 0.550). Logistic regression analysis indicated no association between acquisition rates and cortical or nuclear cataracts with either device. There was a statistically significant association between acquisition rates and increasing severity of posterior subcapsular cataracts with the IOLMaster (β = -1.491, P<0.001) and Lenstar LS 900 (β = -1.507, P<0.001).
The IOLMaster and Lenstar LS 900 have similar AL measurement failure rates (35–38%) for Chinese public hospital cataract patients. Increasing severity of posterior subcapsular cataracts was problematic for both devices.
PMCID: PMC4462579  PMID: 26061554
12.  Keratometric Index Obtained by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(4):e0122441.
To determine the keratometric indices calculated based on parameters obtained by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT).
The ratio of anterior corneal curvature to posterior corneal curvature (Ratio) and keratometric index (N) were calculated within central 3 mm zone with the RTVue FD-OCT (RTVue, Optovue, Inc.) in 186 untreated eyes, 60 post-LASIK/PRK eyes, and 39 keratoconus eyes. The total corneal powers were calculated using different keratometric indices: Kcal based on the mean calculated keratometric index, K1.3315 calculated by the keratometric index of 1.3315, and K1.3375 calculated by the keratometric index of 1.3375. In addition, the total corneal powers based on Gaussian optics formula (Kactual) were calculated.
The means for Ratio in untreated controls, post-LASIK/PRK group and keratoconus group were 1.176 ± 0.022 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.172–1.179), 1.314 ± 0.042 (95%CI, 1.303–1.325) and 1.229 ± 0.118 (95%CI, 1.191–1.267), respectively. And the mean calculated keratometric index in untreated controls, post-LASIK/PRK group and keratoconus group were 1.3299 ± 0.00085 (95%CI, 1.3272–1.3308), 1.3242 ± 0.00171 (95%CI, 1.3238–1.3246) and 1.3277 ± 0.0046 (95%CI, 1.3263–1.3292), respectively. All the parameters were normally distributed. The differences between Kcal and Kactual, K1.3315 and Kactual, and K1.3375 and Kactual were 0.00 ± 0.11 D, 0.21 ± 0.11 D and 0.99 ± 0.12 D, respectively, in untreated controls; -0.01 ± 0.20 D, 0.85 ± 0.18 D and 1.56 ± 0.16 D, respectively, in post-LASIK/PRK group; and 0.03 ± 0.67 D, 0.56 ± 0.70 D and 1.40 ± 0.76 D, respectively, in keratoconus group.
The calculated keratometric index is negatively related to the ratio of anterior corneal curvature to posterior corneal curvature in untreated, post-LASIK/PRK, and keratoconus eyes, respectively. Using the calculated keratometric index may improve the prediction accuracies of total corneal powers in untreated controls, but not in post-LASIK/PRK and keratoconus eyes.
PMCID: PMC4401696  PMID: 25886489
13.  Precision of Corneal Thickness Measurements Obtained Using the Scheimpflug-Placido Imaging and Agreement with Ultrasound Pachymetry 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2015;2015:328798.
Purpose. To assess the reliability and comparability of measuring central corneal thickness (CCT) and thinnest corneal thickness (TCT) using a new Scheimpflug-Placido analyzer (TMS-5, Japan) and ultrasound (US) pachymetry. Methods. Seventy-six healthy subjects were prospectively measured 3 times by 1 operator using the TMS-5, 3 additional consecutive scans were performed by a second operator, and ultrasound (US) pachymetry measurements were taken. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. Agreement among the devices was assessed using Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The intraoperators TRT and CoV were <19 μm and 2.0%, respectively. The interoperators TRT and CoV were <12 μm and 1.0%, respectively, and ICC was >0.90. The mean CCT and TCT measurements using the TMS-5 were 15.97 μm (95% LoA from −26.42 to −5.52 μm) and 20.32 μm (95% LoA from −30.67 to −9.97 μm) smaller, respectively, than those using US pachymetry. Conclusions. The TMS-5 shows good repeatability and reproducibility for measuring CCT and TCT in normal subjects but only moderate agreement with US pachymetry results. Caution is warranted before using these techniques interchangeably.
PMCID: PMC4355121  PMID: 25810919
14.  Precision and Agreement of Corneal Power Measurements Obtained Using a New Corneal Topographer OphthaTOP 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(1):e109414.
To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of anterior corneal power measurements obtained with a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP (Hummel AG, Germany) and agreement with measurements by a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus, Germany) and an automated keratometer (IOLMaster, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany).
The right eyes of 79 healthy subjects were prospectively measured three times with all three devices. Another examiner performed three additional scans with the OphthaTOP in the same session. Within one week, the first examiner repeated the measurements using the OphthaTOP. The flat simulated keratometry (Kf), steep K (Ks), mean K (Km), J0, and J45 were noted. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by within-subject standard deviation (Sw), repeatability (2.77 Sw), coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement between devices was assessed using 95% limits of agreement (LoA).
Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of all measured parameters showed a 2.77 Sw of 0.29 diopter or less, a CoV of less than 0.24%, and an ICC of more than 0.906. Statistically significant differences (P<0.001) were found between the parameters analyzed by the three devices, except J0 and J45. The mean differences between OphthaTOP and the other two devices were small, and the 95% LoA was narrow for all results.
The OphthaTOP showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of corneal power measurements. Good agreements with the other two devices in these parameters were found in healthy eyes.
PMCID: PMC4283956  PMID: 25559203
15.  Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements with Scheimpflug/Placido Photography-Based Topography System and IOLMaster Partial Coherence Interferometry in Patients with Cataracts 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:540760.
Purpose. To assess the consistency of anterior segment measurements obtained using a Sirius Scheimpflug/Placido photography-based topography system (CSO, Italy) and IOLMaster partial coherence interferometry (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) in eyes with cataracts. Methods. A total of 90 eyes of 90 patients were included in this prospective study. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), corneal astigmatism axis, and white to white (WTW) values were randomly measured three times with Sirius and IOLMaster. Concordance between them was assessed by calculating 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The ACD and K taken with the Sirius were statistically significantly higher than that taken with the IOLMaster; however, the Sirius significantly underestimated the WTW values compared with the IOLMaster. Good agreement was found for Km and ACD measurements, with 95% LoA of −0.20 to 0.54 mm and −0.16 to 0.34 mm, respectively. Poor agreement was observed for astigmatism axis and WTW measurements, as the 95% LoA was −23.96 to 23.36° and −1.15 to 0.37 mm, respectively. Conclusion. With the exception of astigmatism axis and WTW, anterior segment measurements taken by Sirius and IOLMaster devices showed good agreement and may be used interchangeably in patients with cataracts.
PMCID: PMC4226174  PMID: 25400939
16.  Central and Midperipheral Corneal Thickness Measured with Scheimpflug Imaging and Optical Coherence Tomography 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e98316.
To compare corneal thickness measurements using Pentacam (Oculus, Germany), Sirius (CSO, Italy), Galilei (Ziemer, Switzerland), and RTVue-100 OCT (Optovue Inc., USA).
Sixty-six eyes of 66 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Three consecutive measurements were performed with each device. The mean value of the three measurements was used for subsequent analysis. Central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), and midperipheral corneal thickness (MPCT; measured at superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal locations with a distance of 1 mm (CT2mm) or 2.5 mm (CT5mm) from the corneal apex) were analyzed. Differences and agreement between measurements were assessed using the repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bland-Altman analyses, respectively.
Statistically significant differences (p<0.001) among the four devices were revealed in CCT, TCT and CT2mmmeasurements. The CCT, TCT, and CT2mm values were ranked from the thickest to the thinnest as follows: Galilei>Sirius>Pentacam>RTVue OCT. For these measurements, agreement between measurements by Sirius and Pentacam was good, whereas Galilei overestimated and RTVue underestimated corneal thickness compared to Sirius and Pentacam. As regards CT5mm measurements, Pentacam provided the largest values, whereas RTVue OCT yielded the smallest values. Agreement of the CT5mm measurements was good between the Pentacam, Sirius, moderate between Galilei and the other two Scheimpflug systems, and poor between the RTVue OCT and the remaining devices.
The Pentacam and Sirius can be used interchangeably for CCT measurements, while the Galilei and RTVue systematically over- and underestimate CCT, respectively. The three Scheimpflug cameras, but not the RTVue, may be used interchangeably for MPCT measurements.
PMCID: PMC4031212  PMID: 24854348
17.  Functional Fcgamma Receptor Polymorphisms Are Associated with Human Allergy 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89196.
IgG Fc receptors (FcγRs) play important roles in immune responses. It is not clear whether FcγR receptors play a role in human asthma and allergy. The aim of current study was to investigate whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FcγR genes (FCGR) are associated with human asthma and allergy.
Functional SNPs of FCGR2A (FcγRIIA-131His>Arg, rs1801274), FCGR2B (FcγRIIB-187Ile>Thr, rs1050501), FCGR2C (FcγRIIC-13Gln>Stop, rs10917661), FCGR3A (FcγRIIIA-158Val>Phe, rs396991), and FCGR3B variants (FcγRIIIB NA1 and NA2) were genotyped in an asthma family cohort including 370 atopy positive, 239 atopy negative, and 169 asthma positive subjects. The genotype and phenotype data (asthma, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and atopy) of subjects were analyzed using family-based association tests (FBAT) and logistic regression adjusted for age and sex.
The FcγRIIA-131His>Arg SNP is significantly associated with atopy in a family-based association test (P = 0.00287) and in a logistic regression analysis (P = 0.0269, OR 0.732, 95% CI: 0.555–0.965). The FcγRIIA-131His (or rs1801274-A) allele capable of binding human IgG2 has a protective role against atopy. In addition, the rare FcγRIIB-187Thr (or rs1050501-C) allele defective for the receptor-mediated inhibitory signals is a risk factor for atopy (P = 0.0031, OR 1.758, 95% CI: 1.209–2.556) and IgE production (P<0.001). However, variants of activating FcγRIIIA (rs396991), and FcγRIIIB (NA1 and NA2), and FcγRIIC (rs10917661) are not associated with asthma, BHR, and atopy (P>0.05).
FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB functional polymorphisms may have a role in the pathogenesis of allergy.
PMCID: PMC3931680  PMID: 24586589
18.  Detection and Genetic Analysis of Porcine Bocavirus in Different Swine Herds in North Central China 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:947084.
Porcine Bocavirus (PBoV) has been reported to be associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and pneumonia in pigs. In this study, a survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of PBoV in slaughter pigs, sick pigs, asymptomatic pigs and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) eradication plan herds in five provinces of China (Henan, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei and Tianjin) by means of PCR targeting NS1 gene of PBoV. Among the total of 403 tissue samples, 11.41% were positive for PBoV. The positive rates of spleen (20.75%) and inguinal lymph node (27.18%) are higher than those of other organs. PCR products of twenty PBoV positive samples from slaughter pigs were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The result revealed that PBoV could be divided into 6 groups (PBoV-a~PBoV-f). All PBoV sequenced in this study belong to PBoV-a–PBoV-d with 90.1% to 99% nucleotide identities. Our results exhibited significant genetic diversity of PBoV and suggested a complex prevalence of PBoV in Chinese swine herds. Whether this diversity of PBoV has a significance to pig production or even public health remains to be further studied.
PMCID: PMC3950361  PMID: 24701194
19.  Development of TaqMan-based qPCR method for detection of caprine arthritis–encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection 
Archives of Virology  2013;158(10):2135-2141.
A specific and sensitive two-step TaqMan real-time PCR has been developed for rapid diagnosis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection by using a set of specific primers and a TaqMan probe targeting a highly conserved region within the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (CA). The assay successfully detected CAEV proviral DNA in total DNA extracts originating from cell culture, whole blood samples and isolated PBMCs, with a lower detection limit of 102 copies and a linear dynamic range of 105 to 1010 copies/ml. There was no cross-reaction with other animal viruses (e.g., goat pox virus, bovine leukemia virus, bovine mucosal disease virus, swine influenza virus and Nipah virus). When applied in parallel with serological AGID and conventional PCR for detection of CAEV in field samples, this assay exhibited a higher sensitivity than these traditional methods, and 7.8 % of the 308 specimens collected in the Shanxi and Tianjin regions of China from 1993 to 2011 were found to be positive. Thus, the TaqMan qPCR assay provides a fast, specific and sensitive means for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in goat specimens and should be useful for large-scale detection in eradication programs and epidemiological studies.
PMCID: PMC3785178  PMID: 23670072
20.  A Comprehensive Assessment of the Precision and Agreement of Anterior Corneal Power Measurements Obtained Using 8 Different Devices 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45607.
To comprehensively assess the precision and agreement of anterior corneal power measurements using 8 different devices.
Thirty-five eyes from 35 healthy subjects were included in the prospective study. In the first session, a single examiner performed on each subject randomly measurements with the RC-5000 (Tomey Corp., Japan), KR-8000 (Topcon, Japan), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany), E300 (Medmont International, Australia), Allegro Topolyzer (Wavelight AG, Germany), Vista (EyeSys, TX), Pentacam (Oculus, Germany) and Sirius (CSO, Italy). Measurements were repeated in the second session (1 to 2 weeks later). Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements were assessed based on the intrasession and intersession within-subject standard deviation (Sw), repeatability (2.77Sw), coefficient of variation (COV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was evaluated by 95% limits of agreement (LoA).
All devices demonstrated high repeatability and reproducibility of the keratometric values (2.77Sw<0.36D, COV<0.3%, ICC>0.98). Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post test showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01) among mean keratometric values of most instruments; the largest differences were observed between the EyeSys Vista and Medmont E300. Good agreement (i.e., 95%LoA within ±0.5D) was found between most instruments for flat, steep and mean keratometry, except for EyeSys and Medmont. Repeatability and reproducibility of vectors J0 and J45 was good, as the ICCs were higher than 0.9, except J45 of Medmont and Pentacam. For the 95% LoAs of J0 and J45, they were all ≤ ±0.31 among any two paired devices.
The 8 devices showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility. The results obtained using the RC-5000, KR-8000, IOLMaster, Allegro Topolyzer, Pentacam and Sirius were comparable, suggesting that they could be used interchangeably in most clinical settings. Caution is warranted with the measurements of the EyeSys Vista and Medmont E300, which should not be used interchangeably with other devices due to lower agreement.
Trial Registration NCT01587287
PMCID: PMC3458095  PMID: 23049823
21.  Human FasL Gene Is a Target of β-Catenin/T-Cell Factor Pathway and Complex FasL Haplotypes Alter Promoter Functions 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26143.
FasL expression on human immune cells and cancer cells plays important roles in immune homeostasis and in cancer development. Our previous study suggests that polymorphisms in the FasL promoter can significantly affect the gene expression in human cells. In addition to the functional FasL SNP -844C>T (rs763110), three other SNPs (SNP -756A>G or rs2021837, SNP -478A>T or rs41309790, and SNP -205 C>G or rs74124371) exist in the proximal FasL promoter. In the current study, we established three major FasL hyplotypes in humans. Interestingly, a transcription motif search revealed that the FasL promoter possessed two consensus T-cell factor (TCF/LEF1) binding elements (TBEs), which is either polymorphic (SNP -205C>G) or close to the functional SNP -844C>T. Subsequently, we demonstrate that both FasL TBEs formed complexes with the TCF-4 and β-catenin transcription factors in vitro and in vivo. Co-transfection of LEF-1 and β-catenin transcription factors significantly increased FasL promoter activities, suggesting that FasL is a target gene of the β-catenin/T-cell factor pathway. More importantly, we found that the rare allele (-205G) of the polymorphic FasL TBE (SNP -205C>G) failed to bind the TCF-4 transcription factor and that SNP -205 C>G significantly affected the promoter activity. Furthermore, promoter reporter assays revealed that FasL SNP haplotypes influenced promoter activities in human colon cancer cells and in human T cells. Finally, β-catenin knockdown significantly decreased the FasL expression in human SW480 colon cancer cells. Collectively, our data suggest that β-catenin may be involved in FasL gene regulation and that FasL expression is influenced by FasL SNP haplotypes, which may have significant implications in immune response and tumorigenesis.
PMCID: PMC3191176  PMID: 22022540

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