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1.  Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Candidate: A Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial in Children 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;208(4):544-553.
Background. Mismatch between circulating influenza B viruses (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) and vaccine strains occurs frequently.
Methods. In a randomized controlled trial, immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate (QIV) versus trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)-Victoria(Vic) and TIV-Yamagata(Yam) in children 3–17 years of age was evaluated. In an open-label study arm, QIV only was assessed in children 6–35 months of age.
Results. A total of 3094 children (932 QIV, 929 TIV-Vic, 932 TIV-Yam, and 301 QIV only) were vaccinated. QIV was noninferior to the TIVs for shared strains (A/H3N2 and A/H1N1) based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies 28 days after last vaccination, and superior for the unique B strains Victoria and Yamagata (geometric mean titer ratios 2.61, 3.78; seroconversion rate differences 33.96%, 44.63%). Among children in the randomized trial, adverse event rates were similar except for injection site pain (dose 1: 65.4% QIV, 54.6% TIV-Vic, 55.7% TIV-Yam).
Conclusion. QIV elicited superior HI responses to the added B strains compared to TIV controls, potentially improving its effectiveness against influenza B. HI responses were similar between QIV and TIV controls for the shared strains. QIV had an acceptable safety profile relative to TIVs.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01198756.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit263
PMCID: PMC3719910  PMID: 23847058
influenza vaccine; immunogenicity; children
2.  Safety and tolerability of zoster vaccine in adults ≥60 years old 
Human Vaccines  2011;7(11):1130-1136.
Objective
To evaluate the general safety of zoster vaccine (ZV) in adults ≥60 years old.
Patients/Methods
Subjects were enrolled in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1 dose of ZV or placebo. Subjects were followed for serious adverse experiences (SAEs) for 42 days (primary follow-up period) and 182 days (secondary follow-up period) postvaccination. Relative-risks (ZV/placebo) for SAEs during both safety periods were calculated. Study period: 17-Sep‑2007 to 09-Jan-2009.
Results
Overall, 5,983 subjects received ZV and 5,997 received placebo. Within the primary 42-day follow-up period, 84 ZV subjects and 67 placebo subjects reported SAEs. The estimated risk of SAEs within 42 days was 1.41% for ZV versus 1.12% for placebo, with a relative-risk of 1.26 (95% CI 0.91,1.73); indicating no statistically significant difference between groups, meeting the pre-specified success criterion. During the 182-day follow-up period, 340 ZV subjects and 300 placebo subjects reported SAEs. The estimated risk of SAEs within 182 days was 5.68% for ZV versus 5.01% for placebo, with a relative-risk of 1.13 (95% CI 0.98,1.32), indicating no statistically significant difference between groups. Two subjects in the ZV group reported SAEs deemed by the investigator to be vaccine-related (uveitis and sciatica; onset Day 5 and 4, respectively). One subject in the placebo group reported a SAE deemed by the investigator to be vaccine-related (lumbar radiculopathy; onset Day 51). There were 24 fatal SAEs in the ZV group and 17 in the placebo group (relative risk = 1.41; CI: 0.77, 2.60); 6 and 5, respectively, with SAE onset during the primary 42-day follow-up period.  No deaths were deemed vaccine-related.
Conclusions
ZV and placebo groups had similar safety profiles in terms of SAEs during the primary (Day 1 to 42) and secondary (Day 1 to 182) follow-up periods.
doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.17982
PMCID: PMC3323493  PMID: 22048110
clinical study; herpes zoster; safety; tolerability; zoster vaccine
3.  Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccination of Adults: Phase III Comparison of an Investigational Conjugate Vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the Licensed Vaccine, Menactra▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2009;16(12):1810-1815.
Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, with the highest case fatality rates reported for individuals ≥15 years of age. This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197 conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, to those of the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, when administered to healthy adults. In this phase III multicenter study, 1,359 adults 19 to 55 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive a single dose of one of three lots of MenACWY-CRM or a single dose of Menactra. Serum samples obtained at baseline and 1 month postvaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA). The hSBA titers following vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and Menactra were compared in noninferiority and prespecified superiority analyses. Reactogenicity was similar in the MenACWY-CRM and Menactra groups, and neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. When compared with Menactra, MenACWY-CRM met the superiority criteria for the proportions of recipients achieving a seroresponse against serogroups C, W-135, and Y and the proportion of subjects achieving postvaccination titers of ≥1:8 for serogroups C and Y. MenACWY-CRM's immunogenicity was statistically noninferior (the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was more than −10%) to that of Menactra for all four serogroups, with the postvaccination hSBA geometric mean titers being consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for Menactra. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00207-09
PMCID: PMC2786376  PMID: 19812260
4.  Comparative Immunogenicities of Frozen and Refrigerated Formulations of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Subjects▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2007;51(11):4001-4008.
The frozen version of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV; FluMist) was compared with a newly licensed, refrigerated formulation, the cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent (CAIV-T), for their immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability in healthy subjects 5 to 49 years of age. Eligible subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive CAIV-T or frozen LAIV. Subjects 5 to 8 years of age received two doses of vaccine 46 to 60 days apart; subjects 9 to 49 years of age received one dose of vaccine. Equivalent immunogenicities were defined as serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) geometric mean titer (GMT) ratios >0.5 and <2.0 for each of the three vaccine-specific strains. A total of 376 subjects 5 to 8 years of age and 566 subjects 9 to 49 years of age were evaluable. Postvaccination HAI GMT ratios were equivalent for CAIV-T and LAIV. The GMT ratios of CAIV-T/LAIV for the H1N1, H3N2, and B strains were 1.24, 1.02, and 1.00, respectively, for the 5- to 8-year-old age group and 1.14, 1.12, and 0.96, respectively, for the 9- to 49-year-old age group. Seroresponse/seroconversion rates (fourfold or greater rise) were similar in both age groups for each of the three vaccine strains. Within 28 days, the most frequent reactogenicity event in the CAIV-T and LAIV groups was runny nose/nasal congestion, which occurred at higher rates after dose 1 (44% and 42%, respectively) than after dose 2 (41% and 29%, respectively) in the 5- to 8-year-old group. Otherwise, the rates of adverse events (AEs) were similar between the treatment groups and the two age cohorts, with no serious AEs related to the study vaccines. The immunogenicities, reactogenicity events, and AEs were comparable for refrigerated CAIV-T and frozen LAIV.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00517-07
PMCID: PMC2151446  PMID: 17724151

Results 1-4 (4)