This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6–17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13–0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90–2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations.
children; diabetes; diabetes mellitus; pediatrics; pneumococcal infection; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; pneumococcal vaccine; Streptococcus pneumoniae; type 1 diabetes mellitus
PATRO Children is an ongoing observational, longitudinal, non-interventional, global post-marketing surveillance study, which is investigating the long-term safety and effectiveness of Omnitrope®, a somatropin biosimilar to Genotropin®, in children with growth disturbances. The primary endpoint of PATRO Children is long-term safety and the secondary endpoint is effectiveness, which is assessed by analysing auxological data such as height (HSDS) and height velocity (HVSDS) standard deviation scores. Here, we report the data from the Italian interim analysis of PATRO Children data up to August 2015.
PATRO Children is enrolling children who are diagnosed with conditions of short stature requiring GH treatment and are receiving Omnitrope®. Adverse events (AEs) are assessed in all Omnitrope®-treated patients. Height is evaluated yearly to near-adult (final) height, and is herein reported as HSDS; height velocity is also assessed and reported as a standard deviation score (HVSDS).
Up to August 2015, a total of 186 patients (mean age 10.2 years, 57.5 % males) were enrolled :156 [84 %] had growth hormone deficiency, 12 [6.5 %] were born small for gestational age, seven [3.8 %] had Prader-Willi syndrome, one [0.5 %] had Turner syndrome and one [0.5 %] had chronic renal insufficiency; seven [3.8 %] patients had other indication profiles. The mean treatment duration with Omnitrope® was 28.1 ± 19.1 months. AEs were reported in 35.6 % of patients and included headache, pyrexia, arthralgia, abdominal pain, leg and/or arm pain and increased blood creatine phosphokinase. Two serious AEs in two patients were thought to be drug-related; one patient experienced a minimal increase in a known residual craniopharyngioma, and another a gait disturbance with worsening of walking difficulties. Similar to investigational studies, Omnitrope® treatment was associated with improvements in both HSDS and HVSDS.
Omnitrope® appears to be well tolerated and effective for the treatment of a wide range of paediatric indications, which is consistent with the outcomes from controlled clinical trials. These results need to be interpreted with caution until the data from the global PATRO Children study are available.
Adolescents; Children; Infants; Omnitrope®; Paediatric; Recombinant human growth hormone
Vitamin D (25OHD) effects on glycemic control are unclear in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Aims of this study were to investigate 25OHD status among children with T1DM and its relationship with insulin sensitivity and glycemic status.
Subjects and Methods
A cross sectional study was carried out between 2008–2014. A total of 141 patients had a T1DM >12 months diagnosis and were enrolled in the present study. Of these 35 (24.8%) were migrants and 106 (75.2%) Italians (T2). We retrospectively analyzed data at the onset of the disease (T0)(64 subjects) and 12–24 months before the last visit (T1,124 subjects). Fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 25OHD levels and daily insulin requirement were evaluated and Cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day supplementation for the management of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/L) was systematically added.
A generalized 25OHD insufficiency was found at each study time, particularly in migrants. At T0, the 25OHD levels were inversely related to diabetic keto-acidosis (DKA) severity (p<0.05). At T1 and T2, subjects with 25OHD ≤25nmol/L (10 ng/mL) showed higher daily insulin requirement (p<0.05) and HbA1c values (p<0.01) than others vitamin D status. The 25OHD levels were negatively related with HbA1c (p<0.001) and daily insulin dose (p<0.05) during follow up. There was a significant difference in 25OHD (p<0.01) between subjects with different metabolic control (HbA1c <7.5%,7.5–8%,>8%), both at T1 and T2. In supplemented subjects, we found a significant increase in 25OHD levels (p<0.0001) and decrease of HbA1c (p<0.001) between T1 and T2, but this was not significant in the migrants subgroup. Multivariate regression analysis showed a link between HbA1c and 25OHD levels (p<0.001).
Children with T1DM show a generalized 25OHD deficiency that impact on metabolic status and glycemic homeostasis. Vitamin D supplementation improves glycemic control and should be considered as an additional therapy.
Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs.
We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts.
We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%.
On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed.
Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in CftrF508del homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation.
cystic fibrosis; CFTR; autophagy; cysteamine; epigallocatechin gallate; sweat chloride; BECN1/Beclin 1, autophagy-related; CF, cystic fibrosis; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; CHX, cycloheximide; CSNK2, casein kinase 2; CXCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2; CXCL8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8; EGCG, epigallocatechin gallate; FEV, forced expiratory volume; PM, plasma membrane; RPD, rectal potential difference; SQSTM1, sequestosome 1; TGM2, transglutaminase 2; TNF, tumor necrosis factor
Invasive diseases (ID) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae), and Neisseria meningitidis are a major public health problem worldwide. Comprehensive data on the burden of bacteremia and ID in Italy, including data based on molecular techniques, are needed.
We conducted a prospective, multi-centre, hospital-based study (GSK study identifier: 111334) to assess the burden of bacteremia and ID among children less than five years old with a fever of 39 °C or greater. Study participation involved a single medical examination, collection of blood for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and blood culture, and collection of an oropharyngeal swab for colonization analysis by PCR.
Between May 2008 and June 2009, 4536 patients were screened, 944 were selected and 920 were enrolled in the study. There were 225 clinical diagnoses of ID, 9.8 % (22) of which were bacteremic. A diagnosis of sepsis was made for 38 cases, 5.3 % (2) of which were bacteremic. Among the 629 non-ID diagnoses, 1.6 % (10) were bacteremic. Among the 34 bacteremic cases, the most common diagnoses were community-acquired pneumonia (15/34), pleural effusion (4/34) and meningitis (4/34). S. pneumoniae was the most frequently detected bacteria among bacteremic cases (29/34) followed by H. influenzae (3/34). Ninety percent (27/30) of bacteremic patients with oropharyngeal swab results were colonized with the studied bacterial pathogens compared to 46.1 % (402/872) of non-bacteremic cases (p < 0.001). PCV7 (7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) vaccination was reported for 55.9 % (19/34) of bacteremic cases. S. pneumoniae serotypes were non-vaccine serotypes in children who had been vaccinated. Mean duration of hospitalization was longer for bacteremic cases versus non-bacteremic cases (13.6 versus 5.8 days).
These results confirm that S. pneumoniae is one of the pathogens frequently responsible for invasive disease.
Fever; Invasive disease; Bacteremia; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Haemophilus influenzae; Pneumococcal vaccine
Vitamin D status during pregnancy is related to neonatal vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Aim of this study was to investigate 25OHD levels in maternal serum and in neonatal blood spots in native and migrant populations living in Novara (North Italy, 45°N latitude).
Methods and Findings
We carried out a cross sectional study from April 1st 2012 to March 30th 2013, in a tertiary Care Center. Maternal blood samples after delivery and newborns' blood spots were analyzed for 25OHD levels in 533 pairs. Maternal country of origin, skin phototype, vitamin D dietary intake and supplementation during pregnancy were recorded. Multivariate regression analysis, showed a link between neonatal and maternal 25OHD levels (R-square:0.664). Severely deficient 25OHD values (<25 nmol/L) were found in 38% of Italian and in 76.2% of migrant’s newborns (p <0.0001), and in 18% of Italian and 48,4% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001) while 25OHD deficiency (≥25 and <50 nmol/L) was shown in 40.1% of Italian and 21.7% of migrant’s newborns (p <0.0001), and in 43.6% of Italian and 41.3% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001). Italian newborns and mothers had higher 25OHD levels (34.4±19.2 and 44.9±21.2nmol/L) than migrants (17.7±13.7 and 29.7±16.5nmol/L; p<0.0001). A linear decrease of 25OHD levels was found with increasing skin pigmentation (phototype I 42.1 ±18.2 vs phototype VI 17.9±10.1 nmol/l; p<0.0001). Vitamin D supplementation resulted in higher 25OHD values both in mothers and in their newborns (p<0.0001).
Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy and in newborns is frequent especially among migrants. A prevention program in Piedmont should urgently be considered and people identified as being at risk should be closely monitored. Vitamin D supplementation should be taken into account when considering a preventative health care policy.
Healthcare professionals need updated information about what is the range of “normal” variation of menstrual cycle features to support young girls and their parents in managing reproductive health, and to detect diseases early.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study aimed to provide an updated picture of age at menarche and main menstrual cycle characteristics and complaints in an Italian population-based sample of 3,783 adolescents attending secondary school. Girls filled in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire including questions about demography, anthropometry, smoking and drinking habits, use of contraceptive, socioeconomic status, age at menarche, menstrual pattern, and physical/psychological menstrual complaints. Mean age at menarche and prevalence of polymenorrhea (cycle length < 21 days), oligomenorrhea (cycle length > 35 days), irregularity, dysmenorrhea, and of physical/psychological complaints were computed. Factors associated with age at menarche and menstrual disturbances were explored by using multiple logistic models.
The girls’ mean age was 17.1 years (SD 1.4 years) and the mean age at menarche was 12.4 years (SD 1.3 years); menarche occurred with two monthly peaks of frequency in July–September and in December–January (P < 0.0001). Age at menarche was significantly associated with geographic genetics (as expressed by parents’ birth area), mother's menarcheal age, BMI, family size, and age at data collection. The prevalence of polymenorrhea was about 2.5%, oligomenorrhea was declared by 3.7%, irregular length by 8.3%, while long bleeding (>6 days) was shown in 19.6% of girls. Gynecological age was significantly associated with cycle length (P < 0.0001) with long cycles becoming more regular within the fourth year after menarche, while frequency of polymenorrhea stabilized after the second gynecological year. Oligomenorrhea and irregularity were both significantly associated with long menstrual bleeding (adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.55-3.60, and adjusted OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.95-3.44, respectively).
The findings of the study support the levelling-off of secular trend in menarche anticipation in Italy and confirm the timing in menstrual cycle regularization. The study provides updated epidemiological data on frequency of menstrual abnormalities to help reproductive health professionals in managing adolescent gynecology.
Adolescence; cross-sectional; menarche; menstrual disorders; seasonal peaks
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, in particular after treatment in children and adults with pre-existing metabolic risk factors. Our aims were. i) to evaluate the effect on glucose metabolism of rhGH treatment and withdrawal in not confirmed GHD adolescents at the achievement of adult height; ii) to investigate the impact of GH receptor gene genomic deletion of exon 3 (d3GHR).
We performed a longitudinal study (1 year) in a tertiary care center.
23 GHD adolescent were followed in the last year of rhGH treatment (T0), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months after rhGH withdrawal with fasting and post-OGTT evaluations. 40 healthy adolescents were used as controls. HOMA-IR, HOMA%β, insulinogenic (INS) and disposition (DI) indexes were calculated. GHR genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR.
In the group as a whole, fasting insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.05), insulin and glucose levels during OGTT (p<0.01) progressively decreased from T0 to T12 becoming similar to controls. During rhGH, a compensatory insulin secretion with a stable DI was recorded, and, then, HOMAβ and INS decreased at T6 and T12 (p<0.05). By evaluating the GHR genotype, nDel GHD showed a decrease from T0 to T12 in HOMA-IR, HOMAβ, INS (p<0.05) and DI. Del GHD showed a gradual increase in DI (p<0.05) and INS with a stable HOMA-IR and higher HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01).
In not confirmed GHD adolescents the fasting deterioration in glucose homeostasis during rhGH is efficaciously coupled with a compensatory insulin secretion and activity at OGTT. The presence of at least one d3GHR allele is associated with lower glucose levels and higher HOMA-β and DI after rhGH withdrawal. Screening for the d3GHR in the pediatric age may help physicians to follow and phenotype GHD patients also by a metabolic point of view.
Key circulating molecules that link vitamin D (VD) to pediatric obesity and its co-morbidities remain unclear. Using a proteomic approach, our objective was to identify key molecules in obese children dichotomized according to 25OH-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. A total of 42 obese children (M/F = 18/24) were divided according to their 25OHD3 levels into 25OHD3 deficient (VDD; n = 18; 25OHD<15 ng/ml) or normal subjects (NVD; n = 24; >30 ng/ml). Plasma proteomic analyses by two dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis were performed at baseline in all subjects. VDD subjects underwent a 12mo treatment with 3000 IU vitamin D3 once a week to confirm the proteomic analyses. The proteomic analyses identified 53 “spots” that differed between VDD and NVD (p<0.05), amongst which adiponectin was identified. Adiponectin was selected for confirmational studies due to its tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Western Immunoblot (WIB) analyses of 2D-gels demonstrated a downregulation of adiponectin in VDD subjects, which was confirmed in the plasma from VDD with respect to NVD subjects (p<0.035) and increased following 12mo vitamin D3 supplementation in VDD subjects (p<0.02). High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, a surrogate indicator of insulin sensitivity, was significantly lower in VDD subjects (p<0.02) and improved with vitamin D3 supplementation (p<0.042). A direct effect in vitro of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 on adipocyte adiponectin synthesis was demonstrated, with adiponectin and its multimeric forms upregulated, even at low pharmacological doses (10−9 M) of 1α,25-(OH)2D3. This upregulation was paralleled by the adiponectin interactive protein, DsbA-L, suggesting that the VD regulation of adiponectin involves post-transciptional events. Using a proteomic approach, multimeric adiponectin has been identified as a key plasma protein that links VDD to pediatric obesity.
A deficiency in vitamin D (25OHD) is common throughout the world in both adults and children, being related to skin pigmentation, sun exposure, dietary intake and obesity. Limited data are available for the neonatal age. The aim of the study is to understand the differences in 25OHD levels with respect to skin colour and ethnicity in newborns.
We randomly enrolled 62 neonates, born at term and appropriate for gestational age. Thirty two were born from Italian mothers with fair skin (FS) and 30 from non-Caucasian mothers (North African, African, Asian and Latin American): 10 with light olive/light brown (LOB) and 20 with medium brown/black skin (MBB). Vitamin D was measured in the cord blood at birth and in neonatal serum during metabolic screening.
25OHD levels were (mean ± SD) 21.4 ± 11 ng/ml in cord blood and 14.9 ± 7 ng/ml in serum after birth. 25OHD values were higher in cord blood (p < 0.01) and neonatal serum (p < 0.001) in subjects supplemented with Vitamin D. Newborn FS showed higher vitamin D levels in cord blood when compared to LOB and MBB (p < 0.01), and higher levels in neonatal serum when compared to LOB (p < 0.01). In cord blood, 25OHD levels were higher in Italian newborns than in North African (p < 0.004) and African (p < 0.01). In neonatal serum, 25OHD levels were higher in Italian infants only when compared with North African infants (p < 0.03).
The present study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in newborns with significant differences observed to be due to ethnicity, skin colour and maternal supplementation during the pregnancy.
Vitamin D; Newborn; Ethnicity; Skin colour
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is a quite common disorder in the pediatric age group. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the studies investigating the natural course of SH and the effects of replacement therapy with levothyroxine in childhood. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE (1990 to 2012) and identified 14 articles suitable to be included. SH is a benign process that does not influence anthropometric parameters or puberty onset, and in most cases, it is a remitting disease, with a low risk of development of overt hypothyroidism, more frequently evolving toward euthyroidism or steadily remaining in a condition of isolated hyperthyrotropinemia. Studies analyzing the effects of replacement therapy in SH have reported an increased growth velocity in children with short stature or chronic diseases, discordant effects on thyroid volume reduction, and no effects on neurocognitive function. SH in children and adolescent is often a self-remitting process and its treatment should be considered only when thyroid stimulating hormone values are higher than 10 mIU/L, when clinical signs or symptoms of impaired thyroid function or goiter are detected, or when SH is associated with other chronic diseases.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Subclinical hypothyroidism; children; natural history; treatment
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents.
This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined.
ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ≥90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ≥95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ≥90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population.
In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. High ACTH levels are associated with high triglyceride levels and hyperglycemia, while high cortisol is associated with hypertension and high LDL-cholesterol. These specific relationships suggest complex mechanisms through which the HPA axis may contribute to metabolic impairments in obesity, and merit further investigations.
ACTH; cardiovascular risk; cortisol; glucose; hypertension; lipids; obesity; pediatric
The most striking event in the whole process of female puberty is the onset of menstruation. To our knowledge, no large population-based studies have been performed on the topic of menstrual health among Italian adolescents in recent years.
The aims of this study were to produce up-to-date information on the menstrual pattern of Italian girls attending secondary school, and to estimate the prevalence of menstrual cycle abnormalities in this population.
This was a cross-sectional study on a population-based sample of Italian adolescents aged 13–21 years attending secondary school. Only girls who had already started menstruating were requested to participate. Information was collected by means of a questionnaire that included items on the girls’ demographic details, anthropometrics, smoking and drinking habits, use of contraceptive pills, and socioeconomic status. The questions on the girls’ menstrual pattern concerned their age at menarche, duration of the most recent menstruation intervals (<21, 21–35, >35 days, variable), average days of bleeding (<4, 4–6, >6 days), and any menstrual problems and their frequency.
A total of 6,924 questionnaires were administered and 4,992 (71%) were returned. One hundred girls failed to report their date of birth, so 4,892 subjects were analyzed. The girls’ mean age was 17.1 years (SD ±1.4); their mean age at menarche was 12.4 (±1.3) years, median 12.4 years (95%CI 12.3–12.5).
In our sample population, 3.0% (95%CI 2.5%-3.4%) of the girls had menstruation intervals of less than 21 days, while it was more than 35 days in 3.4% (95%CI 2.9%-3.9%). About 9% of the girls (95%CI 7.7%-9.4%) said the length of their menstruation interval was currently irregular. Short bleeding periods (<4 days) were reported in 3.2% of the sample population (95%CI 2.7%-3.7%), long periods (>6 days) in 19% (95%CI 17.9%-20.1%). Menstruation-related abdominal pain was reported by about 56% of our sample. About 6.2% of the girls (95%CI 5.4%-7.0%) were suffering from dysmenorrhea.
In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the largest studies on menstrual patterns and menstrual disorders among Italian adolescent girls. Adolescent girls referring persistent oligomenorrhoea, in first two years from menarche, had a higher risk for developing a persistent menstrual irregularity. They had longer bleeding periods (>6 days) and this has practical implications because it makes these adolescents potentially more susceptible to iron deficiency anemia. Clinicians need to identify menstrual abnormalities as early as possible in order to minimize their possible consequences and sequelae, and to promote proper health information.
We recommend that adolescents should be encouraged to chart their menstrual frequency and regularity prospectively from the menarche onwards.
Menstrual pattern; Menstrual disorders; Menstrual cycle length; Bleeding length; Polymenorrhea; Oligomenorrhea; Dysmenorrhea; Adolescents
Background: Pertussis occurs in older children, adolescents and adults due to waning immunity after primary vaccination. Booster vaccination for pre-school children has been recommended in Italy since 1999. In this study (NCT00871000), the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV; GSK Biologicals Boostrix™-Polio; 3-component pertussis) vs. full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine (sanofi-pasteur—MSD Tetravac™; 2-component pertussis) was evaluated in pre-school Italian children.
Methods: Healthy children aged 5–6 y primed in a routine vaccination setting with three doses of DTPa-based vaccines were enrolled and randomized (1:1) in this phase IIIb, booster study to receive a single dose of dTpa-IPV or DTPa-IPV; the MMRV vaccine was co-administered. Antibody concentrations/titers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliovirus 1–3 were measured before and one month post-booster. Reactogenicity and safety was assessed.
Results: 305 subjects were enrolled of whom 303 (dTpa-IPV = 151; DTPa-IPV = 152) received booster vaccination. One month post-booster, all subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-poliovirus 1–3; 99.3% of dTpa-IPV and 60.4% of DTPa-IPV subjects were seropositive for anti-PRN; 98–100% of subjects were seropositive against MMRV antigens post-booster. Pain at the injection site (dTpa-IPV: 63.6%; DTPa-IPV: 63.2%) and fatigue (dTpa-IPV: 26.5%; DTPa-IPV: 23.7%) were the most commonly reported solicited local and general symptoms, during the 4-d follow-up period. No SAEs or fatalities were reported.
Conclusions: The reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children.
pre-school; MMRV; diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine; Italy; 2 + 1 schedule
The physiological link between ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) has not yet been fully clarified. Furthermore, the existence of a negative feedback mechanism between growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor (GH–IGF)-I axis and ghrelin and the influence of amino acids on ghrelin secretion in children remain matters of debate.
To understand the regulation of ghrelin secretion and clarify the relationship between ghrelin and GH secretion in GH-deficient (GHD) and GH-sufficient (GHS) children.
Patients and Methods
Ten GHD (male/female [M/F], 6/4; age [mean ± SEM], 10.7 ± 0.9 years) and 10 GHS prepubertal children (M/F, 6/4; age [mean ± SEM], 10.3 ± 0.6 years), underwent an arginine (ARG) test (infusion, 0.5 g/kg, iv). Levels of GH, total ghrelin, and acylated ghrelin (AG) were assayed every 30 min from 0 to +120 min.
Peak GH values were lower in GHD subjects than in GHS subjects (P < 0.0001). The baseline levels, peak levels, or area under the curves (AUC) for total ghrelin and AG were similar between GHD and GHS children. ARG infusion was followed by a slight to significant decrease in total ghrelin levels, but not AG levels, both in GHD and GHS subjects with a nadir at +30 min. No correlation was seen between GH, total ghrelin, or AG response and ARG infusion.
Total ghrelin and AG levels seemed unaffected by GH status in prepubertal children. ARG infusion was unable to blunt ghrelin secretion irrespective of GH status in childhood. Moreover, since ARG influences GH secretion via modulation of somatostatin release, ghrelin secretion seems to be partially refractory to somatostatin action.
Acylated Ghrelin; Growth Hormone; Growth Hormone Deficiency
This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.
A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been developed to improve protection against pneumococcal disease beyond that possible with the licensed 7-valent vaccine (PCV7). This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of PCV13 with those of PCV7 when given as part of the pediatric vaccination schedule recommended in Italy. A total of 606 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either PCV13 or PCV7 at 3, 5, and 11 months of age; all subjects concomitantly received diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine. Vaccine reactions were monitored. Antibody responses to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens, serotype-specific anticapsular polysaccharide IgG responses, and antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) activity were measured 1 month after the two-dose primary series and 1 month after the toddler dose. Overall, the safety profile of PCV13 was similar to that of PCV7. The response to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens was substantially the same with both PCV13 and PCV7. PCV13 elicited antipneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies to all 13 vaccine serotypes, with notable increases in concentrations seen after the toddler dose. Despite a lower immunogenicity for serotypes 6B and 23F after the primary series of PCV13, responses to the seven common serotypes were comparable between the PCV13 and PCV7 groups when measured after the toddler dose. PCV13 also elicited substantial levels of OPA activity against all 13 serotypes following both the infant series and the toddler dose. In conclusion, PCV13 appeared comparable to PCV7 in safety profile and immunogenicity for common serotypes, demonstrated functional OPA responses for all 13 serotypes, and did not interfere with immune responses to concomitantly administered DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether access to paediatric emergency departments differed between foreign and Italian patients.
We performed a cross-sectional study between January-December 2007 to analyse attendance's characteristics in the paediatric emergency departments of ten Italian public hospitals. The study population included each foreign patient and the following Italian patient admitted to the same emergency department. All causes of admission of these subjects were evaluated, together with the child's age, gender, country of birth, parents' nationality, time of admission, severity code and discharge-related circumstances.
We enrolled 4874 patients, 2437 foreign (M:F = 1409:1028) and 2437 Italian ones (M:F = 1368:1069). Most of foreign and Italian patients' admissions were sorted as green (72.5% and 87.8%, respectively) or white codes (25.2% and 9.8%, respectively). The most frequent causes for attendance concerned respiratory tract diseases, followed by gastroenteric ones and injuries in both groups.
In our survey immigrants didn't access to emergency departments more than Italian children. Both of them referred to emergency departments mainly for semi-urgent or non-urgent problems. Foreign and Italian patients suffered from the same pathologies. Infectious diseases traditionally thought to be a potential problem in immigrant populations actually seem to be quite infrequent.
Care procedures for preventing neonatal diseases are carried out according to nurseries' traditions and may be not consistent with the evidence based medicine issues.
A multi-centric survey was conducted in 2 Regions located in NW Italy (Piedmont and Aosta Valley) in order to collect information on some healthy newborn care procedures. During 2001, a questionnaire was sent to the chief pediatrician in charge to the all 33 nurseries of the region asking the methods used during 2000 as prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, early and late hemorrhagic disease of newborn, umbilical cord care and recommendations of vitamin D administration. Thereafter, during 2004 the same questionnaire was sent to the 34 chief pediatrician of nurseries to evaluate if the procedures were changed during 2003 according to guidelines. The nurseries care for 32,516 newborns in 2000 and 37,414 in 2003.
Aminoglycoside eyes drops as prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum were the first choice in both periods (23 out 33 nurseries in 2000 and 24 out 34 in 2003 p > 0.05; the corresponding figures for newborns were18,984 out 32,516 newborns vs. 28,180 out of 37,414 p < 0.05). The umbilical cord care was carried out with alcohol in 12/33 centers (13,248 newborns) and dry gauze in 3/33 centers (2,130 newborns) in 2000, the corresponding figures in 2003 were 6/34 centers (p > 0.05), (6,380 newborns, p < 0.05) and 12/34 centers (p < 0.05), (18,123 newborns, p < 0.05). The percentage of newborns receiving of i.m. vitamin K. at birth increased during the study period (15,923/32,104 in 2000 vs. 19,684/37,414 in 2003, p < 0.01), but not the number of nurseries (16 in 2000 and 17 in 2003 p > 0.05). The numbers of parents of newborns who receive the recommendations of oral vitamin K during the first months life decreased from 2000 (25,516/30,606) to 2003 (29,808/37,414, p < 0.01) as well as for Vitamin D recommendation (14,582/30,616 in 2000 vs. 11,051/37,414 in 2003, p < 0.01). Oral vitamin K during the first months of life was recommended by 25 nurseries in 2000 and 27 in 2003 (p > 0.05), the corresponding figures for Vitamin D were 15 and 14 (p > 0.05).
In the present study a large variability of procedures among the nurseries was observed. During the study periods, guidelines and evidence based medicine issues have only partially modified the neonatal care procedures In Piedmont and Aosta Valley nurseries. These observations suggest to implement local forum/consensus conference to standardized procedures as much as possible.