The purpose of this study is to use updated data and Bayesian methods to evaluate the effectiveness of hyperoxia to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) and/or mortality in both colorectal and all surgical patients. Because few trials assessed potential harms of hyperoxia, hazards were not included.
Use of hyperoxia to reduce SSIs is controversial. Three recent meta-analyses have had conflicting conclusions.
A systematic literature search and review were performed. Traditional fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analyses and Bayesian meta-analysis were performed to evaluate SSIs and mortality.
Traditional meta-analysis yielded a relative risk of an SSI with hyperoxia among all surgery patients of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.73–0.97) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.61–1.16) for the fixed-effect and random effects models respectively. The probabilities of any risk reduction in SSIs among all surgery patients were 77%, 81%, and 83% for skeptical, neutral, and enthusiastic priors. Subset analysis of colorectal surgery patients increased the probabilities to 86%, 89%, and 92%. The probabilities of at least a 10% reduction were 57%, 62%, and 68% for all surgical patients and 71%, 75%, and 80% among the colorectal surgery subset.
There is a moderately high probability of a benefit to hyperoxia in reducing SSIs in colorectal surgery patients; however, the magnitude of benefit is relatively small and might not exceed treatment hazards. Further studies should focus on generalizability to other patient populations or on treatment hazards and other outcomes.