BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been advocated during preterm delivery to improve hemodynamic stability during the early neonatal period. The hemodynamic effects of DCC in premature infants after birth have not been previously examined. Our objective was to compare the hemodynamic differences between premature infants randomized to either DCC or immediate cord clamping (ICC).
This prospective study was conducted on a subset of infants who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of DCC versus ICC. Entry criteria included gestational ages of 240 to 316 weeks. Twins and infants of mothers with substance abuse were excluded. Serial Doppler studies were performed at 6 ± 2, 24 ± 4, 48 ± 6, and 108 ± 12 hours of life. Measurements included superior vena cava blood flow, right ventricle output, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (BFV), superior mesenteric artery BFV, left ventricle shortening fraction, and presence of a persistent ductus arteriosus.
Twenty-five infants were enrolled in the DCC group and 26 in the ICC group. Gestational age, birth weight, and male gender were similar. Admission laboratory and clinical events were also similar. DCC resulted in significantly higher superior vena cava blood flow over the study period, as well as greater right ventricle output and right ventricular stroke volumes at 48 hours. No differences were noted in middle cerebral artery BFV, mean superior mesenteric artery BFV, shortening fraction, or the incidence of a persistent ductus arteriosus.
DCC in premature infants is associated with potentially beneficial hemodynamic changes over the first days of life.
delayed cord clamping; premature infants
Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low birth weight (ELBW; (≤1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of AgPT.
ELBW infants (n=1974) were randomized to AgPT or conservative phototherapy at age 12–36 hours. The effect of AgPT on outcomes (death; impairment; profound impairment; death or impairment [primary outcome], and death or profound impairment) at 18–22 months corrected age was related to BW stratum (501–750 g; 751–1000 g) and baseline severity of illness using multilevel regression equations. The probability of benefit and of harm was directly assessed with Bayesian analyses.
Baseline illness severity was well characterized using mechanical ventilation and FiO2 at 24 hours age. Among mechanically ventilated infants ≤750 g BW (n =684), a reduction in impairment and in profound impairment was offset by higher mortality (p for interaction <0.05) with no significant effect on composite outcomes. Conservative Bayesian analyses of this subgroup identified a 99% (posterior) probability that AgPT increased mortality, a 97% probability that AgPT reduced impairment, and a 99% probability that AgPT reduced profound impairment.
Findings from the only large trial of AgPT suggest that AgPT may increase mortality while reducing impairment and profound impairment among the smallest and sickest infants. New approaches to reduce their serum bilirubin need development and rigorous testing.
Phototherapy; bilirubin; severity of illness; ELBW infant; impairment; randomized clinical trial; statistical interaction; Bayesian analysis
To determine if selected pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/mediators of inflammation reported to be related to development of cerebral palsy predict neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight infants.
Infants with birth weights ≤ 1000 g (n=1067) had blood samples collected at birth and on days 3±1, 7±1, 14±3, and 21±3 to examine the association between cytokines and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The analyses were focused on five cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, RANTES, and IL-2) reported to be most predictive of CP in term and late preterm infants.
IL-8 was higher on days 0–4 and subsequently in infants who developed CP compared with infants who did not develop CP in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Other cytokines (IL-12, IL-17, TNF-β, SIL-rα, MIP-1β) were found to be altered on days 0–4 in infants who developed CP.
CP in former preterm infants may, in part, have a late perinatal and/or early neonatal inflammatory origin.
To compare risk-adjusted outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who never received phototherapy (NoPTx) to those who received any phototherapy (PTx) in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network randomized trial of Aggressive vs. Conservative Phototherapy.
Outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age included death, neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), and Bayley Scales Mental Developmental Index (MDI). Regression models evaluated the independent association of PTx with adverse outcomes controlling for center and other potentially confounding variables.
Of 1972 infants, 216 were NoPTx and 1756 were PTx. For the entire 501–1000 g BW cohort, PTx was not independently associated with death or NDI (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.60 –1.20), death, or adverse neurodevelopmental endpoints. However, among infants 501–750 g BW, the rate of significant developmental impairment with MDI<50 was significantly higher for NoPTx (29%) than PTx (12%) (p=0.004).
Phototherapy did not appear to be independently associated with death or NDI for the overall ELBW group. Whether PTx increases mortality could not be excluded due to bias from deaths before reaching conservative treatment threshold. The higher rate of MDI<50 in the 501–750g BW NoPTx group is concerning, and consistent with NRN Trial results.
Evaluation of clinical activity and safety of IPI-504 (retaspimycin hydrochloride) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
A single arm trial was conducted in two cohorts: Group A (chemotherapy-naïve), Group B (docetaxel-treated). IPI-504 was administered intravenously at 400 mg/m2 on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle. Trial expansion was planned if at least one prostate specific antigen (PSA) or radiographic response was noted per cohort. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected following the first dose; safety was assessed throughout.
Nineteen patients were enrolled (4 in Group A; 15 in Group B), with a median age of 66 years (range 49-78). Group B had received a median of 2 prior chemotherapy regimens. All Group B patients had bone metastases; 66% had measurable soft tissue or visceral metastases. One Group A patient remained on trial for 9 cycles; PSA declined 48% from baseline. No PSA responses were observed in other patients. Adverse events reported in >25% of the study population included nausea (47%), diarrhea (42%), fatigue (32%), anorexia (26%), and arthralgia (26%). Two patients in Group B died on study, involving study drug-related events of hepatic failure and ketoacidosis, respectively.
In this study, Hsp90 inhibition with IPI-504 administered as a single agent had a minimal effect on PSA or tumor burden and was associated with unacceptable toxicity in several patients; therefore, further evaluation in CRPC patients is not warranted. IPI-504 is being investigated at less intensive doses and schedules in other tumor types.
Castration-resistant prostate cancer; CRPC; Hsp90 inhibition; chemotherapy
The majority of the prostatic cancers are adenocarcinomas characterized by glandular formation and the expression of luminal differentiation markers androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Most adenocarcinomas are indolent and androgen-dependent. Hormonal therapy that inhibits AR signaling produces symptomatic relief in patients with advanced and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) is a variant form of prostate cancer (PC). In contrast to adenocarcinoma, the tumor cells of SCNC do not form glands and are negative for AR and PSA. SCNC is extremely aggressive and does not respond to hormonal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the important and relevant features of two most commonly used PC cell lines, LNCaP and PC3, with prostatic adenocarcinoma and SCNC.
Xenograft tumors of LNCaP and PC3 were prepared and compared with human prostatic adenocarcinoma and SCNC for the expression of key signaling molecules by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
LNCaP cells express AR and PSA and their growth is inhibited by androgen withdrawal, similar to human prostatic adenocarcinoma. PC3 cells do not express AR and PSA and their proliferation is independent of androgen, similar to SCNC. Adenocarcinoma cells and LNCaP cells are negative for neuroendocrine markers and stem cell-associated marker CD44 while SCNC and PC3 cells are positive. LNCaP cells have identical cytokeratin profiles to adenocarcinoma while PC3 cells have cytokeratin profiles similar to SCNC.
LNCaP cells share common features with adenocarcinoma while PC3 cells are characteristic of SCNC.
prostate cancer; small cell carcinoma; adenocarcinoma; PC3; LNCaP
In 2005, the US Department of Defense, through the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs, created a funding mechanism to form a clinical trials consortium to conduct phase I and II studies in prostate cancer. This is the first report of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC).
Patients and Methods
The Department of Defense award supports a consortium of 10 prostate cancer research centers. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center was awarded the Coordinating Center grant for the consortium and charged with creating an infrastructure to conduct early-phase multicenter clinical trials. Each participating center was required to introduce ≥ 1 clinical trial per year and maintain accrual of a minimum of 35 patients per year.
The PCCTC was launched in 2006 and now encompasses 10 leading prostate cancer research centers. Fifty-one trials have been opened, and 1386 patients have been accrued at member sites. Members share an online clinical trial management system for protocol tracking, electronic data capture, and data storage. A legal framework has been instituted, and standard operating procedures, an administrative structure, editorial support, centralized budgeting, and mechanisms for scientific review are established.
The PCCTC fulfills a congressional directive to create a clinical trials instrument dedicated to early-phase prostate cancer studies. The member institutions have built an administrative, informatics, legal, financial, statistical, and scientific infrastructure to support this endeavor. Clinical trials are open and accruing in excess of federally mandated goals.
Clinical consortium; Collaborative; Infrastructure; Phase I/II trial
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), an important treatment for advanced prostate cancer, is highly variable in its effectiveness. We hypothesized that genetic variants of androgen transporter genes, SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3, may determine time to progression on ADT.
Patients and Methods
A cohort of 538 patients with prostate cancer treated with ADT was genotyped for SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The biologic function of a SLCO2B1 coding SNP in transporting androgen was examined through biochemical assays.
Three SNPs in SLCO2B1 were associated with time to progression (TTP) on ADT (P < .05). The differences in median TTP for each of these polymorphisms were about 10 months. The SLCO2B1 genotype, which allows more efficient import of androgen, enhances cell growth and is associated with a shorter TTP on ADT. Patients carrying both SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 genotypes, which import androgens more efficiently, exhibited a median 2-year shorter TTP on ADT, demonstrating a gene-gene interaction (Pinteraction = .041).
Genetic variants of SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 may function as pharmacogenomic determinants of resistance to ADT in prostate cancer.
To evaluate whether differences in early nutritional support provided to extremely premature infants mediate the effect of critical illness on later outcomes, we examined whether nutritional support provided to “more critically ill” infants differs from that provided to “less critically ill” infants during the initial weeks of life, and if, after controlling for critical illness, that difference is associated with growth and rates of adverse outcomes. 1366 participants in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network parenteral glutamine supplementation randomized controlled trial who were alive on day of life 7 were stratified by whether they received mechanical ventilation for the first 7 days of life. Compared to more critically ill infants, less critically ill infants received significantly more total nutritional support during each of the first 3 weeks of life, had significantly faster growth velocities, less moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, less late-onset sepsis, less death, shorter hospital stays, and better neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age. Rates of necrotizing enterocolitis were similar. Adjusted analyses using general linear and logistic regression modeling and a formal mediation framework demonstrated that the influence of critical illness on the risk of adverse outcomes was mediated by total daily energy intake during the first week of life.
This study was a two-center, stratified, parallel-group randomized trial comparing the effects of aggressive vs. conservative phototherapy on brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) latencies in infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW, ≤ 1,000 g).
BAER latencies of 751–1,000 g birth-weight infants were shorter by 0.37 ms (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.02, 0.73) for wave V, 0.39 ms (0.08, 0.70) for wave III, and 0.33 ms (0.01, 0.65) for wave I after aggressive phototherapy at one center. Interwave intervals did not differ significantly. Similar nonsignificant trends were recorded for 501–750 g birth-weight infants. At the other participating center, no significant differences were recorded, cautioning against overgeneralizing these results.
The effects of bilirubin on the auditory pathway in ELBW infants depend on a complex interaction of bilirubin exposure, newborn characteristics, and clinical management.
Aggressive phototherapy was initiated sooner and continued at lower bilirubin levels than conservative phototherapy. A total of 174 ELBW infants were enrolled in the study; 111 infants were successfully tested at 35 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA); 57 died; and 6 were not successfully tested.
Delayed cord clamping may be beneficial in very preterm and low birth weight infants.
A randomized unmasked controlled trial
The study was performed in three centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network
Delayed cord clamping in very preterm and very low birth weight infants will result in an increase in hematocrit at 4 hours of age.
Infants with a gestational age of 24-28 weeks were randomized into early (< 10 seconds) or delayed (30-45 seconds) cord clamping. The primary outcome was venous hematocrit at 4 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included delivery room management, selected neonatal morbidities and the need for blood transfusion during the infants’ hospital stay.
Thirty three infants were randomized: 17 to the immediate cord clamping (ICC, cord clamped at 7.9 ± 5.2 seconds, m±SD) and 16 to the delayed cord clamping (DCC, cord clamped at 35.2 ± 10.1 seconds) group. The hematocrit was higher in the DCC group (45 ± 8 versus 40 ± 5%, p<0.05). The frequency of events during delivery room resuscitation was almost identical between the two groups. There was no difference in hourly mean arterial blood pressure during the first 12 hours of life, there was a trend in the difference in the incidence of selected neonatal morbidities, hematocrit at 2, 4 and 6 weeks as well as the need for transfusion, but none of the differences was statistically significant
A higher hematocrit is achieved by delayed cord clamping in very low birth weight infants suggesting effective placental transfusion.
Though C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and invasion, the role of inherited variation in the CCL2 gene in prostate cancer progression and metastases remains unanswered. This study is aimed to determine the influence of CCL2 germline variants on prostate cancer aggressiveness.
We performed an association study between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCL2 gene and prostate cancer clinicopathologic variables in a large hospital based Caucasian patient cohort (N =4073).
Genetic variantion at CCL2 is associated with markers of disease aggressiveness. Three SNPs, each in strong linkage disequilibrium, are associated with a higher (>7) biopsy Gleason score: CCL2-1811 A/G, −2835A/C and +3726 T/C (P =0.01, 0.03 and 0.04 respectively). The CCL2 −1811 G allele is addionally associated with advanced pathologic stages in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (P = 0.04). In haplotype analysis, we found that the frequency of a common haplotype, H5, was higher among patients with D’Amico good risk features (Ppermutation = 0.04).
These results support the influence of CCL2 variants on prostate cancer development and progression.
Prostate cancer; CCL2; Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms
Extremely low birth weight twins have a higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than singletons. Higher-order extremely low birth weight multiple births may have an even higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment.
Extremely low birth weight (birth weight 401–1000 g) multiple births born in participating centers of the Neonatal Research Network between 1996 and 2005 were assessed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined by the presence of 1 or more of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy; mental developmental index score or psychomotor developmental index score less than 70; severe bilateral deafness; or blindness. Infants who died within 12 hours of birth were excluded. Maternal and infant demographic and clinical variables were compared among singleton, twin, and triplet or higher-order infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the association between singletons, twins, and triplet or higher-order multiples and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for confounding variables that may affect death or neurodevelopmental impairment.
Our cohort consisted of 8296 singleton, 2164 twin, and 521 triplet or higher-order infants. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was increased in triplets or higher-order multiples when compared with singletons (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.29–2.24]), and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27 [95% confidence: 0.95–1.71]).
Triplet or higher-order births are associated with an increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age when compared with extremely low birth weight singleton infants, and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins.
extremely low birth weight; triplets; neurodevelopmental outcomes
To study the effects of oxidative stress on prostate cancer development as the exact biological mechanisms behind the relationship remain uncertain. We previously reported a statistically significant interaction between circulating selenium levels, variants in the superoxide dismutase 2 gene (SOD2; rs4880), and risk of developing prostate cancer and presenting with aggressive prostate cancer.
Patients and methods
We genotyped men with localized/regional prostate cancer for 26 loci across eight genes that are central to cellular antioxidant defence: glutathione peroxidase (GPX1, GPX4), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B), SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3, and ‘X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cell 1’ (XRCC1). Among 489 men, we examined the relationships between genotypes, circulating selenium levels, and risk of presenting with aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis, as defined by stage, grade and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (213 aggressive cases).
Two variants in SOD2 were significantly associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer (rs17884057, odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70–0.99; and rs4816407, 1.27, 1.02–1.57); men with A alleles at rs2842958 in SOD2 had lower plasma selenium levels (median 116 vs 121.8 μg/L, P = 0.03); and the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was modified by SOD1 (rs10432782) and SOD2 (rs2758330).
While this study was cross-sectional and these associations might be due to chance, further research is warranted on the potential important role of antioxidant defence in prostate cancer.
single nucleotide polymorphisms; superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase; aggressive prostate cancer; plasma selenium
2ME2 (Panzem®) is a non-estrogenic derivative of estradiol with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity. Preclinical data support antitumor activity in prostate cancer. This trial evaluated the efficacy of 2ME2 NCD in patients with taxane-refractory, metastatic CRPC.
Patients with metastatic CRPC who had progressed on only one prior taxane-based regimen were eligible. All patients received 2ME2 NCD at 1500 mg orally four times daily, repeated in 28 day cycles. The primary endpoint was progression free survival at month 6, with a secondary endpoint of PSA response. An exploratory endpoint was metabolic response on FDG-PET imaging.
A total of 50 pts was planned. The study was terminated after 21 pts when a futility analysis showed the primary endpoint was unlikely to be reached. The median number of cycles on study was 2 (range <1 to 12). Adverse events (AE) of grade ≥3 related to the study drug occurred in 7 unique patients (33%): elevations in liver function tests, fatigue or weakness, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and hyponatremia. Paired FDG-PET scans were obtained for 11 pts. No metabolic responses were observed.
2ME2 NCD did not appear to have clinically significant activity in this study. 2ME2 NCD was well-tolerated and showed some evidence of biologic activity. Given the aggressive biology in this taxane-refractory population, the potential benefit from a cytostatic agent like 2ME2 might better be realized in the pre-chemotherapy (or rising PSA only) stage of CRPC.
Prostate cancer; castrate-resistant; antiangiogenesis; antiproliferative; PET scan; clinical trials
The tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor prevention. Mdm2, Mdm4 and Hausp are all critical regulators of the p53 protein. Despite the importance of p53 pathway in prostate cancer development and progression, little is known about the association of functional SNPs in the p53 pathway genes and prostate cancer aggressiveness.
In this study, we analyze the association of SNPs in p53, Mdm2, Mdm4 and Hausp genes with prostate cancer clinicopathologic variables in a large hospital-based Caucasian prostate cancer cohort (N = 4073).
We found that the Mdm2 SNP 309 T allele was associated with earlier onset prostate cancer (P = 0.004), higher Gleason scores (P = 0.004) and higher stages men undergoing a radical prostatectomy (RP) (P = 0.011). Both the Mdm4 and Hausp SNPs (rs1380576 and rs1529916) were found to be associated with higher D’Amico risk prostate cancer category at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.023 and P = 0.046, respectively). Mdm4 SNP was also found to be associated with higher Gleason score at RP (P = 0.047). We did not observe any statistically significant association between the p53 Arg72 Pro polymorphism and prostate cancer aggressiveness or pathologic variables.
These results suggested the importance of these p53 regulators in prostate cancer development and progression.
Prostate cancer; TP53; MDM2; MDM4; HAUSP; Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms
A pressing clinical issue in prostate cancer (PCa) is to distinguish which men will have an indolent or aggressive course of disease. Clinical variables such as Gleason grade and stage are useful predictors of lethal cancer; however, the low predictive values of the common Gleason scores, changes in grading over time, and earlier diagnosis of patients due to screening limits their clinical utility. Identifying genetic variants associated with lethal PCa could inform clinical decision making.
We conducted a genome-wide association study comparing lethal PCa cases to cases surviving at least ten years beyond their initial diagnosis. Genotyping was performed with the Affymetrix 5.0 chip (~500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1483 copy number variants (CNVs)) on DNA from participants in the Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (196 lethal cases, 368 long-term survivors). After excluding SNPs and individuals based on quality control criteria, logistic regression assuming an additive model was performed using PLINK software.
No SNP reached genome-wide significance (p≤1×10−7), however three independent SNPs had p<1×10−5. One top-ranked SNP replicated (p=0.05) in an independent follow-up study. While no CNV had genome-wide significance, 14 CNVs showed nominal association with PCa mortality (p<0.05).
No variants were significantly associated at a genome-wide level with PCa mortality. Common genetic determinants of lethal PCa are likely to have odds ratios <2.0.
Genetic markers identified could provide biological insight to improve therapy for men with potentially fatal cancer. Larger studies are necessary to detect genetic causes of PCa mortality.
genome scan; prostate cancer; mortality
Castration resistant prostate cancer has historically been considered chemotherapy insensitive. However, the approval of estramustine phosphate, mitoxantrone, and docetaxel, over the past few decades, has challenged this notion. Despite these advances, until recently, only docetaxel had been shown to improve survival in patients with castration-resistant disease, and there has been no standard treatment options available for men with disease progression on docetaxel. In the last year, cabazitaxel, a novel taxane with decreased affinity for ATP-dependent drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein, became the first cytotoxic agent to demonstrate an improvement in survival in men with docetaxel-refractory disease, and has received regulatory approval for treatment in this setting. In this review, we examine the clinical development of cabazitaxel for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer, as well as rationale and direction of future therapeutic investigation.
prostate cancer; castration-resistant; chemotherapy; cabazitaxel
To assess the influence of clinical status on the association between total plasma bilirubin and unbound bilirubin on death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants.
Total plasma biirubin and unbound biirubin were measured in 1,101 extremely low birth weight infants at 5±1 day of age. Clinical criteria were used to classify infants as clinically stable or unstable. Survivors were examined at 18–22 months corrected age by certified examiners. Outcome variables were death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death prior to follow-up. For all outcomes, the interaction between bilirubin variables and clinical status was assessed in logistic regression analyses adjusted for multiple risk factors.
Regardless of clinical status, an increasing level of unbound bilirubin was associated with higher rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss and death before follow-up. Total plasma bilirubin values were directly associated with death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death before follow-up in unstable infants, but not in stable infants. An inverse association between total plasma bilirubin and death or cerebral palsy was found in stable infants.
In extremely low birth weight infants, clinical status at 5 days of age affects the association between total plasma and unbound bilirubin and death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months of corrected age. An increasing level of UB is associated a higher risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes regardless of clinical status. Increasing levels of total plasma bilirubin are directly associated with increasing risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in unstable, but not in stable infants.
Plasma bilirubin; unbound bilirubin; Extremely low birth weight infants; Neurodevelopmental outcomes
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have established a variant, rs10993994, on chromosome 10q11 as being associated with prostate cancer risk. Since the variant is located outside of a protein-coding region, the target genes driving tumorigenesis are not readily apparent. Two genes nearest to this variant, MSMB and NCOA4, are strong candidates for mediating the effects of rs109939934. In a cohort of 180 individuals, we demonstrate that the rs10993994 risk allele is associated with decreased expression of two MSMB isoforms in histologically normal and malignant prostate tissue. In addition, the risk allele is associated with increased expression of five NCOA4 isoforms in histologically normal prostate tissue only. No consistent association with either gene is observed in breast or colon tissue. In conjunction with these findings, suppression of MSMB expression or NCOA4 overexpression promotes anchorage-independent growth of prostate epithelial cells, but not growth of breast epithelial cells. These data suggest that germline variation at chromosome 10q11 contributes to prostate cancer risk by influencing expression of at least two genes. More broadly, the findings demonstrate that disease risk alleles may influence multiple genes, and associations between genotype and expression may only be observed in the context of specific tissue and disease states.
Family history has long been recognized as an important risk factor for prostate cancer. Beginning in 2006, researchers have identified several genetic variants that are associated with prostate cancer risk. Intriguingly, the majority of prostate cancer risk variants do not reside in genes. Determining the genes involved in the development of disease, therefore, has proved challenging. In this study we interrogate a known prostate cancer risk polymorphism on chromosome 10—rs10993994. We report that this variant is significantly associated with the RNA expression levels of two genes—MSMB and NCOA4. When these expression changes are modeled in a cell line, prostate cells that were previously non-tumorigenic acquire a property known as anchorage independence, a characteristic of cancer cells. Notably, the prostate risk variant is not associated with expression or functional changes in breast or colon cells. In addition, the effects are most pronounced in normal rather than tumor prostate tissue. Overall, these findings help define the genes driving prostate cancer risk at chromosome 10. More generally, the discoveries demonstrate the importance of considering several target genes, as well as the importance of cellular context (tissue type and histological state), in future analyses of other genetic risk regions.
To assess the association between urinary lactate to creatinine ratio (ULCR) and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and examine the effect of hypothermia on the change in ULCR.
Spot urine samples were collected in 58 term infants (28 hypothermia, 30 control subjects) with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Urinary lactate and creatinine were measured by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and expressed as ULCR. Survivors were examined at 18 months of age.
The ULCR was significantly higher in infants who died or had moderate/severe neurodevelopmental disability. Logistic regression analysis controlling for hypothermia and severity of encephalopathy confirmed the association (adjusted odds ratio, 5.52; 95% CI, 1.36, 22.42; P < .02). Considerable overlap in ULCR was observed between infants with normal/mild disability and those who died or survived with moderate/severe disability. ULCR fell significantly between 6 and 24 hours and 48 and 72 hours of age for all infants. The magnitude of decline did not differ between hypothermia and control groups.
High ULCR is associated with death or moderate/severe neurodevelopmental disability. Significant overlap in values between the normal/mild and moderate/severe disability groups limits predictive value of this measure. Whole-body hypothermia did not affect the decline in ULCR.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the kinetics of PSA decline after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) initiation and overall survival (OS) in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC).
We identified a cohort of metastatic HSPC patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) using our institutional database. Patients were included if they had at least 2 serum PSA determinations before nadir PSA and at least one serum PSA value available within 1 month of ADT initiation. Patient characteristics, PSA at ADT initiation, nadir PSA, time to PSA nadir (TTN) and PSA decline (PSAD) in relation to OS were analyzed.
179 patients were identified, with a median follow-up after ADT initiation of 4.0 years. Median OS after ADT initiation was 7.0 years. Median PSA at ADT initiation and PSA nadir were 47 and 0.28 ng/mL, respectively. On univariate analysis: TTN <6 months, a PSAD >52 ng/mL/year, PSA nadir ≥ 0.2 ng/mL, a PSA≥47.2 ng/mL at ADT initiation and Gleason score >7, were associated with a shorter OS. On multivariate analysis, TTN<6 months, Gleason score >7 and a PSA nadir ≥ 0.2 ng/mL independently predicted a shorter OS.
To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that a faster time to reach a PSA nadir post-ADT initiation is associated with shorter survival duration in men with metastatic HSPC. These results need confirmation, but may indicate that a rapid initial response to ADT indicates more aggressive disease.
Prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer; PSA kinetics; Time to PSA nadir
In vitro, in vivo, and epidemiologic studies support a role for selenium in reducing the risk of prostate cancer. Our group previously demonstrated a strong interaction between plasma selenium and the manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) gene and incident prostate cancer risk. We now hypothesized that SOD2 modifies the association between selenium level and risk of aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis.
Patients and Methods
We assessed SOD2 variants and plasma selenium in 489 patients with localized/locally advanced prostate cancer from an ongoing retrospective cohort. Cross-sectional associations with aggressive prostate cancer (ie, stage T2b-3, prostate-specific antigen > 10 ng/mL, or biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7) were evaluated using the χ2 test, Cochran-Armitage test for trend, and estimations of relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs.
SOD2 genotype alone was not associated with disease aggressiveness, whereas higher versus lower selenium levels were associated with a slightly increased likelihood of presenting with aggressive disease (RR = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.84). There was evidence of an interaction between SOD2 and selenium levels such that among men with the AA genotype, higher selenium levels were associated with a reduced risk of presenting with aggressive disease (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.12), whereas among men with a V allele, higher selenium levels were associated with an increased risk of aggressive disease (for VV or VA men, RR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.61; P for interaction = .007).
These data suggest that the relationship between circulating selenium levels at diagnosis and prognostic risk of prostate cancer is modified by SOD2 genotype and indicate caution against broad use of selenium supplementation for men with prostate cancer.
Uncertainty exists about the ideal timing for initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for men with metastatic prostate cancer. We assessed factors associated with early or delayed androgen deprivation therapy among men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer and assessed the relationship between this therapy and overall survival.
Patients and methods
We studied a population-based cohort of American men aged ≥66 years diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer during 1992–2002 and followed through 2003. We assessed receipt of androgen deprivation therapy early (within 4 months of diagnosis), delayed (after 4 months), or not at all, used multinomial logistic regression to identify factors associated with treatment, and used Cox proportional hazards models to assess whether treatment was associated with survival.
Overall, 69.5% of men received early hormonal therapy and 7.3% delayed. Adjusted rates of early therapy were lower for black vs. white men (58.3% vs. 71.0%) and adjusted rates of delayed use were higher for black vs. white men (12.7% vs. 6.2%). Receipt of androgen deprivation therapy was associated with improved survival (adjusted HR=.69 95% CI .66–.73). The benefit for early treatment did not differ from delayed treatment (P=.58)
A large minority of men with metastatic prostate cancer, particularly black men, receive delayed or no hormonal therapy. Receipt of early or delayed hormonal therapy was associated with similarly prolonged survival. After controlling for patient and tumor characteristics, survival did not differ by race, and receipt of hormonal therapy did not contribute to racial differences in survival.
prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; disparities; outcomes