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1.  Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Genotype and Outcome in Infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) 
Pediatric research  2013;75(3):424-430.
Background
Adults with the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) alleles e4 and e2 are at high risk of poor neurologic outcome after brain injury. The e4 allele has been associated with cerebral palsy and the e2 allele has been associated with worse neurologic outcome with congenital heart disease. This study was done to test the hypothesis that APOE genotype is associated with outcome among neonates who survive after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
Methods
We conducted a cohort study of infants who survived HIE and had 18 – 22 month standardized neurodevelopmental evaluations to assess associations between disability and APOE genotypes e3/e3, e4/-, and e2/-
Results
139 survivors were genotyped. 86 (62%) were e3/e3, 41 (29%) were e4/-, and 14 (10%) were e2/-. 129 infants had genotype and follow-up data; 26% had moderate or severe disabilities. Disability prevalence was 30% and 19% among those with and without e3/e3 genotype, 25% and 26% among those with and without the e2 allele, and 18% and 29% among those with and without the e4 allele. None of the differences were statistically significant. Cerebral palsy prevalence was also similar among genotype groups.
Conclusion
Disability was not associated with APOE genotype in this cohort of HIE survivors.
doi:10.1038/pr.2013.235
PMCID: PMC4095992  PMID: 24322171
2.  Effects of low-dose dopamine on urine output in normotensive very low birth weight neonates 
Objective
Determine effects of low-dose dopamine on urine output in very low birth weight premature neonates.
Study Design
Retrospective cohort study of all low-dose (3-5 μg/kg/min) dopamine infusions >24 hours duration in neonates ≤1500 g and ≤32 weeks gestation from August 2009 through September 2011. Linear regression was used to estimate the impact of covariates on urine output.
Results
We identified 91 episodes of low-dose dopamine use in 65 neonates. Increased urine output occurred with 64% of episodes. Low-dose dopamine use was associated with a 0.6 mL/kg/hr increase in urine output (p<0.001) and a 1.3 mL/kg/hr increase when baseline urine output was <1.5 mL/kg/hr (p<0.001). The improvement remained statistically significant after controlling for medications (diuretics and hydrocortisone) and fluid intake.
Conclusions
Low-dose dopamine use was associated with increased urine output in very low birth weight neonates.
doi:10.1038/jp.2013.20
PMCID: PMC4028044  PMID: 23448938
renal dose; dopamine; urine output
3.  Early Administration of Oropharyngeal Colostrum to Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants 
Breastfeeding Medicine  2013;8(6):491-495.
Abstract
Background: Human milk reduces morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. However, clinical instability often precludes ELBW infants from receiving early enteral feeds. This study compared clinical outcomes before and after implementing an oropharyngeal colostrum (COL) protocol in a cohort of inborn (born at our facility) ELBW infants.
Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of inborn ELBW infants admitted to the Duke Intensive Care Nursery from January 2007 to September 2011. In November 2010, we initiated a COL protocol for infants not enterally fed whose mothers were providing breastmilk. Infants received 0.1 mL of fresh COL to each cheek every 4 hours for 5 days beginning in the first 48 postnatal hours. We assessed demographics, diagnoses, feeding history, and mortality and for the presence of medical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), surgical NEC, and spontaneous perforation. Between-group comparisons were made using Fisher's exact test or Wilcoxon rank sum testing where appropriate.
Results: Of the 369 infants included, 280 (76%) were born prior to the COL protocol (Pre-COL Cohort [PCC]), and 89 (24%) were born after (COL Cohort [CC]). Mortality and the percentage of infants with surgical NEC and spontaneous perforations were statistically similar between the groups. The CC weighed an average (interquartile range) of 1,666 (1,399, 1,940) g at 36 weeks versus 1,380 (1,190, 1,650) g for the PCC (p<0.001). In a multivariable analysis with birth weight as a covariable, weight at 36 weeks was significantly greater (37 g; p<0.01).
Conclusions: Initiating oropharyngeal COL in ELBW infants in the first 2 postnatal days appears feasible and safe and may be nutritionally beneficial. Further research is needed to determine if early COL administration reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.1089/bfm.2013.0025
PMCID: PMC3868273  PMID: 23805944
4.  Duration of empirical antibiotic therapy for infants suspected of early-onset sepsis 
Current opinion in pediatrics  2013;25(2):167-171.
Purpose of review
Clinicians’ adherence to AAP and CDC Guidelines to prevent Group B Streptococcal (GBS) early onset sepsis (EOS) have reduced GBS EOS. While evidence-based testing and empirical antibiotic initiation is likely saving lives, clinicians have less compelling data to guide duration of empirically initiated antibiotics when cultures remain sterile and clinical signs resolve quickly. Our purpose is to review current opinions and evidence influencing clinicians’ choices for duration of empirically initiated antibiotics in newborns with sterile cultures.
Recent findings
Retrospective cohort studies indicate potential for harm with longer duration of empirical antibiotics for EOS when cultures are sterile. Cohort studies indicate timing of widely used tests used to estimate EOS risk affects their predictive value, and tests acquired 24 – 48 hours postnatally may provide reassurance for safe discontinuation.
Summary
Every day clinicians caring for thousands of neonates in the US stop antibiotics which were started empirically to treat EOS on the first postnatal day. Evidence is lacking to support a universal approach to decisions on duration of empirical antibiotics when cultures remain sterile. Reviewing predictive value relative to timing of laboratory testing can help clinicians develop locally appropriate antimicrobial duration decision-making guidelines.
doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835e01f6
PMCID: PMC3596444  PMID: 23407181
empirical antibiotics; early onset sepsis
5.  Individual and Center-Level Factors Affecting Mortality Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants 
Pediatrics  2013;132(1):e175-e184.
OBJECTIVE:
To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.
METHODS:
We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006–2009. The primary outcomes of early mortality (≤12 hours after birth) and in-hospital mortality were assessed by using multilevel hierarchical models. Models were developed to investigate associations of center rates of selected interventions with mortality while adjusting for patient-level risk factors. These analyses were performed for all gestational ages (GAs) and separately for GAs <25 weeks and ≥25 weeks.
RESULTS:
Early and in-hospital mortality rates among centers were 5% to 36% and 11% to 53% for all GAs, 13% to 73% and 28% to 90% for GAs <25 weeks, and 1% to 11% and 7% to 26% for GAs ≥25 weeks, respectively. Center intervention rates significantly predicted both early and in-hospital mortality for infants <25 weeks. For infants ≥25 weeks, intervention rates did not predict mortality. The variance in mortality among centers was significant for all GAs and outcomes. Center use of interventions and patient risk factors explained some but not all of the center variation in mortality rates.
CONCLUSIONS:
Center intervention rates explain a portion of the center variation in mortality, especially for infants born at <25 weeks’ GA. This finding suggests that deaths may be prevented by standardizing care for very early GA infants. However, differences in patient characteristics and center intervention rates do not account for all of the observed variability in mortality; and for infants with GA ≥25 weeks these differences account for only a small part of the variation in mortality.
doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3707
PMCID: PMC3691533  PMID: 23753096
mortality rates; outcome; NICU; preterm infants; extremely preterm infants
6.  Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants from Singleton and Multiple Gestation Births 
The Journal of pediatrics  2013;162(6):1120-1124.e1.
Objectives
To describe and compare incidence of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and demographic and clinical characteristics associated with LOS in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from singleton and multiple births and to examine the heritability in susceptibility to LOS among VLBW twins by comparing same-sex with unlike-sex twin pairs.
Study design
We studied infants with birth weight 401–1500 grams cared for at clinical centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network 2002–2008. Only the first episode of LOS was examined. Stepwise logistic regression models were fitted separately for singleton and multiple pregnancies to examine the maternal and neonatal factors associated with LOS. LOS due to only gram-negative bacteria among singleton and multiple pregnancies was also examined in separate models. The heritability of LOS was estimated by examining concordance of LOS between twins from same-sex and unlike-sex pairs.
Results
LOS occurred in 25.0% (3797/15,178) of singleton and 22.6% (1196/5294) of multiple VLBW infants. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common infecting organisms, accounting for 53.2% of all LOS episodes in singletons and 49.2% in multiples. E. coli and Klebsiella species were the most commonly isolated gram-negative organisms, and Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated fungus. Concordance of LOS was not significantly different between same-sex and unlike-sex twin pairs.
Conclusions
LOS remains a common problem in VLBW infants. The incidence of LOS is similar for singleton and multiple infants. Similar concordance of LOS in same-sex and unlike-sex twin pairs provided no evidence that susceptibility to LOS among VLBW infants is genetically determined.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.089
PMCID: PMC3633723  PMID: 23324523
Heredity; preterm infants; twins
7.  Pharmacokinetics and Safety of a Single Intravenous Dose of myo-Inositol in Preterm Infants of 23 to 29 weeks 
Pediatric research  2013;74(6):721-729.
Background
Myo-inositol given to preterm infants with respiratory distress has reduced death, increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and reduced severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in 2 randomized trials. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in extremely preterm infants are needed prior to efficacy trials.
Methods
Infants of 23–29 weeks gestation were randomized to a single intravenous (IV) dose of inositol at 60 or 120 mg/kg or placebo. Over 96 h, serum levels (sparse sampling population PK) and urine inositol excretion were determined. Population PK models were fit using a nonlinear mixed effects approach. Safety outcomes were recorded.
Results
A 1-compartment model that included factors for endogenous inositol production, allometric size based on weight, gestational age (GA) strata and creatinine clearance fit the data best. The central volume of distribution was 0.5115 l/kg, the clearance 0.0679 l/kg/h, endogenous production 2.67 mg/kg/h and the half life 5.22 h when modeled without the covariates. During the first 12 h renal inositol excretion quadrupled in the 120 mg/kg group, returning to near baseline after 48 h. There was no diuretic side-effect. No significant differences in adverse events occurred between the 3 groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusions
A single compartment model accounting for endogenous production satisfactorily described the PK of IV inositol.
doi:10.1038/pr.2013.162
PMCID: PMC3962781  PMID: 24067395
8.  Early sepsis does not increase the risk of late sepsis in very low birth weight neonates 
The Journal of pediatrics  2013;162(5):942-948.e3.
Objective
To examine whether preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have an increased risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS) following early-onset sepsis (EOS).
Study design
Retrospective analysis of VLBW infants (401-1500 g) born September 1998 through December 2009 who survived >72 hours and were cared for within the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Sepsis was defined by growth of bacteria or fungi in a blood culture obtained ≤72 hr of birth (EOS) or >72 hr (LOS) and antimicrobial therapy for ≥5 days or death <5 d while receiving therapy. Regression models were used to assess risk of death or LOS by 120d and LOS by 120d among survivors to discharge or 120d, adjusting for gestational age and other covariates.
Results
Of 34,396 infants studied 504 (1.5%) had EOS. After adjustment, risk of death or LOS by 120d did not differ overall for infants with EOS compared with those without EOS [RR:0.99 (0.89-1.09)] but was reduced in infants born at <25wk gestation [RR:0.87 (0.76-0.99), p=0.048]. Among survivors, no difference in LOS risk was found overall for infants with versus without EOS [RR:0.88 (0.75-1.02)], but LOS risk was shorter in infants with BW 401-750 g who had EOS [RR:0.80 (0.64-0.99), p=0.047].
Conclusions
Risk of LOS after EOS was not increased in VLBW infants. Surprisingly, risk of LOS following EOS appeared to be reduced in the smallest, most premature infants, underscoring the need for age-specific analyses of immune function.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.027
PMCID: PMC3622770  PMID: 23295144
Very low birth weight; early-onset sepsis; late-onset sepsis
9.  Perinatal Factors Associated with Poor Neurocognitive Outcome in Early School Age Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Survivors 
Journal of pediatric surgery  2013;48(4):730-737.
Objective
Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors.
Study design
Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age (4 to 7 years) was defined as a score < 80 in any of the following areas: Verbal Scale IQ, Performance Scale IQ, Expressive Language, or Receptive Language. Logistic regression, Fisher’s exact, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the relationship between NCD at early school age and 6 demographic and 18 medical variables.
Results
Of 43 infants with CDH, twenty seven (63%) survived to hospital discharge, and 16 (59%) returned for school age testing at a median age of 4.9 years. Seven (44%) of the children evaluated had NCD. Patch repair (p=0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; p=0.02), days on ECMO (p=0.01), days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.049), and post-operative use of inhaled nitric oxide (p=0.02) were found to be associated with NCD at early school age.
Conclusions
CDH survivors are at risk for neurocognitive delay persisting into school age. Perinatal factors such as patch repair and ECMO treatment may aid in identifying CDH survivors at high risk for continued learning difficulties throughout childhood.
doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.026
PMCID: PMC3734202  PMID: 23583126
hernia, diaphragmatic; follow-up studies; neurobehavioral manifestations; growth & development; infant nutrition disorders
10.  Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Congenital Heart Defects in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Neonatal Research Network 
Pediatric cardiology  2012;33(8):1415-1426.
Little is known about the outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs). The aim of this study was to assess the mortality, morbidity, and early childhood outcomes of ELBW infants with isolated CHD compared with infants with no congenital defects. Participants were 401–1,000 g infants cared for at National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2005. Neonatal morbidities and 18–22 months’ corrected age outcomes were assessed. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as moderate to severe cerebral palsy, Bayley II mental or psychomotor developmental index < 70, bilateral blindness, or hearing impairment requiring aids. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks for outcomes while adjusting for gestational age, small for gestational-age status, and other variables. Of 14,457 ELBW infants, 110 (0.8 %) had isolated CHD, and 13,887 (96 %) had no major birth defect. The most common CHD were septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta. Infants with CHD experienced increased mortality (48 % compared with 35 % for infants with no birth defect) and poorer growth. Surprisingly, the adjusted risks of other short-term neonatal morbidities associated with prematurity were not significantly different. Fifty-seven (52 %) infants with CHD survived to 18–22 months’ corrected age, and 49 (86 %) infants completed follow-up. A higher proportion of surviving infants with CHD were impaired compared with those without birth defects (57 vs. 38 %, p = 0.004). Risk of death or NDI was greater for ELBW infants with CHD, although 20% of infants survived without NDI.
doi:10.1007/s00246-012-0375-8
PMCID: PMC3687358  PMID: 22644414
heart defects; congenital; follow-up studies
11.  Very low birth weight neonates who survive early-onset sepsis do not have an increased risk of developing late-onset sepsis 
Early human development  2012;88(11):905-909.
SUMMARY
Background
Very low birth weight neonates (≤1500 g, VLBWs) have a high rate of infection and distinct baseline immune function compared with more mature populations. In critically ill children and adults, sepsis increases subsequent infection risk. It is unknown whether sepsis modifies the risk of subsequent infection in VLBWs.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of VLBWs ≤32 weeks gestation at birth cared for in 312 neonatal intensive care units in the United States from 1997–2011 (n=103,376). Early-onset sepsis (EOS, culture-positive only) and late-onset sepsis (LOS, culture-positive or clinical) cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to control for clinical variables between neonates with and without EOS to determine if EOS modified risk of LOS, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), or death.
Results
LOS occurred in 12,112/102,317 (11.8%) neonates without EOS and in 133/1059 (12.6%) of those with EOS. After adjustment for clinical variables, the risk of LOS was not different between neonates with or without a history of EOS (hazard ratio [HR]=0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74, 1.16). EOS increased the risk of 120-day mortality (HR=1.78; 95% CI 1.49, 2.13).
Conclusions
In contrast to findings in children and adults, EOS was not associated with an increased risk of LOS in this cohort. Age-specific investigations are needed to determine if post-sepsis immunologic alterations are present.
doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.07.009
PMCID: PMC3462255  PMID: 22840605
preterm; neonate; sepsis; immunoparalysis
12.  Blood stream infection is associated with altered heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immune responses in very low birth weight infants 
Objective
Sepsis in older children and adults modifies immune system function. We compared serotype-specific antibody responses to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in very low birth weight infants (<1500g,VLBW) with and without blood stream infection (BSI) during their birth hospitalization.
Patients and Methods
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for the Neonatal Research Network study of PCV7 responses among VLBWs. Infants received PCV7 at 2, 4, and 6 months after birth with blood drawn 4–6 weeks after 3rd dose. Serotype antibodies were compared between infants with or without a history of BSI. Regression models were constructed with birth-weight groups and other confounding factors identified in the primary study.
Results
244 infants completed the vaccine series and had serum antibody available; 82 had BSI. After adjustment, BSI was not associated with reduced odds of serum antibody ≥0.35μg/mL.
Conclusions
BSI was not associated with reduced odds of WHO-defined protective PCV7 responses in VLBWs.
doi:10.1038/jp.2013.5
PMCID: PMC3722279  PMID: 23370608
VLBW; immune response; vaccine; sepsis; blood stream infection
13.  Emperic Antifungal Therapy and Outcomes in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants with Invasive Candidiasis 
The Journal of Pediatrics  2012;161(2):264-269.e2.
Objective
To assess the impact of emperic antifungal therapy of invasive candidiasis on subsequent outcomes in premature infants.
Study design
This was a cohort study of infants ≤1000 g birth weight cared for at Neonatal Research Network sites. All infants had at least 1 positive culture for Candida. Emperic antifungal therapy was defined as receipt of a systemic antifungal on the day of or the day before the first positive culture for Candida was drawn. We created Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models stratified on propensity score quartiles to determine the effect of emperic antifungal therapy on survival, time to clearance of infection, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, end-organ damage, and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI).
Results
136 infants developed invasive candidiasis. The incidence of death or NDI was lower for infants who received emperic antifungal therapy (19/38, 50%) compared with those who had not (55/86, 64%; odds ratio=0.27 [95% confidence interval 0.08–0.86]). There was no significant difference between the groups for any single outcome or other combined outcomes.
Conclusions
Emperic antifungal therapy was associated with increased survival without NDI. A prospective randomized trial of this strategy is warranted.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.01.053
PMCID: PMC3380169  PMID: 22424952
Candida; neonate; mortality; neurodevelopmental impairment
14.  Preliminary Observations of the Use of High-Frequency Jet Ventilation as Rescue Therapy in Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia 
Journal of pediatric surgery  2010;45(4):698-702.
Background/Purpose
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with mortality of 10–50%. Several investigators have reported outcomes from centers using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in their management of CDH, but there are no recent reports on use of high-frequency jet ventilation.
Methods
During the study period from January 2001 until August 2007, infants with CDH, who were cared for at Duke University Medical Center, received high-frequency jet ventilation as a rescue mode of high frequency ventilation. We compared actual survival with predicted survival for infants treated only with conventional ventilation versus those rescued with high-frequency jet ventilation after failing conventional ventilation.
Results
Survival for the 16 infants that received high frequency jet ventilation was predicted to be 63%; actual survival was 75%. Survival for the 15 infants that received only conventional ventilation was predicted to be 83%; actual survival was 87%. We observed no significant survival benefit for high-frequency jet ventilation, 8.0% (95 confidence interval; −22.0%, 38.1%, p=0.59).
Conclusions
Although our sample size was small, we conclude with consideration of the absolute results, the degree of illness of the infants, and the biologic plausibility for the intervention, that high-frequency jet ventilation is an acceptable rescue ventilation mode for infants with CDH.
doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.07.025
PMCID: PMC3243761  PMID: 20385273
high frequency jet ventilation; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; survival
15.  Approach to Infants Born at 22 to 24 Weeks’ Gestation: Relationship to Outcomes of More-Mature Infants 
Pediatrics  2012;129(6):e1508-e1516.
OBJECTIVE:
We sought to determine if a center’s approach to care of premature infants at the youngest gestational ages (22–24 weeks’ gestation) is associated with clinical outcomes among infants of older gestational ages (25–27 weeks’ gestation).
METHODS:
Inborn infants of 401 to 1000 g birth weight and 22 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks’ gestation at birth from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled into a prospectively collected database at 20 centers participating in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Markers of an aggressive approach to care for 22- to 24-week infants included use of antenatal corticosteroids, cesarean delivery, and resuscitation. The primary outcome was death before postnatal day 120 for infants of 25 to 27 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were the combined outcomes of death or a number of morbidities associated with prematurity.
RESULTS:
Our study included 3631 infants 22 to 24 weeks’ gestation and 5227 infants 25 to 27 weeks’ gestation. Among the 22- to 24-week infants, use of antenatal corticosteroids ranged from 28% to 100%, cesarean delivery from 13% to 65%, and resuscitation from 30% to 100% by center. Centers with higher rates of antenatal corticosteroid use in 22- to 24-week infants had reduced rates of death, death or retinopathy of prematurity, death or late-onset sepsis, death or necrotizing enterocolitis, and death or neurodevelopmental impairment in 25- to 27-week infants.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study suggests that physicians’ willingness to provide care to extremely low gestation infants as measured by frequency of use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with improved outcomes for more-mature infants.
doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2216
PMCID: PMC3362905  PMID: 22641761
low-birth weight infant; NICUs; treatment; patient outcome assessment
16.  Antibiotic Use and Misuse in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 
Clinics in Perinatology  2011;39(1):61-68.
Synopsis
Neonatal sepsis causes significant morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm infants. Consequently, clinicians are compelled to treat with empirical antibiotics at the first signs of suspected sepsis. Unfortunately, both broad-spectrum antibiotics and prolonged treatment with empirical antibiotics are associated with adverse outcomes including invasive candidiasis, increased antimicrobial resistance, necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, and death. Most common neonatal pathogens are susceptible to narrow-spectrum antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic and duration of empirical treatment are strongly associated with center-based rather than with individual patient risk factors, implying that these choices are modifiable across centers. Thus, clinicians should aim to treat with short courses of narrow-spectrum antibiotics whenever possible, choosing the appropriate antibiotics and treatment duration to balance the risks of potentially untreated sepsis against the adverse effects of treatment in infants with sterile cultures.
doi:10.1016/j.clp.2011.12.003
PMCID: PMC3285418  PMID: 22341537
neonatal intensive care unit; empirical; antibiotic; sepsis; infection
17.  Outcomes Following Candiduria in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants 
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with candiduria are at substantial risk for death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Therefore, identification of candiduria should prompt a systemic evaluation for disseminated Candida infection and initiation of treatment in all ELBW infants.
Background. Candidiasis carries a significant risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW; <1000 g). We sought to determine the impact of candiduria in ELBW preterm infants.
Methods. Our study was a secondary analysis of the Neonatal Research Network study Early Diagnosis of Nosocomial Candidiasis. Follow-up assessments included Bayley Scales of Infant Development examinations at 18–22 months of corrected age. Risk factors were compared between groups using exact tests and general linear modeling. Death, NDI, and death or NDI were compared using generalized linear mixed modeling.
Results. Of 1515 infants enrolled, 34 (2.2%) had candiduria only. Candida was isolated from blood only (69 of 1515 [4.6%]), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) only (2 of 1515 [0.1%]), other sterile site only (not urine, blood, or CSF; 4 of 1515 [0.3%]), or multiple sources (28 of 1515 [2%]). Eleven infants had the same Candida species isolated in blood and urine within 3 days; 3 (27%) had a positive urine culture result first. Most urine isolates were Candida albicans (21 of 34 [62%]) or Candida parapsilosis (7 of 34 [29%]). Rate of death or NDI was greater among those with candiduria (50%) than among those with suspected but not proven infection (32%; odds ratio, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.2–5.3]) after adjustment. No difference in death and death or NDI was noted between infants with candiduria and those with candidemia.
Conclusions. These findings provide compelling evidence that ELBW infants with candiduria are at substantial risk of death or NDI. Candiduria in ELBW preterm infants should prompt a systemic evaluation (blood, CSF, and abdominal ultrasound) for disseminated Candida infection and warrants treatment.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir800
PMCID: PMC3258271  PMID: 22144537
18.  Dynamics of Human Foveal Development after Premature Birth 
Ophthalmology  2011;118(12):2315-2325.
Purpose
To determine the dynamic morphological development of the human fovea in-vivo utilizing portable spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT).
Design
Prospective, observational case series.
Paticipants
31 prematurely born neonates, nine children and nine adults.
Methods
Sixty-two neonates were enrolled in this study. SDOCT imaging was performed after examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at the bedside in non-sedated infants ages 31-41 weeks post-menstrual-age PMA (PMA=gestational age in weeks + chronological age) and at outpatient follow-up ophthalmic examinations. Thirty-one neonates met eligibility criteria. Nine children and nine adults without ocular pathology served as control groups. Semi-automatic retinal layer segmentation was performed. Central foveal thickness (CFT), foveal to parafoveal (FP) ratio (CFT divided by thickness 1000 μm from the foveal center), and 3D thickness maps were analyzed.
Main Outcomes Measures
In-vivo determination of foveal morphology, layer segmentation, analysis of sub-cellular changes, spatio-temporal layer shifting.
Results
In contrast to the adult fovea, we observed several signs of immaturity in the neonates: a shallow foveal pit, persistence of inner retinal layers (IRL), and a thin photoreceptor layer (PRL) that was thinnest at the foveal center. Three-dimensional mapping showed displacement of retinal layers out of the foveal center as the fovea matured and the progressive formation of the inner/outer segment band in the opposite direction. The FP-IRL ratios decreased as IRL migrated prior to term and minimally after that, while FP-PRL ratios increased as PRL subcellular elements formed closer to term and into childhood. A surprising finding was the presence of cystoid macular edema in 58% of premature neonates which appeared to affect inner foveal maturation.
Conclusions
This study provides the first view into development of living cellular layers of the human retina and of subcellular specialization at the fovea in premature infant eyes using portable spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Our work establishes a framework of the timeline of human foveal development, allowing us to identify unexpected retinal abnormalities that may provide new keys to disease activity, and provide a method for mapping of foveal structures from infancy to adulthood that may be integral in future studies of vision and visual cortex development.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.05.028
PMCID: PMC3496560  PMID: 21940051
19.  Prolonged Duration of Initial Empirical Antibiotic Treatment Is Associated With Increased Rates of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Death for Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants 
Pediatrics  2009;123(1):58-66.
OBJECTIVES
Our objectives were to identify factors associated with the duration of the first antibiotic course initiated in the first 3 postnatal days and to assess associations between the duration of the initial antibiotic course and subsequent necrotizing enterocolitis or death in extremely low birth weight infants with sterile initial postnatal culture results.
METHODS
We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of extremely low birth weight infants admitted to tertiary centers in 1998–2001. We defined initial empirical antibiotic treatment duration as continuous days of antibiotic therapy started in the first 3 postnatal days with sterile culture results. We used descriptive statistics to characterize center practice, bivariate analyses to identify factors associated with prolonged empirical antibiotic therapy (≥5 days), and multivariate analyses to evaluate associations between therapy duration, prolonged empirical therapy, and subsequent necrotizing enterocolitis or death.
RESULTS
Of 5693 extremely low birth weight infants admitted to 19 centers, 4039 (71%) survived >5 days, received initial empirical antibiotic treatment, and had sterile initial culture results through the first 3 postnatal days. The median therapy duration was 5 days (range: 1–36 days); 2147 infants (53%) received prolonged empirical therapy (center range: 27%–85%). Infants who received prolonged therapy were less mature, had lower Apgar scores, and were more likely to be black. In multivariate analyses adjusted for these factors and center, prolonged therapy was associated with increased odds of necrotizing enterocolitis or death and of death. Each empirical treatment day was associated with increased odds of death, necrotizing enterocolitis, and the composite measure of necrotizing enterocolitis or death.
CONCLUSION
Prolonged initial empirical antibiotic therapy may be associated with increased risk of necrotizing entero-colitis or death and should be used with caution.
doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3423
PMCID: PMC2760222  PMID: 19117861
antibiotic use; bloodstream infection; extremely low birth weight infants; necrotizing enterocolitis; death
20.  Prediction of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Postnatal Age in Extremely Premature Infants 
Rationale: Benefits of identifying risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants include providing prognostic information, identifying infants likely to benefit from preventive strategies, and stratifying infants for clinical trial enrollment.
Objectives: To identify risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and the competing outcome of death, by postnatal day; to identify which risk factors improve prediction; and to develop a Web-based estimator using readily available clinical information to predict risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death.
Methods: We assessed infants of 23–30 weeks' gestation born in 17 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network and enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network Benchmarking Trial from 2000–2004.
Measurements and Main Results: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was defined as a categorical variable (none, mild, moderate, or severe). We developed and validated models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk at six postnatal ages using gestational age, birth weight, race and ethnicity, sex, respiratory support, and FiO2, and examined the models using a C statistic (area under the curve). A total of 3,636 infants were eligible for this study. Prediction improved with advancing postnatal age, increasing from a C statistic of 0.793 on Day 1 to a maximum of 0.854 on Day 28. On Postnatal Days 1 and 3, gestational age best improved outcome prediction; on Postnatal Days 7, 14, 21, and 28, type of respiratory support did so. A Web-based model providing predicted estimates for bronchopulmonary dysplasia by postnatal day is available at https://neonatal.rti.org.
Conclusions: The probability of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants can be determined accurately using a limited amount of readily available clinical information.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201101-0055OC
PMCID: PMC3136997  PMID: 21471086
bronchopulmonary dysplasia; prematurity; low-birth-weight infant
21.  Protocolized Approach to the Management of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Benefits of Reducing Variability in Care 
Journal of Pediatric Surgery  2010;45(6):1343-1348.
Purpose
Variable approaches to the care of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) by multiple providers may contribute to inconsistent care. Our institution developed a comprehensive evidence-based protocol to standardize the management of CDH infants. This report reviews patient outcomes prior to and after implementation of the protocol.
Methods
Retrospective chart review of CDH infants managed with individualized care (Pre-protocol group, January 1997–December 2001, n=22) or on the protocol (Protocol group, January 2002–July 2009, n=47). Survival and other categorical variables were compared by chi square analysis and continuous variables were compared using one-sided ANOVA analysis with significance defined as p<0.05.
Results
Survival to discharge was significantly greater in the Protocol group (40/47 (85%)) than the Pre-protocol group (12/22 (52%) p=.006) although mean gestational age, mean birth weight, and expected survival were not statistically different between the two groups. The use of supportive therapies, including high frequency jet ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, and extracorporeal life support was similar between groups as well.
Conclusions
Since implementation of a management protocol for infants with CDH, survival has improved significantly compared with expected survival and pre-protocol controls. Reduction in the variability of care through use of an evidence-based protocol use may improve the survival of CDH infants.
doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.02.104
PMCID: PMC3318997  PMID: 20620342
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; variability; evidence-based care guidelines; protocolized care
22.  Reversible retinal edema in an infant with neonatal hemochromatosis and liver failure 
We present a case of bilateral severe retinal edema with subretinal fluid in an infant diagnosed with neonatal hemochromatosis and liver failure. A macular cherry-red spot in each eye mimicked the clinical appearance of many metabolic storage diseases. Both the clinical retinal appearance and the anatomic abnormalities observed on spectral domain optical coherence tomography resolved after successful liver transplant.
doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.11.016
PMCID: PMC3059895  PMID: 21397814
23.  Repeat Lumbar Punctures in Infants with Meningitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to examine the results of repeat lumbar puncture in infants with initial positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures in order to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of infants with repeat positive cultures.
Study Design
Cohort study of infants with an initial positive CSF culture undergoing repeat lumbar puncture between 1997 and 2004 at 150 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical group. We compared the clinical outcomes of infants with repeat positive cultures and infants with repeat negative cultures.
Result
We identified 118 infants with repeat CSF cultures. Of these, 26 infants had repeat positive cultures. A higher proportion with repeat positive cultures died compared to those with repeat negative cultures, 6/23 (26%) vs. 6/81 (7%), respectively (p=0.02).
Conclusion
Among infants with a positive CSF culture, a repeat positive CSF culture is common. The presence of a second positive culture is associated with increased mortality.
doi:10.1038/jp.2010.142
PMCID: PMC3103623  PMID: 21164430
neonate; newborn; cerebrospinal fluid; infection; mortality
24.  Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa Treatment for Refractory Hemorrhage in Infants 
Objective
Report clinical response to recombinant factor VIIa in a cohort of critically ill infants.
Study Design
We identified all infants who received factor VIIa in the Duke Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 2005 and July 2008. Hematologic data and volume of blood transfusions before and after factor VIIa treatment were compared. The precipitating diagnosis for each factor VIIa use and the ensuing clinical outcomes of bleeding, thrombosis, and mortality were noted.
Result
We identified 18 infants with median birth weight of 880 g and median gestational age of 26 weeks. One to six doses of factor VIIa (90 mcg/kg/dose) were administered, with 13 (72%) infants receiving a single dose. Hemostasis was achieved in 13 (72%) of the infants. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time significantly decreased following treatment with factor VIIa. Volume of plasma transfusions significantly decreased following treatment with factor VIIa (p=0.02). Thrombosis occurred in 1 (11%) infant. Six (33%) infants died within 72 hours of treatment, and overall mortality was 10/18 (56%).
Conclusion
Treatment with factor VIIa at doses of 90 mcg/kg improved coagulation studies and decreased the need for plasma transfusions in a group of critically ill infants without significant risk. Factor VIIa may be an effective addition to current treatment modalities for refractory hemorrhage in infants.
doi:10.1038/jp.2010.85
PMCID: PMC2972386  PMID: 20671714
infants; blood products; transfusion; coagulation factors
25.  Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus with bidirectional flow in neonates 
Early human development  2011;87(5):381-384.
Background
Patent ductus arteriosus is a common occurrence among prematurely born neonates and is believed to play a role in the development of other complications of prematurity including intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The clinical decision to treat the patent ductus arteriosus is complicated by the lack of evidence available regarding clinical conditions under which closure should be attempted.
Study aims
To compare clinical outcomes for neonates who underwent treatment of patent ductus arteriosus exhibiting bidirectional blood flow versus those with flow that was left to right.
Study design
Cohort study of all neonates with patent ductus arteriosus in which medical closure was attempted at the Duke University between January 2002 and October 2007.
Outcome measures
Death and other important clinical conditions.
Results
We identified 20 neonates with bidirectional flow out of 317 cases in which medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus was attempted. There was no significant increase in overall complications due to closure of a bidirectional patent ductus arteriosus [40% (8/20)] versus ones with left to right shunting [38% (111/297) p=0.82]. Death occurred in 15% (3/20) with bidirectional PDA compared to 11% (34/297) in the left to right group, p=0.72.
Conclusion
The trend in mortality is worrisome but does not contraindicate an aggressive approach to the clinically significant PDA that has bidirectional flow at the time of the echocardiogram.
doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.02.005
PMCID: PMC3081707  PMID: 21402454
Ductal closure; Preterm infant; Echocardiography; Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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