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Journal of Experimental Botany (1)
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Avisar, Dror (2)
Abu-Abied, Mohamad (1)
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Dolja, Valerian V. (1)
Prokhnevsky, Alexey I. (1)
Sadot, Einat (1)
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Myosin XIK is a major player in cytoplasm dynamics and is regulated by two amino acids in its tail
Journal of Experimental Botany
It has recently been found that among the 17 Arabidopsis myosins, six (XIC, XIE, XIK, XI-I, MYA1, and MYA2) have a major role in the motility of Golgi bodies and mitochondria in Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum. Here, the same dominant negative tail fragments were also found to arrest the movement of Gogi bodies when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis plants. However, when a Golgi marker was transiently expressed in plants knocked out in these myosins, its movement was dramatically inhibited only in the xik mutant. In addition, a tail fragment of myosin XIK could inhibit the movement of several post-Golgi organelles, such as the trans-Golgi network, pre-vacuolar compartment, and endosomes, as well as total cytoplasmic streaming, suggesting that myosin XIK is a major player in cytoplasm kinetics. However, no co-localization of myosin tails with the arrested organelles was observed. Several deletion truncations of the myosin XIK tail were generated to corroborate function with localization. All deletion mutants possessing an inhibitory effect on organelle movement exhibited a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. Point mutations in the tail of myosin XIK revealed that Arg1368 and Arg1443 are essential for its activity. These residues correspond to Lys1706 and Lys1779 from mouse myosin Va, which mediate the inhibitory head–tail interaction in this myosin. Therefore, such an interaction might underlie the dominant negative effect of truncated plant myosin tails and explain the mislocalization with target organelles.
Arabidopsis thaliana; Golgi; myosin XIK; Nicotiana benthamiana
Class VIII Myosins Are Required for Plasmodesmatal Localization of a Closterovirus Hsp70 Homolog▿
Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.
Dolja, Valerian V.
Journal of Virology
The Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h) of Beet yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J. Virol. 79:14421-14428, 2005). Myosins are a diverse category of molecular motors that possess a motor domain and a tail domain involved in cargo binding. Plants have two classes of myosins, VIII and XI, whose specific functions are poorly understood. We used dominant negative inhibition to identify myosins required for Hsp70h localization to plasmodesmata. Six full-length myosin cDNAs from the BYV host plant Nicotiana benthamiana were sequenced and shown to encode apparent orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana myosins VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-B, XI-2, XI-F, and XI-K. We found that the ectopic expression of the tail domains of each of the class VIII, but not the class XI, myosins inhibited the plasmodesmatal localization of Hsp70h. In contrast, the overexpression of the motor domains or the entire molecules of the class VIII myosins did not affect Hsp70h targeting. Further mapping revealed that the minimal cargo-binding part of the myosin VIII tails was both essential and sufficient for the inhibition of the proper Hsp70h localization. Interestingly, plasmodesmatal localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and Arabidopsis protein RGP2 was not affected by myosin VIII tail overexpression. Collectively, our data implicate class VIII myosins in protein delivery to plasmodesmata and suggest that more than one mechanism of such delivery exist in plants.
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