Polyomaviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular double-stranded DNA genome. Using a generic polyomavirus PCR targeting the VP1 major structural protein gene, a novel polyomavirus was initially identified in resected human liver tissue and provisionally named Human Polyomavirus 12 (HPyV12). Its 5033 bp genome is predicted to encode large and small T antigens and the 3 structural proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3. Phylogenetic analyses did not reveal a close relationship to any known human or animal polyomavirus. Investigation of organs, body fluids and excretions of diseased individuals and healthy subjects with both HPyV12-specific nested PCR and quantitative real-time PCR revealed additional virus-positive samples of resected liver, cecum and rectum tissues and a positive fecal sample. A capsomer-based IgG ELISA was established using the major capsid protein VP1 of HPyV12. Seroprevalences of 23% and 17%, respectively, were determined in sera from healthy adults and adolescents and a pediatric group of children. These data indicate that the virus naturally infects humans and that primary infection may already occur in childhood.
In this study, we analyzed viral metagenomes (viromes) in the sedimentary habitats of three geographically and geologically distinct (hado)pelagic environments in the northwest Pacific; the Izu-Ogasawara Trench (water depth = 9,760 m) (OG), the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench (10,325 m) (MA), and the forearc basin off the Shimokita Peninsula (1,181 m) (SH). Virus abundance ranged from 106 to 1011 viruses/cm3 of sediments (down to 30 cm below the seafloor [cmbsf]). We recovered viral DNA assemblages (viromes) from the (hado)pelagic sediment samples and obtained a total of 37,458, 39,882, and 70,882 sequence reads by 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing from the virome libraries of the OG, MA, and SH (hado)pelagic sediments, respectively. Only 24−30% of the sequence reads from each virome library exhibited significant similarities to the sequences deposited in the public nr protein database (E-value <10−3 in BLAST). Among the sequences identified as potential viral genes based on the BLAST search, 95−99% of the sequence reads in each library were related to genes from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viral families, including Microviridae, Circoviridae, and Geminiviridae. A relatively high abundance of sequences related to the genetic markers (major capsid protein [VP1] and replication protein [Rep]) of two ssDNA viral groups were also detected in these libraries, thereby revealing a high genotypic diversity of their viruses (833 genotypes for VP1 and 2,551 genotypes for Rep). A majority of the viral genes predicted from each library were classified into three ssDNA viral protein categories: Rep, VP1, and minor capsid protein. The deep-sea sedimentary viromes were distinct from the viromes obtained from the oceanic and fresh waters and marine eukaryotes, and thus, deep-sea sediments harbor novel viromes, including previously unidentified ssDNA viruses.
Integration of the retrovirus linear DNA genome into the host chromosome is an essential step in the viral replication cycle, and is catalyzed by the viral integrase (IN). Evidence suggests that IN functions as a dimer that cleaves a dinucleotide from the 3′ DNA blunt ends while a dimer of dimers (tetramer) promotes concerted integration of the two processed ends into opposite strands of a target DNA. However, it remains unclear why a dimer rather than a monomer of IN is required for the insertion of each recessed DNA end. To help address this question, we have analyzed crystal structures of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) IN mutants complete with all three structural domains as well as its two-domain fragment in a new crystal form at an improved resolution. Combined with earlier structural studies, our results suggest that the RSV IN dimer consists of highly flexible N-terminal domains and a rigid entity formed by the catalytic and C-terminal domains stabilized by the well-conserved catalytic domain dimerization interaction. Biochemical and mutational analyses confirm earlier observations that the catalytic and the C-terminal domains of an RSV IN dimer efficiently integrates one viral DNA end into target DNA. We also show that the asymmetric dimeric interaction between the two C-terminal domains is important for viral DNA binding and subsequent catalysis, including concerted integration. We propose that the asymmetric C-terminal domain dimer serves as a viral DNA binding surface for RSV IN.
Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC), associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV), associated with respiratory disease.
In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver.
We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.
Canine bocavirus 3; Episome; Coinfection
Human bocavirus (HBoV) was recently discovered in children with respiratory distress and/or diarrhea. To our knowledge, no previous study has reported the existence of bocavirus in Saudi Arabia. Swabs samples from 80 children with respiratory tract infections were examined for the presence of HBoV. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used as a sensitive method to detect the HBoV. Direct gene sequencing was used to determine the genotype of the detected virus isolates. HBoV was detected in 22.5% of the examined patients. The NP1 partial gene sequence from all patients showed that the circulated strains were related to HBoV-1 genotype. Most of HBoV infected patients showed evidence of mixed coinfection with other viral pathogens. The current study clearly demonstrated that genetically conserved HBoV1 circulates in Saudi Arabia. Interestingly, most of the HBoV1 infected cases were associated with high rates of co-infections with other viruses.
Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is a T = 1 icosahedral virus with a single-stranded RNA genome. It is widely accepted that the RNA genome plays an important structural role during assembly of the STMV virion. While the encapsidated form of the RNA has been extensively studied, less is known about the structure of the free RNA, aside from a purported tRNA-like structure at the 3′ end. Here we use selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) analysis to examine the secondary structure of in vitro transcribed STMV RNA. The predicted secondary structure is unusual in the sense that it is highly extended, which could be significant for protecting the RNA from degradation. The SHAPE data are also consistent with the previously predicted tRNA-like fold at the 3′ end of the molecule, which is also known to hinder degradation. Our data are not consistent with the secondary structure proposed for the encapsidated RNA by Schroeder et al., suggesting that, if the Schroeder structure is correct, either the RNA is packaged as it emerges from the replication complex, or the RNA undergoes extensive refolding upon encapsidation. We also consider the alternative, i.e., that the structure of the encapsidated STMV RNA might be the same as the in vitro structure presented here, and we examine how this structure might be organized in the virus. This possibility is not rigorously ruled out by the available data, so it remains open to examination by experiment.
Transcription and expression regulation of some individual cel genes (cel5A, cel5I, cel5D and cel44O) of Clostridium cellulolyticum were investigated. Unlike the cip-cel operon, these genes are transcribed as monocistronic units of transcription, except cel5D. The location of the transcription initiation sites was determined using RT-PCR and the mRNA 5′-end extremities were detected using primer extension experiments. Similarly to the cip-cel operon, cel5A and cel5I expressions are regulated by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism, whereas cel44O and cel5D expressions do not seem to be submitted to this regulation. The role of the putative transcriptional regulator GlyR2 in the regulation of cel5D expression was investigated. The recombinant protein GlyR2 was produced and was shown to bind in vitro to the cel5D and glyR2 promoter regions, suggesting that besides regulating its own expression, GlyR2 may regulate cel5D expression. To test this hypothesis in vivo, an insertional glyR2 mutant was generated and the effect of this disruption on cel5D expression was evaluated. Levels of cel5D mRNAs in the mutant were 16 fold lower than that of the wild-type strain suggesting that GlyR2 acts as an activator of cel5D expression.
Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is an emerging human virus, and little is known about the molecular aspects of PARV4 apart from its incomplete genome sequence, which lacks information of the termini. We analyzed the gene expression profile of PARV4 using a nearly full-length HPV4 genome in a replication competent system in 293 cells. We found that PARV4 utilizes two promoters to transcribe non-structural protein- and structural protein-encoding mRNAs, respectively, which were polyadenylated at the right end of the genome. Three major proteins, including the large non-structural protein NS1a, whose mRNA is spliced, and capsid proteins VP1 and VP2, were detected. Additional functional analysis of the NS1a revealed its capability to induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in ex vivo-generated human hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, our characterization of the molecular features of PARV4 suggests that PARV4 represents a new genus in the family Parvoviridae.
Both HCV genotypes and viral loads are predictors of therapeutic outcomes among patients treated with α-interferon plus ribavirin; however, such correlation has only been studied for genotypes 1, 2, and 3 but not for genotype 6.
299 voluntary blood donors were recruited who were HCV viremic. Their mean age was 31.8; the male/female ratio was 3.82 (225/59). The viral loads of HCV were measured using the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan test (CAP/CTM) while HCV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing the partial NS5B region. HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 6 were determined in 48.9%, 8.7%, 12.3%, and 30.1% of the donors, respectively, and the levels of mean viral loads in genotype 1 and 6 significantly higher than that of 2 and 3 (P<0.001). As a whole, the viral loads in male donors were higher than in female (P = 0.006). Moreover, the donors' gender and HCV genotypes are independently correlated with the measured viral loads.
HCV genotype 1 and 6 had significantly higher viral loads than genotype 2 and 3.
Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) delays or prevents the loss of vision in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with high IOP and in those with normal tension glaucoma showing progression. Abundant evidence demonstrates that inhibition of contractile machinery of the trabecular meshwork cells is an effective method to lower IOP. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of trabecular contraction are not well understood. Although microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of multiple cellular functions, little is known about their potential involvement in the regulation of IOP. Here, we showed that miR-200c is a direct postranscriptional inhibitor of genes relevant to the physiologic regulation of TM cell contraction including the validated targets Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and 2 (ZEB1 and ZEB2), and formin homology 2 domain containing 1 (FHOD1), as well as three novel targets: lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1/EDG2), endothelin A receptor (ETAR), and RhoA kinase (RHOA). Consistently, transfection of TM cells with miR-200c resulted in strong inhibition of contraction in collagen populated gels as well as decreased cell traction forces exerted by individual TM cells. Finally, delivery of miR-200c to the anterior chamber of living rat eyes resulted in a significant decrease in IOP, while inhibition of miR-200c using an adenoviral vector expressing a molecular sponge led to a significant increase in IOP. These results demonstrate for the first time the ability of a miRNA to regulate trabecular contraction and modulate IOP in vivo, making miR-200c a worthy candidate for exploring ways to alter trabecular contractility with therapeutic purposes in glaucoma.
The human bocavirus (HBoV) was initially discovered in 2005 as the second pathogenic member of the parvovirus family, next to the human parvovirus B19. HBoV has since been shown to be extremely common worldwide and to cause a systemic infection in small children often resulting in respiratory disease. Three more, presumably enteric, human bocaviruses (HBoV2–4) have been identified in stool samples. Parvoviruses are assumed to replicate via their genomic terminal hairpin-like structures in a so-called ‘rolling-hairpin model’. These terminal sequences have recently been partially identified in head-to-tail HBoV-PCR amplicons from clinical samples, and are most likely hybrid relics of HBoV’s predecessors, namely bovine parvovirus 1 on the left-hand side and minute virus of canines on the right, shown for the first time in this article. Thereby, the replication model postulated for HBoV remains questionable as the occurrence of head-to-tail sequences is not a typical feature of the rolling-hairpin replication model. However, such episomes can also be persistent storage forms of the genome.
genome structure; hairpin sequence; HBoV; human bocavirus; parvovirus; persistence; replication; transcription map
More than ten subgenotypes of genotype C Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been reported, including C1 to C16 and two C/D recombinant subgenotypes (CD1 and CD2), however, inconsistent designations of these subgenotypes still exist.
We performed a phylogenetic analysis of all full-length genotype C HBV genome sequences to correct the misclassifications of HBV subgenotypes and to study the influence of recombination on HBV subgenotyping. Our results showed that although inclusion of the recombinant sequences changed the topology of the phylogenetic tree, it did not affect the subgenotyping of the non-recombinant sequences, except subgenotype C2. In addition, most of the subgenotypes have been properly designated. However, several misclassifications of HBV subgenotypes have been identified and corrected. For example, C11 proposed by Utsumi and colleagues in 2011 was found to be grouped with C12 proposed by Mulyanto and colleagues. Two sequences, GQ358157 and GU721029, previously designated as C6 have been re-designated as C12 and C7, respectively. Moreover, a quasi-subgenotype C2 was proposed, which included the old C2, several previously unclassified sequences and previously designated C14. In particular, we identified a novel subgenotype, tentative C14, which was well supported by phylogenetic analysis and sequence divergence of >4%.
A number of misclassifications in the subgenotyping of genotype C HBV have been identified in this study. After correcting the misclassifications, we proposed a better classification for the subgenotyping of genotype C HBV, in which a novel quasi-subgenotype C2 and a novel subgenotype, tentative C14, were described. Based on this large-scale analysis, we propose that a novel subgenotype should only be reported after a complete comparison of all relevant sequences rather than a few representative sequences only.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is an important tool for the nanometre-scale analysis of the various samples. Imaging of biological specimens can be difficult for two reasons: (1) Samples must often be left unstained to observe detail of the biological structures; however, lack of staining significantly decreases image contrast. (2) Samples are prone to serious radiation damage from electron beam. Herein we report a novel method for sample preparation involving placement on a new metal-coated insulator film. This method enables obtaining high-contrast images from unstained proteins and viruses by scanning electron microscopy with minimal electron radiation damage. These images are similar to those obtained by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the method can be easily used to observe specimens of proteins, viruses and other organic samples by using SEM.
Gene targeting in most of human somatic cell lines has been labor-intensive because of low homologous recombination efficiency. The development of an experimental system that permits a facile evaluation of gene targeting efficiency in human somatic cell lines is the first step towards the improvement of this technology and its application to a broad range of cell lines. In this study, we utilized phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class A (PIGA), a gene essential for the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors, as a reporter of gene targeting events in human somatic cell lines. Targeted disruption of PIGA was quantitatively detected with FLAER, a reagent that specifically binds to GPI anchors. Using this PIGA-based reporter system, we successfully detected adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene targeting events both with and without promoter-trap enrichment of gene-targeted cell population. The PIGA-based reporter system was also capable of reproducing previous findings that an AAV-mediated gene targeting achieves a remarkably higher ratio of homologous versus random integration (H/R ratio) of targeting vectors than a plasmid-mediated gene targeting. The PIGA-based system also detected an approximately 2-fold increase in the H/R ratio achieved by a small negative selection cassette introduced at the end of the AAV-based targeting vector with a promoter-trap system. Thus, our PIGA-based system is useful for monitoring AAV-mediated gene targeting and will assist in improving gene targeting technology in human somatic cell lines.
HPV16 E6 and E7, two viral oncogenes, are expressed from a single bicistronic pre-mRNA. In this report, we provide the evidence that the bicistronic pre-mRNA intron 1 contains three 5′ splice sites (5′ ss) and three 3′ splice sites (3′ ss) normally used in HPV16+ cervical cancer and its derived cell lines. The choice of two novel alternative 5′ ss (nt 221 5′ ss and nt 191 5′ ss) produces two novel isoforms of E6E7 mRNAs (E6*V and E6*VI). The nt 226 5′ ss and nt 409 3′ ss is preferentially selected over the other splice sites crossing over the intron to excise a minimal length of the intron in RNA splicing. We identified AACAAAC as the preferred branch point sequence (BPS) and an adenosine at nt 385 (underlined) in the BPS as a branch site to dictate the selection of the nt 409 3′ ss for E6*I splicing and E7 expression. Introduction of point mutations into the mapped BPS led to reduced U2 binding to the BPS and thereby inhibition of the second step of E6E7 splicing at the nt 409 3′ ss. Importantly, the E6E7 bicistronic RNA with a mutant BPS and inefficient splicing makes little or no E7 and the resulted E6 with mutations of 91QYNK94 to 91PSFW94 displays attenuate activity on p53 degradation. Together, our data provide structural basis of the E6E7 intron 1 for better understanding of how viral E6 and E7 expression is regulated by alternative RNA splicing. This study elucidates for the first time a mapped branch point in HPV16 genome involved in viral oncogene expression.
The Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV; ChHV5) is believed to be the causative agent of fibropapillomatosis (FP), a neoplastic disease of marine turtles. While clinical signs and pathology of FP are well known, research on ChHV5 has been impeded because no cell culture system for its propagation exists. We have cloned a BAC containing ChHV5 in pTARBAC2.1 and determined its nucleotide sequence. Accordingly, ChHV5 has a type D genome and its predominant gene order is typical for the varicellovirus genus within the alphaherpesvirinae. However, at least four genes that are atypical for an alphaherpesvirus genome were also detected, i.e. two members of the C-type lectin-like domain superfamily (F-lec1, F-lec2), an orthologue to the mouse cytomegalovirus M04 (F-M04) and a viral sialyltransferase (F-sial). Four lines of evidence suggest that these atypical genes are truly part of the ChHV5 genome: (1) the pTARBAC insertion interrupted the UL52 ORF, leaving parts of the gene to either side of the insertion and suggesting that an intact molecule had been cloned. (2) Using FP-associated UL52 (F-UL52) as an anchor and the BAC-derived sequences as a means to generate primers, overlapping PCR was performed with tumor-derived DNA as template, which confirmed the presence of the same stretch of “atypical” DNA in independent FP cases. (3) Pyrosequencing of DNA from independent tumors did not reveal previously undetected viral sequences, suggesting that no apparent loss of viral sequence had happened due to the cloning strategy. (4) The simultaneous presence of previously known ChHV5 sequences and F-sial as well as F-M04 sequences was also confirmed in geographically distinct Australian cases of FP. Finally, transcripts of F-sial and F-M04 but not transcripts of lytic viral genes were detected in tumors from Hawaiian FP-cases. Therefore, we suggest that F-sial and F-M04 may play a role in FP pathogenesis.
Insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), established on the basis of Ralyeigh-Bénard convection, is a rapid and low-cost platform for nucleic acid amplification. However, the method used for signal detection, namely gel electrophoresis, has limited the application of iiPCR. In this study, TaqMan probe-based iiPCR system was developed to obviate the need of post-amplification processing. This system includes an optical detection module, which was designed and integrated into the iiPCR device to detect fluorescent signals generated by the probe. TaqMan probe-iiPCR assays targeting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious myonecrosis virus were developed for preliminary evaluation of this system. Significant elevation of fluorescent signals was detected consistently among positive iiPCR reactions in both assays, correlating with amplicon detection by gel electrophoresis analysis. After condition optimization, a threshold value of S/N (fluorescent intensityafter/fluorescent intensitybefore) for positive reactions was defined for WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR on the basis of 20 blank reactions. WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR generated positive S/Ns from as low as 101 copies of standard DNA and lightly infected Litopenaeus vannamei. Compared with an OIE-certified nested PCR, WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.67% in 120 WSSV-free or lightly infected shrimp samples. Generating positive signals specifically and sensitively, TaqMan probe-iiPCR system has a potential as a low-cost and rapid on-site diagnostics method.
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) has been identified as one of the etiological agents of wheezing in young children with acute respiratory-tract infections. In this study, we have obtained the sequence of a full-length HBoV1 genome (including both termini) using viral DNA extracted from a nasopharyngeal aspirate of an infected patient, cloned the full-length HBoV1 genome, and demonstrated DNA replication, encapsidation of the ssDNA genome, and release of the HBoV1 virions from human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The HBoV1 virions generated from this cell line-based production system exhibits a typical icosahedral structure of approximately 26 nm in diameter, and is capable of productively infecting polarized primary human airway epithelia (HAE) from the apical surface. Infected HAE showed hallmarks of lung airway-tract injury, including disruption of the tight junction barrier, loss of cilia and epithelial cell hypertrophy. Notably, polarized HAE cultured from an immortalized airway epithelial cell line, CuFi-8 (originally derived from a cystic fibrosis patient), also supported productive infection of HBoV1. Thus, we have established a reverse genetics system and generated the first cell line-based culture system for the study of HBoV1 infection, which will significantly advance the study of HBoV1 replication and pathogenesis.
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) has been identified as one of the etiological agents of wheezing in young children with acute respiratory-tract infections. HBoV1 productively infects polarized primary human airway epithelia. However, no cell lines permissive to HBoV1 infection have yet been established. More importantly, the sequences at both ends of the HBoV1 genome have remained unknown. We have resolved both of these issues in this study. We have sequenced a full-length HBoV1 genome and cloned it into a plasmid. We further demonstrated that this HBoV1 plasmid replicated and produced viruses in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Infection of these HBoV1 progeny virions produced obvious cytopathogenic effects in polarized human airway epithelia, which were represented by disruption of the epithelial barrier. Moreover, we identified an airway epithelial cell line supporting HBoV1 infection, when it was polarized. This is the first study to obtain the full-length HBoV1 genome, to demonstrate pathogenesis of HBoV1 infection in human airway epithelia, and to identify the first cell line to support productive HBoV1 infection.
The complete genome of Rana grylio virus (RGV) was sequenced and analyzed recently, which revealed that RGV 50L had homologues in many iridoviruses with different identities; however, the characteristics and functions of 50L have not been studied yet.
We cloned and characterized RGV50L, and revealed 50L functions in virus assembly and gene regulation. 50L encoded a 499-amino acid structural protein of about 85 kDa in molecular weight and contained a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a helix- extension-helix motif. Drug inhibition assay demonstrated that 50L was an immediate-early (IE) gene. Immuno-fluorescence assay revealed that 50L appeared early and persisted in RGV-infected cells following two distribution patterns. One pattern was that 50L exhibited a cytoplasm-nucleus- viromatrix distribution pattern, and mutagenesis of the NLS motif revealed that localization of 50L in the nucleus was NLS-dependent; the other was that 50L co-localized with viral matrix which plays important roles in virus assembly and the life circle of viruses.
RGV 50L is a novel iridovirus IE gene encoded structural protein which plays important roles in virus assembly.
Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi) targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge.
Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2), VP3 (RNAi-VP3), or VP4 (RNAi-VP4) of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h.
RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV.
The family Tymoviridae comprises three plant virus genera, including Tymovirus, Marafivirus, and Maculavirus, which are found in most parts of the world and cause severe agricultural losses. We describe a putatively novel member of the family Tymoviridae, which is isolated from mosquitoes (Culex spp.), referred to as CuTLV.
Methods and Results
The CuTLV was isolated by cell culture, which replicates and causes cytopathic effects in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, but not in mammalian BHK-21 or Vero cells. The complete 6471 nucleotide sequence of CuTLV was determined. The genome of CuTLV is predicted to contain three open reading frames (ORFs). The largest ORF1 is 5307 nucleotides (nt) in length and encodes a putative polypeptide of 1769 amino acids (aa), which contains the conserved motifs for the methyltransferase (MTR), Tymovirus endopeptidase (PRO), helicase (HEL), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the replication-associated proteins (RPs) of positive-stranded RNA viruses. In contrast, the ORF1 sequence does not contain the so-called “tymobox” or “marafibox”, the conserved subgenomic RNA promoter present in all tymoviruses or marafiviruses, respectively. ORF2 and ORF3 putatively encode a 248-aa coat protein (CP) and a proline-rich 149-aa polypeptide. The whole genomic nucleotide identity of CuTLV with other members of family Tymoviridae ranged from 46.2% (ChiYMV) to 52.4% (GFkV). Phylogenetic analysis based on the putative RP and CP genes of CuTLV demonstrated that the virus is most closely related to viruses in the genus Maculavirus.
The CuTLV is a novel virus related to members of the family Tymoviridae, with molecular characters that are distinct from those of tymoviruses, marafiviruses, and other maculaviruses or macula-like viruses. This is the first report of the isolation of a Tymoviridae-like virus from mosquitoes. Further investigations are required to clarify the origin, replication strategy, and the public health or agricultural importance of the CuTLV.
The chemically-synthesized siRNA duplex has become a powerful and widely used tool for RNAi loss-of-function studies, but suffers from a high off-target effect problem. Recently, endoribonulease-prepared siRNA (esiRNA) has been shown to be an attractive alternative due to its lower off-target effect and cost effectiveness. However, the current manufacturing method for esiRNA is complicated, mainly in regards to purification and normalization on a large-scale level. In this study, we present a magnetic bead-integrated chip that can immobilize amplification or transcription products on beads and accomplish transcription, digestion, normalization and purification in a robust and convenient manner. This chip is equipped to manufacture ready-to-use esiRNAs on a large-scale level. Silencing specificity and efficiency of these esiRNAs were validated at the transcriptional, translational and functional levels. Manufacture of several normalized esiRNAs in a single well, including those silencing PARP1 and BRCA1, was successfully achieved, and the esiRNAs were subsequently utilized to effectively investigate their synergistic effect on cell viability. A small esiRNA library targeting 68 tyrosine kinase genes was constructed for a loss-of-function study, and four genes were identified in regulating the migration capability of Hela cells. We believe that this approach provides a more robust and cost-effective choice for manufacturing esiRNAs than current approaches, and therefore these heterogeneous RNA strands may have utility in most intensive and extensive applications.
Four species of human bocaviruses (HBoV1-4) have been identified based on phylogenetic analysis since its first report in 2005. HBoV1 has been associated with respiratory disease, whereas HBoV2-4 are mainly detected in enteric infections. Although the prevalence of HBoVs in humans has been studied in some regions, it has not been well addressed globally.
Cross-reactivity of anti-VP2 antibodies was detected between HBoV1, 2, 3, and 4 in mouse and human serum. The prevalence of specific anti-VP2 IgG antibodies against HBoV1-4 was determined in different age groups of healthy individuals aged 0-70 years old in Beijing, China, using a competition ELISA assay based on virus-like particles of HBoV1-4. The seroprevalence of HBoV1-4 was 50%, 36.9%, 28.7%, and 0.8%, respectively, in children aged 0-14 years (n = 244); whereas the seroprevalence of HBoV1-4 was 66.9%, 49.3%, 38.7% and 1.4%, respectively, in healthy adults (≥15 years old; n = 142). The seropositive rate of HBoV1 was higher than that of HBoV2, HBoV3, and HBoV4 in individuals older than 0.5 years. Furthermore, IgG seroconversion of HBoV1 (10/31, 32.3%), HBoV2 (8/31, 25.8%), and HBoV3 (2/31, 6.5%) was found in paired sera collected from children with respiratory tract infections who were positive for HBoV1 according to PCR analysis.
Our data indicate that HBoV1 is more prevalent than HBoV2, HBoV3, and HBoV4 in the population we sampled in Beijing, China, suggesting that HBoV species may play differential roles in disease.
Tospoviruses (Genus Tospovirus, Family Bunyaviridae) are phytopathogens responsible for significant worldwide crop losses. They have a tripartite negative and ambisense RNA genome segments, termed S (Small), M (Medium) and L (Large) RNA. The vector-transmission is mediated by thrips in a circulative-propagative manner. For new tospovirus species acceptance, several analyses are needed, e.g., the determination of the viral protein sequences for enlightenment of their evolutionary history.
Biological (host range and symptomatology), serological, and molecular (S and M RNA sequencing and evolutionary studies) experiments were performed to characterize and differentiate a new tospovirus species, Bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV), which naturally infects common beans in Brazil. Based upon the results, BeNMV can be classified as a novel species and, together with Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV), they represent members of a new evolutionary lineage within the genus Tospovirus.
Taken together, these evidences suggest that two divergent lineages of tospoviruses are circulating in the American continent and, based on the main clades diversity (American and Eurasian lineages), new tospovirus species related to the BeNMV-SVNaV clade remain to be discovered. This possible greater diversity of tospoviruses may be reflected in a higher number of crops as natural hosts, increasing the economic impact on agriculture. This idea also is supported since BeNMV and SVNaV were discovered naturally infecting atypical hosts (common bean and soybean, respectively), indicating, in this case, a preference for leguminous species. Further studies, for instance a survey focusing on crops, specifically of leguminous plants, may reveal a greater tospovirus diversity not only in the Americas (where both viruses were reported), but throughout the world.
The Heliothine insect complex contains some of the most destructive pests of agricultural crops worldwide, including the closely related Helicoverpa zea and H. armigera. Biological control using baculoviruses is practiced at a moderate level worldwide. In order to enable more wide spread use, a better understanding of cell-virus interactions is required. While many baculoviruses have been sequenced, none of the Heliothine insect genomes have been available. In this study, we sequenced, assembled and functionally annotated 29,586 transcripts from cultured H. zea cells using Illumina 100 bps and paired-end transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The transcript sequences had high assembly coverage (64.5 times). 23,401 sequences had putative protein functions, and over 13,000 sequences had high similarities to available sequences in other insect species. The sequence database was estimated to cover at least 85% of all H. zea genes. The sequences were used to construct a microarray, which was evaluated on the infection of H. zea cells with H. Armigera single-capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV). The analysis revealed that up-regulation of apoptosis genes is the main cellular response in the early infection phase (18 hours post infection), while genes linked to four major immunological signalling pathways (Toll, IMD, Jak-STAT and JNK) were down-regulated. Only small changes (generally downwards) were observed for central carbon metabolism. The transcriptome and microarray platform developed in this study represent a greatly expanded resource base for H. zea insect- HearNPV interaction studies, in which key cellular pathways such as those for metabolism, immune response, transcription and replication have been identified. This resource will be used to develop better cell culture-based virus production processes, and more generally to investigate the molecular basis of host range and susceptibility, virus infectivity and virulence, and the ecology and evolution of baculoviruses.