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1.  A consensus statement for safety monitoring guidelines of treatments for major depressive disorder 
Objective
This paper aims to present an overview of screening and safety considerations for the treatment of clinical depressive disorders and make recommendations for safety monitoring.
Method
Data were sourced by a literature search using MEDLINE and a manual search of scientific journals to identify relevant articles. Draft guidelines were prepared and serially revised in an iterative manner until all co-authors gave final approval of content.
Results
Screening and monitoring can detect medical causes of depression. Specific adverse effects associated with antidepressant treatments may be reduced or identified earlier by baseline screening and agent-specific monitoring after commencing treatment.
Conclusion
The adoption of safety monitoring guidelines when treating clinical depression is likely to improve overall physical health status and treatment outcome. It is important to implement these guidelines in the routine management of clinical depression.
doi:10.3109/00048674.2011.595686
PMCID: PMC3190838  PMID: 21888608
2.  Ketamine perturbs perception of the flow of time in healthy volunteers 
Psychopharmacology  2011;218(3):543-556.
Rationale
Disturbances in the subjective experience of time have been observed both in schizophrenia and following acute administration of ketamine. However, effects of ketamine on more objective timing tasks have not yet been measured in humans, nor has it been established that timing effects are not merely secondary to a more general dysfunction in working memory (WM).
Objective and methods
In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, we characterised the effects of ketamine (100 ng/ml blood plasma level) on performance of perceptual timing and colour discrimination tasks, which were matched for WM and attentional demands. To test the ubiquity of ketamine's effects on timing, we also examined two distinct measures of temporal predictability.
Results
Ketamine significantly distorted the subjective experience of time as measured by the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scales. Critically, ketamine also impaired accuracy on the perceptual timing task while having no effect on performance of the colour perception task. Although ketamine did not impair the ability to use prelearned temporal (or spatial) cues to predict target onset (or location), it did slow reaction times at long delays following non-informative neutral cues, suggesting an impaired ability to use the unidirectional flow of time itself to make temporal predictions.
Conclusions
Ketamine induced selective impairments in timing, which could not be explained by more fundamental effects on the ability to hold information in WM. Rather our collected findings suggest that ketamine may disturb timing by selectively impairing the way in which information is temporally manipulated within WM.
doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2346-9
PMCID: PMC3210361  PMID: 21603893
Ketamine; Timing; Duration; NMDA; Glutamate; Temporal expectation; Hazard function; Foreperiod; Temporal orienting; Attention

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