Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-8 (8)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Pathogenic diversity amongst serotype C VGIII and VGIV Cryptococcus gattii isolates 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:11717.
Cryptococcus gattii is one of the causative agents of human cryptococcosis. Highly virulent strains of serotype B C. gattii have been studied in detail, but little information is available on the pathogenic properties of serotype C isolates. In this study, we analyzed pathogenic determinants in three serotype C C. gattii isolates (106.97, ATCC 24066 and WM 779). Isolate ATCC 24066 (molecular type VGIII) differed from isolates WM 779 and 106.97 (both VGIV) in capsule dimensions, expression of CAP genes, chitooligomer distribution, and induction of host chitinase activity. Isolate WM 779 was more efficient than the others in producing pigments and all three isolates had distinct patterns of reactivity with antibodies to glucuronoxylomannan. This great phenotypic diversity reflected in differential pathogenicity. VGIV isolates WM 779 and 106.97 were similar in their ability to cause lethality and produced higher pulmonary fungal burden in a murine model of cryptococcosis, while isolate ATCC 24066 (VGIII) was unable to reach the brain and caused reduced lethality in intranasally infected mice. These results demonstrate a high diversity in the pathogenic potential of isolates of C. gattii belonging to the molecular types VGIII and VGIV.
PMCID: PMC4495446  PMID: 26153364
2.  Vesicular transport systems in fungi 
Future microbiology  2011;6(11):1371-1381.
Canonical and unconventional mechanisms of secretion in many eukaryotic cells are relatively well known. In contrast to the situation in animal cells, mechanisms of secretion in fungi must include the capacity for trans-cell wall passage of macromolecules to the extracellular space. Although these mechanisms remain somewhat elusive, several studies in recent years have suggested that vesicular transport is required for trans-cell wall secretion of large molecules. Several fungal molecules, including proteins, lipids, polysaccharides and pigments, are released to the extracellular space in vesicles. In pathogenic fungi, a number of these vesicular components are associated with fungal virulence. Indeed, extracellular vesicles produced by fungi can interfere with the immunomodulatory activity of host cells. Fungal vesicles share many functional aspects with mammalian exosomes and extracellular vesicles produced by bacteria, plants and protozoa, but their cellular origin remains unknown. Here, we discuss the involvement of vesicular transport systems in fungal physiology and pathogenesis, making parallels with the mammalian, bacterial, protozoan and plant cell literature.
PMCID: PMC4286297  PMID: 22082294
Cryptococcus neoformans; extracellular vesicles; fungal pathogens; secretion
3.  Identification of genes expressed by Cryptococcus gattii during iron deprivation 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;45(3):813-820.
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic yeasts that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually every organism as it functions as a cofactor in numerous essential enzymatic reactions. In the literature, the competition for iron between microbes and mammalian hosts during infection is well documented. In this study, we used representational difference analysis (RDA) in order to gain a better understanding of how C. gattii responds to iron starvation. A total of 15 and 29 genes were identified as having altered expression levels due to iron depletion after 3 h and 12 h, respectively. Of these, eight genes were identified in both libraries. The transcripts were related to many biological processes, such as cell cycle, ergosterol metabolism, cell wall organization, transportation, translation, cell respiration and the stress response. These data suggest a remodeling of C. gattii metabolism during conditions of iron deprivation.
PMCID: PMC4204963  PMID: 25477912
Cryptococcus gattii; iron; representational difference analysis; yeast
4.  The vacuolar-sorting protein Snf7 is required for export of virulence determinants in members of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex. 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6198.
Fungal pathogenesis requires a number of extracellularly released virulence factors. Recent studies demonstrating that most fungal extracellular molecules lack secretory tags suggest that unconventional secretion mechanisms and fungal virulence are strictly connected. Proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) have been recently associated with polysaccharide export in the yeast-like human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Snf7 is a key ESCRT operator required for unconventional secretion in Eukaryotes. In this study we generated snf7Δ mutant strains of C. neoformans and its sibling species C. gattii. Lack of Snf7 resulted in important alterations in polysaccharide secretion, capsular formation and pigmentation. This phenotype culminated with loss of virulence in an intranasal model of murine infection in both species. Our data support the notion that Snf7 expression regulates virulence in C. neoformans and C. gattii by ablating polysaccharide and melanin traffic. These results are in agreement with the observation that unconventional secretion is essential for cryptococcal pathogenesis and strongly suggest the occurrence of still obscure mechanisms of exportation of non-protein molecules in Eukaryotes.
PMCID: PMC4151102  PMID: 25178636
5.  Fungal zinc metabolism and its connections to virulence 
Zinc is a ubiquitous metal in all life forms, as it is a structural component of the almost 10% of eukaryotic proteins, which are called zinc-binding proteins. In zinc-limiting conditions such as those found during infection, pathogenic fungi activate the expression of several systems to enhance the uptake of zinc. These systems include ZIP transporters (solute carrier 39 family) and secreted zincophores, which are proteins that are able to chelate zinc. The expression of some fungal zinc uptake systems are regulated by a master regulator (Zap1), first characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this review, we highlight features of zinc uptake and metabolism in human fungal pathogens and aspects of the relationship between proper zinc metabolism and the expression of virulence factors and adaptation to the host habitat.
PMCID: PMC3796257  PMID: 24133658
zinc ZIP transporters; zinc metabolism; zinc deprivation; ZAP transcription factor; fungal virulence
6.  Bandoniozyma gen. nov., a Genus of Fermentative and Non-Fermentative Tremellaceous Yeast Species 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46060.
Independent surveys across the globe led to the proposal of a new basidiomycetous yeast genus within the Bulleromyces clade of the Tremellales, Bandoniozyma gen. nov., with seven new species.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The species were characterized by multiple methods, including the analysis of D1/D2 and ITS nucleotide sequences, and morphological and physiological/biochemical traits. Most species can ferment glucose, which is an unusual trait among basidiomycetous yeasts.
In this study we propose the new yeast genus Bandoniozyma, with seven species Bandoniozyma noutii sp. nov. (type species of genus; CBS 8364T  =  DBVPG 4489T), Bandoniozyma aquatica sp. nov. (UFMG-DH4.20T  =  CBS 12527T  =  ATCC MYA-4876T), Bandoniozyma complexa sp. nov. (CBS 11570T  =  ATCC MYA-4603T  =  MA28aT), Bandoniozyma fermentans sp. nov. (CBS 12399T  =  NU7M71T  =  BCRC 23267T), Bandoniozyma glucofermentans sp. nov. (CBS 10381T  =  NRRL Y-48076T  =  ATCC MYA-4760T  =  BG 02-7-15-015A-1-1T), Bandoniozyma tunnelae sp. nov. (CBS 8024T  =  DBVPG 7000T), and Bandoniozyma visegradensis sp. nov. (CBS 12505T  =  NRRL Y-48783T  =  NCAIM Y.01952T).
PMCID: PMC3467267  PMID: 23056233
7.  Role for Golgi reassembly and stacking protein (GRASP) in polysaccharide secretion and fungal virulence 
Molecular microbiology  2011;81(1):206-218.
Secretion of virulence factors is a critical mechanism for the establishment of cryptococcosis, a disease caused by the yeast pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. One key virulence strategy of C. neoformans is the release of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), a capsule-associated immune-modulatory polysaccharide that reaches the extracellular space through secretory vesicles. Golgi reassembly and stacking protein (GRASP) is required for unconventional protein secretion mechanisms in different eukaryotic cells, but its role in polysaccharide secretion is unknown. This study demonstrates that a C. neoformans functional mutant of a GRASP ortholog had attenuated virulence in an animal model of cryptococcosis, in comparison to wild type (WT) and reconstituted cells. Mutant cells manifested altered Golgi morphology, failed to produce typical polysaccharide capsules and showed a reduced ability to secrete GXM both in vitro and during animal infection. Isolation of GXM from cultures of WT, reconstituted or mutant strains revealed that the GRASP ortholog mutant produced polysaccharides with reduced dimensions. The mutant was also more efficiently associated to and killed by macrophages than WT and reconstituted cells. These results demonstrate that GRASP, a protein involved in unconventional protein secretion, is also required for polysaccharide secretion and virulence in C. neoformans.
PMCID: PMC3124575  PMID: 21542865
8.  Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†  
Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R. | Ferreira, Henrique B. | Bizarro, Cristiano V. | Bonatto, Sandro L. | Carvalho, Marcos O. | Pinto, Paulo M. | Almeida, Darcy F. | Almeida, Luiz G. P. | Almeida, Rosana | Alves-Filho, Leonardo | Assunção, Enedina N. | Azevedo, Vasco A. C. | Bogo, Maurício R. | Brigido, Marcelo M. | Brocchi, Marcelo | Burity, Helio A. | Camargo, Anamaria A. | Camargo, Sandro S. | Carepo, Marta S. | Carraro, Dirce M. | de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C. | Castro, Luiza A. | Cavalcanti, Gisele | Chemale, Gustavo | Collevatti, Rosane G. | Cunha, Cristina W. | Dallagiovanna, Bruno | Dambrós, Bibiana P. | Dellagostin, Odir A. | Falcão, Clarissa | Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana | Felipe, Maria S. S. | Fiorentin, Laurimar | Franco, Gloria R. | Freitas, Nara S. A. | Frías, Diego | Grangeiro, Thalles B. | Grisard, Edmundo C. | Guimarães, Claudia T. | Hungria, Mariangela | Jardim, Sílvia N. | Krieger, Marco A. | Laurino, Jomar P. | Lima, Lucymara F. A. | Lopes, Maryellen I. | Loreto, Élgion L. S. | Madeira, Humberto M. F. | Manfio, Gilson P. | Maranhão, Andrea Q. | Martinkovics, Christyanne T. | Medeiros, Sílvia R. B. | Moreira, Miguel A. M. | Neiva, Márcia | Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E. | Nicolás, Marisa F. | Oliveira, Sergio C. | Paixão, Roger F. C. | Pedrosa, Fábio O. | Pena, Sérgio D. J. | Pereira, Maristela | Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian | Piffer, Itamar | Pinto, Luciano S. | Potrich, Deise P. | Salim, Anna C. M. | Santos, Fabrício R. | Schmitt, Renata | Schneider, Maria P. C. | Schrank, Augusto | Schrank, Irene S. | Schuck, Adriana F. | Seuanez, Hector N. | Silva, Denise W. | Silva, Rosane | Silva, Sérgio C. | Soares, Célia M. A. | Souza, Kelly R. L. | Souza, Rangel C. | Staats, Charley C. | Steffens, Maria B. R. | Teixeira, Santuza M. R. | Urmenyi, Turan P. | Vainstein, Marilene H. | Zuccherato, Luciana W. | Simpson, Andrew J. G. | Zaha, Arnaldo
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(16):5568-5577.
This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae.
PMCID: PMC1196056  PMID: 16077101

Results 1-8 (8)