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author:("Silva, rosano")
1.  Identification and ultrastructural characterization of the Wolbachia symbiont in Litomosoides chagasfilhoi 
Parasites & Vectors  2015;8:74.
Background
Filarial nematodes are arthropod-transmitted parasites of vertebrates that affect more than 150 million people around the world and remain a major public health problem throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Despite the importance of these nematodes, the current treatment strategies are not efficient in eliminating the parasite. The main strategy of control is based on chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine, albendazole and ivermectin. In the 1970s, it was found that some filarids possess endosymbiotic bacteria that are important for the development, survival and infectivity of the nematodes. These bacteria belong to the genus Wolbachia, which is a widespread and abundant intracellular symbiont in worms. Knowledge about the structure of the bacteria and their relationship with their nematode hosts may allow new perspectives for the control of filarial nematodes.
Methods
In this study, we used transmission electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional approaches to observe the structure of the endosymbiont of the filarial nematode Litomosoides chagasfilhoi, an experimental model for the study of lymphatic filariasis. In addition, the bacterium was classified based on PCR analyses.
Results
The bacterium was mainly found in the hypodermis and in the female reproductive system in close association with host cell structures, such as the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. Our ultrastructural data also showed that the symbiont envelope is composed of two membrane units and is enclosed in a cytoplasmic vacuole, the symbiosome. Molecular data revealed that the bacterium of L. chagasfilhoi shares 100% identity with the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Litomosoides galizai.
Conclusions
Here we described ultrastructural aspects of the relationship of the Wolbachia with the filarial nematode Litomosoides chagasfilhoi and the findings lead us to consider this relationship as a mutualistic symbiosis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-015-0668-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13071-015-0668-x
PMCID: PMC4323257  PMID: 25649218
Filarial nematodes; Litomosoides chagasfilhoi; Symbiosis; Transmission electron microscopy; Ultrastructure analyses; Wolbachia
2.  Genome of the Avirulent Human-Infective Trypanosome—Trypanosoma rangeli 
Background
Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate protozoan parasite infecting humans and other wild and domestic mammals across Central and South America. It does not cause human disease, but it can be mistaken for the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. We have sequenced the T. rangeli genome to provide new tools for elucidating the distinct and intriguing biology of this species and the key pathways related to interaction with its arthropod and mammalian hosts.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The T. rangeli haploid genome is ∼24 Mb in length, and is the smallest and least repetitive trypanosomatid genome sequenced thus far. This parasite genome has shorter subtelomeric sequences compared to those of T. cruzi and T. brucei; displays intraspecific karyotype variability and lacks minichromosomes. Of the predicted 7,613 protein coding sequences, functional annotations could be determined for 2,415, while 5,043 are hypothetical proteins, some with evidence of protein expression. 7,101 genes (93%) are shared with other trypanosomatids that infect humans. An ortholog of the dcl2 gene involved in the T. brucei RNAi pathway was found in T. rangeli, but the RNAi machinery is non-functional since the other genes in this pathway are pseudogenized. T. rangeli is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, a phenotype that may be explained by a smaller number of anti-oxidant defense enzymes and heat-shock proteins.
Conclusions/Significance
Phylogenetic comparison of nuclear and mitochondrial genes indicates that T. rangeli and T. cruzi are equidistant from T. brucei. In addition to revealing new aspects of trypanosome co-evolution within the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, comparative genomic analysis with pathogenic trypanosomatids provides valuable new information that can be further explored with the aim of developing better diagnostic tools and/or therapeutic targets.
Author Summary
Comparative genomics is a powerful tool that affords detailed study of the genetic and evolutionary basis for aspects of lifecycles and pathologies caused by phylogenetically related pathogens. The reference genome sequences of three trypanosomatids, T. brucei, T. cruzi and L. major, and subsequent addition of multiple Leishmania and Trypanosoma genomes has provided data upon which large-scale investigations delineating the complex systems biology of these human parasites has been built. Here, we compare the annotated genome sequence of T. rangeli strain SC-58 to available genomic sequence and annotation data from related species. We provide analysis of gene content, genome architecture and key characteristics associated with the biology of this non-pathogenic trypanosome. Moreover, we report striking new genomic features of T. rangeli compared with its closest relative, T. cruzi, such as (1) considerably less amplification on the gene copy number within multigene virulence factor families such as MASPs, trans-sialidases and mucins; (2) a reduced repertoire of genes encoding anti-oxidant defense enzymes; and (3) the presence of vestigial orthologs of the RNAi machinery, which are insufficient to constitute a functional pathway. Overall, the genome of T. rangeli provides for a much better understanding of the identity, evolution, regulation and function of trypanosome virulence determinants for both mammalian host and insect vector.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003176
PMCID: PMC4169256  PMID: 25233456
3.  A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci 
Purps, Josephine | Siegert, Sabine | Willuweit, Sascha | Nagy, Marion | Alves, Cíntia | Salazar, Renato | Angustia, Sheila M.T. | Santos, Lorna H. | Anslinger, Katja | Bayer, Birgit | Ayub, Qasim | Wei, Wei | Xue, Yali | Tyler-Smith, Chris | Bafalluy, Miriam Baeta | Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña | Egyed, Balazs | Balitzki, Beate | Tschumi, Sibylle | Ballard, David | Court, Denise Syndercombe | Barrantes, Xinia | Bäßler, Gerhard | Wiest, Tina | Berger, Burkhard | Niederstätter, Harald | Parson, Walther | Davis, Carey | Budowle, Bruce | Burri, Helen | Borer, Urs | Koller, Christoph | Carvalho, Elizeu F. | Domingues, Patricia M. | Chamoun, Wafaa Takash | Coble, Michael D. | Hill, Carolyn R. | Corach, Daniel | Caputo, Mariela | D’Amato, Maria E. | Davison, Sean | Decorte, Ronny | Larmuseau, Maarten H.D. | Ottoni, Claudio | Rickards, Olga | Lu, Di | Jiang, Chengtao | Dobosz, Tadeusz | Jonkisz, Anna | Frank, William E. | Furac, Ivana | Gehrig, Christian | Castella, Vincent | Grskovic, Branka | Haas, Cordula | Wobst, Jana | Hadzic, Gavrilo | Drobnic, Katja | Honda, Katsuya | Hou, Yiping | Zhou, Di | Li, Yan | Hu, Shengping | Chen, Shenglan | Immel, Uta-Dorothee | Lessig, Rüdiger | Jakovski, Zlatko | Ilievska, Tanja | Klann, Anja E. | García, Cristina Cano | de Knijff, Peter | Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa | Kondili, Aikaterini | Miniati, Penelope | Vouropoulou, Maria | Kovacevic, Lejla | Marjanovic, Damir | Lindner, Iris | Mansour, Issam | Al-Azem, Mouayyad | Andari, Ansar El | Marino, Miguel | Furfuro, Sandra | Locarno, Laura | Martín, Pablo | Luque, Gracia M. | Alonso, Antonio | Miranda, Luís Souto | Moreira, Helena | Mizuno, Natsuko | Iwashima, Yasuki | Neto, Rodrigo S. Moura | Nogueira, Tatiana L.S. | Silva, Rosane | Nastainczyk-Wulf, Marina | Edelmann, Jeanett | Kohl, Michael | Nie, Shengjie | Wang, Xianping | Cheng, Baowen | Núñez, Carolina | Pancorbo, Marian Martínez de | Olofsson, Jill K. | Morling, Niels | Onofri, Valerio | Tagliabracci, Adriano | Pamjav, Horolma | Volgyi, Antonia | Barany, Gusztav | Pawlowski, Ryszard | Maciejewska, Agnieszka | Pelotti, Susi | Pepinski, Witold | Abreu-Glowacka, Monica | Phillips, Christopher | Cárdenas, Jorge | Rey-Gonzalez, Danel | Salas, Antonio | Brisighelli, Francesca | Capelli, Cristian | Toscanini, Ulises | Piccinini, Andrea | Piglionica, Marilidia | Baldassarra, Stefania L. | Ploski, Rafal | Konarzewska, Magdalena | Jastrzebska, Emila | Robino, Carlo | Sajantila, Antti | Palo, Jukka U. | Guevara, Evelyn | Salvador, Jazelyn | Ungria, Maria Corazon De | Rodriguez, Jae Joseph Russell | Schmidt, Ulrike | Schlauderer, Nicola | Saukko, Pekka | Schneider, Peter M. | Sirker, Miriam | Shin, Kyoung-Jin | Oh, Yu Na | Skitsa, Iulia | Ampati, Alexandra | Smith, Tobi-Gail | Calvit, Lina Solis de | Stenzl, Vlastimil | Capal, Thomas | Tillmar, Andreas | Nilsson, Helena | Turrina, Stefania | De Leo, Domenico | Verzeletti, Andrea | Cortellini, Venusia | Wetton, Jon H. | Gwynne, Gareth M. | Jobling, Mark A. | Whittle, Martin R. | Sumita, Denilce R. | Wolańska-Nowak, Paulina | Yong, Rita Y.Y. | Krawczak, Michael | Nothnagel, Michael | Roewer, Lutz
In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent.
doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.04.008
PMCID: PMC4127773  PMID: 24854874
Gene diversity; Discriminatory power; AMOVA; Population structure; Database
4.  fAFLP analysis of Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis isolates 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:256.
A total of 65 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates were subjected to analysis of genetic relationship using fAFLP (fluorescent Fragment Length Polymorphism), in order to determine the genetic diversity within a group of Bt strains. 26 strains from different subspecies were identified as it follows: 9 kindly provided by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), 9 kindly provided by the Institute Pasteur and eight from Embrapa Maize and Sorghum Bt Collection, and 39 strains with no subspecies information also from Embrapa’s Bt Collection. DNA sample was double digested with restriction enzymes EcoRI and MseI, and the fragments were linked to adapters. Selective amplification reactions were performed using five primer combinations and the amplified fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis on an ABI377 sequencer. Genetic distances were obtained by the complement of the Jaccard coefficient and the groups were performed by the UPGMA method. Five primer combinations generated 495 scorable fragments and 483 were found to be polymorphic. Out of 26 subspecies, strains 344 and T09 (B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi) showed the highest similarity (15%), while isolates HD3 B. thuringiensis subsp finitimus and T24 B. thuringiensis subsp neoleonensis were the most genetically distant (92%). B. thuringiensis isolates with no subspecies identification, found in samples from Goiás State showed higher similarity forming a group with an average distance of 6%, and the closest subspecies to this group was B. thuringiensis subsp thuringiensis (HD2) with 52% of similarity. This similarity may be due to the fact that these organism exchange genetic material by conjugation, and it is relatively common to have evolutionary characteristics of their ancestors.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-256
PMCID: PMC4047271  PMID: 24926421
AFLP; Genetic diversity; Bacillus thuringiensis; Restriction enzymes
5.  Molecular characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis using rep-PCR 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:641.
The genetic divergence of 65 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was determined using Rep-PCR. Based on the repetitive sequences the BOX primer was the most informative with 26 fragments, followed by ERIC (19) and REP (10), generating a total of 55 fragments. The dendogram shows that ten groups were formed when 45% was the average distance of the population: group 1 with 41,5% of the isolates, 33,8% of the isolates were distributed in other groups and 24,6% did not formed distinct group. 53,2% of the isolates from Embrapa are in the group 1, and 29,8% of the isolates are distributed in other groups. Bt strains from USDA and Institute Pasteur showed more variability.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-641
PMCID: PMC3867629  PMID: 24363981
REP-PCR; Genetic divergence; Bacillus thuringiensis; Repetitive sequences
6.  The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector 
Marinotti, Osvaldo | Cerqueira, Gustavo C. | de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula | Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi | Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva | Zaha, Arnaldo | Teixeira, Santuza M. R. | Wespiser, Adam R. | Almeida e Silva, Alexandre | Schlindwein, Aline Daiane | Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim | da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa | Graveley, Brenton R. | Walenz, Brian P. | Lima, Bruna de Araujo | Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes | Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo | de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto | Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida | de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso | Matiolli, Cleverson | Caffrey, Daniel | Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M. | de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães | Golenbock, Douglas | Grisard, Edmundo Carlos | Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana | de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques | Barcellos, Fernando Gomes | Prosdocimi, Francisco | May, Gemma | de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins | Guimarães, Giselle Moura | Goldman, Gustavo Henrique | Padilha, Itácio Q. M. | Batista, Jacqueline da Silva | Ferro, Jesus Aparecido | Ribeiro, José M. C. | Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel | Dabbas, Karina Maia | Cerdeira, Louise | Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella | Brocchi, Marcelo | de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira | Teixeira, Marcus de Melo | Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena | Goldman, Maria Helena S. | Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula | Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares | Hungria, Mariangela | Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana | Pereira, Maristela | Montes, Martín Alejandro | Cantão, Maurício E. | Vincentz, Michel | Rafael, Miriam Silva | Silverman, Neal | Stoco, Patrícia Hermes | Souza, Rangel Celso | Vicentini, Renato | Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes | Neves, Rogério de Oliveira | Silva, Rosane | Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco | Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira | Ürményi, Turán P. | Tadei, Wanderli Pedro | Camargo, Erney Plessmann | de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(15):7387-7400.
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt484
PMCID: PMC3753621  PMID: 23761445
7.  Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60209.
Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060209
PMCID: PMC3616161  PMID: 23560078
8.  Dynamics of resistance mutations to NS3 protease inhibitors in a cohort of Brazilian patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (genotype 1) treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin: a prospective longitudinal study 
Virology Journal  2013;10:57.
Abstract
About sixty thousand new cases of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are recorded in Brazil each year. These cases are currently treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) with an overall success rate of 50%. New compounds for anti-HCV therapy targeted to the HCV NS3 protease are being developed and some already form the components of licensed therapies. Mapping NS3 protease resistance mutations to protease inhibitors or anti-viral drug candidates is important to direct anti-HCV drug treatment.
Methods
Sequence analysis of the HCV NS3 protease was conducted in a group of 68 chronically infected patients harboring the HCV genotype 1. The patients were sampled before, during and after a course of PEG-IFN-RBV treatment.
Results
Resistance mutations to the protease inhibitors, Boceprevir and Telaprevir were identified in HCV isolated from three patients (4.4%); the viral sequences contained at least one of the following mutations: V36L, T54S and V55A. In one sustained virological responder, the T54S mutation appeared during the course of PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. In contrast, V36L and V55A mutations were identified in virus isolated from one relapsing patient before, during, and after treatment, whereas the T54S mutation was identified in virus isolated from one non-responding patient, before and during the treatment course.
Conclusions
The incidence and persistence of protease resistance mutations occurring in HCV from chronically infected patients in Brazil should be considered when using protease inhibitors to treat HCV disease. In addition, patients treated with the current therapy (PEG-IFN and RBV) that are relapsing or are non-responders should be considered candidates for protease inhibitor therapy.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-57
PMCID: PMC3599441  PMID: 23409973
HCV NS3 protease; Drug resistance persistency; Selection pressure; Antiviral drugs; Chronic Hepatitis C infection
9.  Association of IL-10, IL-4, and IL-28B gene polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a population from Rio de Janeiro 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:508.
Background
Cytokines play an important role in the regulation of the immune response. In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cytokine levels may influence the outcome of acute HCV infection. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes have been associated to different expression levels in response to infection. This study was carried out to investigate the association of several cytokine gene polymorphisms with disease outcome in HCV-infected patients.
Findings
Patients with chronic or spontaneously resolved HCV infection were included in a cross-sectional study. A comparative analysis was performed between the groups regarding frequency distribution of the following cytokines’ gene polymorphisms: IL-10 (−1082 A/G; -819 T/C; -592 A/C), IL-4 (+33C/T), IFN-γ (+874 T/A), TNF-α (−238 G/A and −308 G/A) and IL-28B (rs12979860 C/T and rs8099917 T/G). Results: Eighteen patients with spontaneous viral clearance and 161 with chronic HCV infection were included. In the comparative analysis, the GG genotype of the IL-10 polymorphism -1082A/G was more frequent in patients with spontaneous viral clearance when compared to patients with chronic HCV (41.2% vs 6.2%; p = 0.001). This association was also found for the CC genotype of the IL-4 polymorphism +33C/T (72.2% vs 36.7%; p = 0.017) and the CC and TT genotypes of the IL-28B polymorphisms rs 12979860 and rs 8099917 (88.9% vs 30.3%; p < 0.001 and 88.9% vs 49.6%; p = 0.002). The IL10 (A-1082 G) and IL-28B (Crs12979860T) gene polymorphisms showed odds ratios of 12.848 and 11.077, respectively, and thus may have a greater influence on HCV spontaneous viral clearance. The IFN-γ (+874 T/A), TNF-α (−238 G/A and −308 G/A) polymorphisms did not show significant association with spontaneous viral clearance or chronicity.
Conclusion
The G allele for IL-10 (−1082 A/G), the C allele for IL-4 (+3 C/T) and the C and T alleles for IL-28B (rs12979860 and rs8099917, respectively) are associated with spontaneous viral clearance in hepatitis C infection.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-508
PMCID: PMC3508811  PMID: 22986179
Acute hepatitis C; Chronic hepatitis C; HCV; Spontaneous viral clearance; Cytokines; Gene polymorphism
10.  Determination of Cancer Risk Associated with Germ Line BRCA1 Missense Variants by Functional Analysis 
Cancer research  2007;67(4):1494-1501.
Germ line inactivating mutations in BRCA1 confer susceptibility for breast and ovarian cancer. However, the relevance of the many missense changes in the gene for which the effect on protein function is unknown remains unclear. Determination of which variants are causally associated with cancer is important for assessment of individual risk. We used a functional assay that measures the transactivation activity of BRCA1 in combination with analysis of protein modeling based on the structure of BRCA1 BRCT domains. In addition, the information generated was interpreted in light of genetic data. We determined the predicted cancer association of 22 BRCA1 variants and verified that the common polymorphism S1613G has no effect on BRCA1 function, even when combined with other rare variants. We estimated the specificity and sensitivity of the assay, and by meta-analysis of 47 variants, we show that variants with <45% of wild-type activity can be classified as deleterious whereas variants with >50% can be classified as neutral. In conclusion, we did functional and structure-based analyses on a large series of BRCA1 missense variants and defined a tentative threshold activity for the classification missense variants. By interpreting the validated functional data in light of additional clinical and structural evidence, we conclude that it is possible to classify all missense variants in the BRCA1 COOH-terminal region. These results bring functional assays for BRCA1 closer to clinical applicability.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3297
PMCID: PMC2936786  PMID: 17308087
11.  Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:450.
Background
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins.
Results
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat.
Conclusion
The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-450
PMCID: PMC2765452  PMID: 19775431
12.  Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†  
Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R. | Ferreira, Henrique B. | Bizarro, Cristiano V. | Bonatto, Sandro L. | Carvalho, Marcos O. | Pinto, Paulo M. | Almeida, Darcy F. | Almeida, Luiz G. P. | Almeida, Rosana | Alves-Filho, Leonardo | Assunção, Enedina N. | Azevedo, Vasco A. C. | Bogo, Maurício R. | Brigido, Marcelo M. | Brocchi, Marcelo | Burity, Helio A. | Camargo, Anamaria A. | Camargo, Sandro S. | Carepo, Marta S. | Carraro, Dirce M. | de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C. | Castro, Luiza A. | Cavalcanti, Gisele | Chemale, Gustavo | Collevatti, Rosane G. | Cunha, Cristina W. | Dallagiovanna, Bruno | Dambrós, Bibiana P. | Dellagostin, Odir A. | Falcão, Clarissa | Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana | Felipe, Maria S. S. | Fiorentin, Laurimar | Franco, Gloria R. | Freitas, Nara S. A. | Frías, Diego | Grangeiro, Thalles B. | Grisard, Edmundo C. | Guimarães, Claudia T. | Hungria, Mariangela | Jardim, Sílvia N. | Krieger, Marco A. | Laurino, Jomar P. | Lima, Lucymara F. A. | Lopes, Maryellen I. | Loreto, Élgion L. S. | Madeira, Humberto M. F. | Manfio, Gilson P. | Maranhão, Andrea Q. | Martinkovics, Christyanne T. | Medeiros, Sílvia R. B. | Moreira, Miguel A. M. | Neiva, Márcia | Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E. | Nicolás, Marisa F. | Oliveira, Sergio C. | Paixão, Roger F. C. | Pedrosa, Fábio O. | Pena, Sérgio D. J. | Pereira, Maristela | Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian | Piffer, Itamar | Pinto, Luciano S. | Potrich, Deise P. | Salim, Anna C. M. | Santos, Fabrício R. | Schmitt, Renata | Schneider, Maria P. C. | Schrank, Augusto | Schrank, Irene S. | Schuck, Adriana F. | Seuanez, Hector N. | Silva, Denise W. | Silva, Rosane | Silva, Sérgio C. | Soares, Célia M. A. | Souza, Kelly R. L. | Souza, Rangel C. | Staats, Charley C. | Steffens, Maria B. R. | Teixeira, Santuza M. R. | Urmenyi, Turan P. | Vainstein, Marilene H. | Zuccherato, Luciana W. | Simpson, Andrew J. G. | Zaha, Arnaldo
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(16):5568-5577.
This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae.
doi:10.1128/JB.187.16.5568-5577.2005
PMCID: PMC1196056  PMID: 16077101

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