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3.  Expression of Neospora caninum NcSRS2 surface protein in Pichia pastoris and its application for serodiagnosis of Neospora infection 
Pathogens and Global Health  2013;107(3):116-121.
Neospora caninum is considerd a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. The antigenic domain of NcSRS2 in N. caninum is an important surface antigen present in the membrane of this parasite. In the present study, the Pichia pastoris expression system proved to be a useful tool for the production of recombinant protein. The truncated NcSRS2 gene (by removal of the N-terminal hydrophobic sequence), was cloned in the vector pPICZalphaB, and integrated on the genome of the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. Subsequently, the NcSRS2 protein was expressed, purified, and characterized using naturally infected cattle sera and Mab 6xhistag. The recombinant protein NcSRS2 was present in the supernatant of the culture, where later it was concentrated and purified using ammonium sulfate (∼100 mg/ml). An indirect immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) was performed using cattle sera from endemic N. caninum area.
doi:10.1179/2047773213Y.0000000082
PMCID: PMC4003588  PMID: 23683365
NcSRS2; Pichia pastoris; Expression
4.  Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81338.
Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081338
PMCID: PMC3834338  PMID: 24260572
5.  Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment 
Objective
To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.
Methods
A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.
Results
A total of 45 patients (45 eyes) were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25); ALT group (n = 20)]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12). We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6%) and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8%) groups at month 6 (P = 0.38). Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25%) at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72%) and ALT (65%) groups (P = 0.36). Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit) between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32). Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01), but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89). Early postoperative success predicted late success in most SLT cases (82%). No serious complications were observed.
Conclusion
Although mid-term results suggest SLT and ALT as effective and equivalent alternatives, a greater initial IOP reduction was observed following SLT. In addition, the initial IOP reduction was a good predictor of mid-term success in patients undergoing SLT, but not ALT.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S21759
PMCID: PMC3141855  PMID: 21792281
open-angle glaucoma; laser trabeculoplasty; intraocular pressure
6.  Monitoring Leptospira Strain Collections: The Need for Quality Control 
The purpose of this study was to perform a 16S sequence-based quality control of two Leptospira strain collections. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to verify two Leptospira reference collections provided by the World Health Organization and maintained at a reference laboratory for leptospirosis in Brazil. Among the 89 serovars evaluated, four conflicting strains were identified in one of the collections. Although 16S rRNA gene sequencing cannot identify Leptospira beyond the species level, it is suitable for the identification of contamination and quality control of leptospiral reference collections. This study highlights the importance of the availability of high-quality 16S rRNA sequences in public databases. In addition, it emphasizes the need for periodical verifications and quality control of Leptospira reference collections.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0558
PMCID: PMC2803514  PMID: 20065000
7.  Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes 
Genetics and Molecular Biology  2009;32(3):613-618.
We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ΦST pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.
doi:10.1590/S1415-47572009000300027
PMCID: PMC3036036  PMID: 21637527
foraging grounds; genetic diversity; green turtle; mtDNA haplotypes; natal origins
8.  Leptospira noguchii and Human and Animal Leptospirosis, Southern Brazil 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(4):621-623.
doi:10.3201/eid1504.071669
PMCID: PMC2671420  PMID: 19331754
Zoonoses; Leptospira noguchii; leptospirosis; isolation; taxonomy; letter
9.  Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†  
Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R. | Ferreira, Henrique B. | Bizarro, Cristiano V. | Bonatto, Sandro L. | Carvalho, Marcos O. | Pinto, Paulo M. | Almeida, Darcy F. | Almeida, Luiz G. P. | Almeida, Rosana | Alves-Filho, Leonardo | Assunção, Enedina N. | Azevedo, Vasco A. C. | Bogo, Maurício R. | Brigido, Marcelo M. | Brocchi, Marcelo | Burity, Helio A. | Camargo, Anamaria A. | Camargo, Sandro S. | Carepo, Marta S. | Carraro, Dirce M. | de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C. | Castro, Luiza A. | Cavalcanti, Gisele | Chemale, Gustavo | Collevatti, Rosane G. | Cunha, Cristina W. | Dallagiovanna, Bruno | Dambrós, Bibiana P. | Dellagostin, Odir A. | Falcão, Clarissa | Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana | Felipe, Maria S. S. | Fiorentin, Laurimar | Franco, Gloria R. | Freitas, Nara S. A. | Frías, Diego | Grangeiro, Thalles B. | Grisard, Edmundo C. | Guimarães, Claudia T. | Hungria, Mariangela | Jardim, Sílvia N. | Krieger, Marco A. | Laurino, Jomar P. | Lima, Lucymara F. A. | Lopes, Maryellen I. | Loreto, Élgion L. S. | Madeira, Humberto M. F. | Manfio, Gilson P. | Maranhão, Andrea Q. | Martinkovics, Christyanne T. | Medeiros, Sílvia R. B. | Moreira, Miguel A. M. | Neiva, Márcia | Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E. | Nicolás, Marisa F. | Oliveira, Sergio C. | Paixão, Roger F. C. | Pedrosa, Fábio O. | Pena, Sérgio D. J. | Pereira, Maristela | Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian | Piffer, Itamar | Pinto, Luciano S. | Potrich, Deise P. | Salim, Anna C. M. | Santos, Fabrício R. | Schmitt, Renata | Schneider, Maria P. C. | Schrank, Augusto | Schrank, Irene S. | Schuck, Adriana F. | Seuanez, Hector N. | Silva, Denise W. | Silva, Rosane | Silva, Sérgio C. | Soares, Célia M. A. | Souza, Kelly R. L. | Souza, Rangel C. | Staats, Charley C. | Steffens, Maria B. R. | Teixeira, Santuza M. R. | Urmenyi, Turan P. | Vainstein, Marilene H. | Zuccherato, Luciana W. | Simpson, Andrew J. G. | Zaha, Arnaldo
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(16):5568-5577.
This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae.
doi:10.1128/JB.187.16.5568-5577.2005
PMCID: PMC1196056  PMID: 16077101

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