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1.  Dipstick Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in Bacterial Cultures and Its Potential Use on Stool Samples 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e24830.
Background
We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×106 CFU/ml and 4.9×106 CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316) was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6–99.6%) and the sensitivity (11/12) was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8–99.6%). Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328) in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8–91.1%) and 99.7% (95% CI:98–100%).
Conclusion
The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024830
PMCID: PMC3184949  PMID: 21984895
2.  Macrolide-Resistant Shigella sonnei 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2008;14(8):1297-1299.
Shigella sonnei UCN59, isolated during an outbreak of S. sonnei in January 2007, was resistant to azithromycin (MIC 64 mg/L). The isolate contained a plasmid-borne mph(A) gene encoding a macrolide 2′-phosphotransferase that inactivates macrolides. Emergence of the mph(A) gene in S. sonnei may limit usefulness of azithromycin for treatment of shigellosis.
doi:10.3201/eid1408.080147
PMCID: PMC2600399  PMID: 18680661
Antibiotic resistance; shigellosis; surveillance; outbreak; azithromycin; dispatch
3.  Massively parallel pathogen identification using high‐density microarrays 
Microbial Biotechnology  2007;1(1):79-86.
Summary
Identification of microbial pathogens in clinical specimens is still performed by phenotypic methods that are often slow and cumbersome, despite the availability of more comprehensive genotyping technologies. We present an approach based on whole‐genome amplification and resequencing microarrays for unbiased pathogen detection. This 10 h process identifies a broad spectrum of bacterial and viral species and predicts antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity and virulence profiles. We successfully identify a variety of bacteria and viruses, both in isolation and in complex mixtures, and the high specificity of the microarray distinguishes between different pathogens that cause diseases with overlapping symptoms. The resequencing approach also allows identification of organisms whose sequences are not tiled on the array, greatly expanding the repertoire of identifiable organisms and their variants. We identify organisms by hybridization of their DNA in as little as 1–4 h. Using this method, we identified Monkeypox virus and drug‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a skin lesion taken from a child suspected of an orthopoxvirus infection, despite poor transport conditions of the sample, and a vast excess of human DNA. Our results suggest this technology could be applied in a clinical setting to test for numerous pathogens in a rapid, sensitive and unbiased manner.
doi:10.1111/j.1751-7915.2007.00012.x
PMCID: PMC3864434  PMID: 21261824
4.  Long-Term Population-Based Genotyping Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates in the French Departments of the Americas†  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(1):183-191.
The three French overseas departments of the Americas are characterized both by insular (Guadeloupe and Martinique) and continental (French Guiana) settings with a tuberculosis case detection rate that varies from less than 10 per 100,000 per year in insular areas to an estimated incidence of more than 55 per 100,000 in French Guiana. Under a long-term genotyping program, more than three-fourths of all the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (n = 744) received from the three settings were fingerprinted over a 10-year period (1994 to 2003) by spoligotyping and variable number of tandem DNA repeats (VNTRs) in order to understand the current trends in their detection rates, drug resistance, and groups and subpopulations at risk of contracting the disease and to pinpoint the circulating phylogeographical clades of the bacilli. The major difference in the study populations was the nationality of the patients, with a high percentage of immigrants from high-incidence neighboring countries in French Guiana and a low but increasing percentage in the French Caribbean. The rate of recent transmission was calculated to be 49.3% in French Guiana, compared to 27.2% and 16.9% in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. At the phylogeographic level, 77.9% of the isolates studied belonged to four major clades (Haarlem, Latin-American and Mediterranean, T, and X) which are already reported from neighboring Caribbean islands in an international database and may underline potential interregional transmission events.
doi:10.1128/JCM.44.1.183-191.2006
PMCID: PMC1351934  PMID: 16390968
5.  Global Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Analysis: Insights into Tuberculosis Evolution, Phylogenetic Accuracy of Other DNA Fingerprinting Systems, and Recommendations for a Minimal Standard SNP Set†  
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;188(2):759-772.
We analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains using 212 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. SNP nucleotide diversity was high (average across all SNPs, 0.19), and 96% of the SNP locus pairs were in complete linkage disequilibrium. Cluster analyses identified six deeply branching, phylogenetically distinct SNP cluster groups (SCGs) and five subgroups. The SCGs were strongly associated with the geographical origin of the M. tuberculosis samples and the birthplace of the human hosts. The most ancestral cluster (SCG-1) predominated in patients from the Indian subcontinent, while SCG-1 and another ancestral cluster (SCG-2) predominated in patients from East Asia, suggesting that M. tuberculosis first arose in the Indian subcontinent and spread worldwide through East Asia. Restricted SCG diversity and the prevalence of less ancestral SCGs in indigenous populations in Uganda and Mexico suggested a more recent introduction of M. tuberculosis into these regions. The East African Indian and Beijing spoligotypes were concordant with SCG-1 and SCG-2, respectively; X and Central Asian spoligotypes were also associated with one SCG or subgroup combination. Other clades had less consistent associations with SCGs. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) analysis provided less robust phylogenetic information, and only 6 of the 12 MIRU microsatellite loci were highly differentiated between SCGs as measured by GST. Finally, an algorithm was devised to identify two minimal sets of either 45 or 6 SNPs that could be used in future investigations to enable global collaborations for studies on evolution, strain differentiation, and biological differences of M. tuberculosis.
doi:10.1128/JB.188.2.759-772.2006
PMCID: PMC1347298  PMID: 16385065
7.  Role of embB Codon 306 Mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Revisited: a Novel Association with Broad Drug Resistance and IS6110 Clustering Rather than Ethambutol Resistance 
Mutations at position 306 of embB (embB306) have been proposed as a marker for ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, recent reports of embB306 mutations in ethambutol-susceptible isolates caused us to question the biological role of this mutation. We tested 1,020 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates with different drug susceptibility patterns and of different geographical origins for associations between embB306 mutations, drug resistance patterns, and major genetic group. One hundred isolates (10%) contained a mutation in embB306; however, only 55 of these mutants were ethambutol resistant. Mutations in embB306 could not be uniquely associated with any particular type of drug resistance and were found in all three major genetic groups. A striking association was observed between these mutations and resistance to any drug (P < 0.001), and the association between embB306 mutations and resistance to increasing numbers of drugs was highly significant (P < 0.001 for trend). We examined the association between embB306 mutations and IS6110 clustering (as a proxy for transmission) among all drug-resistant isolates. Mutations in embB306 were significantly associated with clustering by univariate analysis (odds ratio, 2.44; P = 0.004). In a multivariate model that also included mutations in katG315, katG463, gyrA95, and kasA269, only mutations in embB306 (odds ratio, 2.14; P = 0.008) and katG315 (odds ratio, 1.99; P = 0.015) were found to be independently associated with clustering. In conclusion, embB306 mutations do not cause classical ethambutol resistance but may predispose M. tuberculosis isolates to the development of resistance to increasing numbers of antibiotics and may increase the ability of drug-resistant isolates to be transmitted between subjects.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.9.3794-3802.2005
PMCID: PMC1195424  PMID: 16127055
8.  Snapshot of Moving and Expanding Clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Their Global Distribution Assessed by Spoligotyping in an International Study†  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(5):1963-1970.
The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of potential indices were developed to summarize the information on the biogeographical specificity of a given shared type, as well as its geographical spreading (matching code and spreading index, respectively). To facilitate the analysis of hundreds of spoligotypes each made up of a binary succession of 43 bits of information, a number of major and minor visual rules were also defined. A total of six major rules (A to F) with the precise description of the extra missing spacers (minor rules) were used to define 36 major clades (or families) of M. tuberculosis. Some major clades identified were the East African-Indian (EAI) clade, the Beijing clade, the Haarlem clade, the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) clade, the Central Asian (CAS) clade, a European clade of IS6110 low banders (X; highly prevalent in the United States and United Kingdom), and a widespread yet poorly defined clade (T). When the visual rules defined above were used for an automated labeling of the 813 shared types to define nine superfamilies of strains (Mycobacterium africanum, Beijing, M. bovis, EAI, CAS, T, Haarlem, X, and LAM), 96.9% of the shared types received a label, showing the potential for automated labeling of M. tuberculosis families in well-defined phylogeographical families. Intercontinental matches of shared types among eight continents and subcontinents (Africa, North America, Central America, South America, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, and the Far East) are analyzed and discussed.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.5.1963-1970.2003
PMCID: PMC154710  PMID: 12734235
9.  Characterization of Finnish Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates by Spoligotyping 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(4):1525-1528.
The molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Finland was studied by spoligotyping 380 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The isolates were obtained during a 1-year study period from July 2000 to June 2001 and represented 90% of new M. tuberculosis findings by culture in the whole country during the study period. The spoligotyping results were compared to the World Spoligotyping Database of the Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, which contains data from >14,000 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained worldwide. A total of 138 different spoligotypes were identified among the 380 M. tuberculosis isolates. Thirty-eight (10%) isolates had unique spoligotypes, while 342 (90%) isolates belonged to 100 shared types. The four most common spoligotypes caused approximately one-third of the Finnish TB cases. Forty-seven of the 138 (34.1%) spoligotypes and 61 (16.1%) of the 380 M. tuberculosis isolates had spoligotypes that had not been previously reported. Only four (1.1%) patients were infected with an isolate belonging to the Beijing genotype. The characterization of Finnish M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping shows that ubiquitous spoligotypes were common, but many spoligotypes specific to Finland were also found. However, Beijing family isolates were rarely encountered, although this spoligotype is predominant in our eastern and southern neighbors.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.4.1525-1528.2003
PMCID: PMC153930  PMID: 12682140
10.  Global Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotypes 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(11):1347-1349.
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11,708 patterns from as many clinical isolates originating from more than 90 countries. The 11,708 spoligotypes were clustered into 813 shared types. A total of 1,300 orphan patterns (clinical isolates showing a unique spoligotype) were also detected.
doi:10.3201/eid0811.020125
PMCID: PMC2738532  PMID: 12453368
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; spoligotyping
11.  Use of Spoligotyping To Study the Evolution of the Direct Repeat Locus by IS6110 Transposition in Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(4):1595-1599.
Based on the variability of 43 spacers within the direct repeat (DR) locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms, spoligotyping is a rapid method that aids in the study of the epidemiology of tuberculosis. It was recently hypothesized that despite its presence in the DR locus, spacer 31 could not be amplified in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates belonging to spoligotype 50 due to the insertion of an extra copy of IS6110 between spacers 31 and 32 that could lead to an asymmetrical split of the primer targets (I. Filliol, C. Sola, and N. Rastogi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:1231–1234, 2000). In the present investigation, previous observations were extended to 25 clinical isolates of type 50 showing that the primer set IS6-DRb that selectively amplified the left and central DR regions was indeed able to demonstrate the presence of spacer 31. IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DR-RFLP showed that type 50 isolates were characterized by the presence of two copies of IS6110 associated with the DR locus and an additional double IS6110 band of 1.4 kb. The primer set IS3-IS6 was then used to selectively amplify a 750-bp inter-IS6110 fragment within the DR locus. The sequencing of the central DR region corroborated our previous findings and showed that the absence of spacer 31 among the type 50 isolates was due to the asymmetric insertion of an extra copy of IS6110 between spacers 31 and 32, leading to an unequal split of the DRa-DRb target into two portions, of 6 and 30 bp, respectively. These results show that the DR locus constitutes an ideal IS6110 preferential locus (ipl), permitting the insertion of two or more copies of IS6110, and provide new clues for epidemiological and phylogenetic interpretation of changes in IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping profiles.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.4.1595-1599.2001
PMCID: PMC87977  PMID: 11283094
12.  Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium africanum Clinical Isolates Based on IS6110-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis, Spoligotyping, and Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats 
A collection of 105 clinical isolates originally identified as Mycobacterium africanum were characterized using both phenotypic and genotyping methods. The phenotypic methods included routine determination of cultural properties and biochemical tests used to discriminate among the members of the M. tuberculosis complex, whereas genotypic characterization was based on IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) analysis, IS1081-RFLP analysis, direct repeat-based spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), variable number of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR), and the polymorphism of the oxyR, pncA, and mtp40 loci. The results obtained showed that a majority of M. africanum isolates were characterized by a specific spoligotyping pattern that was intermediate between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, which do not hybridize with spacers 33 to 36 and spacers 39 to 43, respectively. A tentative M. africanum-specific spoligotyping signature appeared to be absence of spacers 8, 9, and 39. Based on spoligotyping, as well as the polymorphism of oxyR and pncA, a total of 24 isolates were excluded from the final study (19 were identified as M. tuberculosis, 2 were identified as M. canetti, and 3 were identified as M. bovis). The remaining 81 M. africanum isolates were efficiently subtyped in three distinct subtypes (A1 to A3) by IS6110-RFLP analysis and spoligotyping. The A1 and A2 subgroups were relatively more homogeneous upon spoligotyping than A3. Further analysis of the three subtypes by VNTR corroborated the highly homogeneous nature of the A2 subtype but showed significant variations for subtypes A1 and A3. A phylogenetic tree based on a selection of isolates representing the three subtypes using VNTR and spoligotyping alone or in combination confirmed the subtypes described as well as the heterogeneity of subtype A3.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.1.57-65.2001
PMCID: PMC87680  PMID: 11136749
13.  Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Based on Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats Used Alone and in Association with Spoligotyping 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(7):2520-2524.
Fingerprinting based on variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR), a recently described methodology, was evaluated for molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an insular setting. In this study, VNTR fingerprinting was used alone or as a second-line test in association with spoligotyping, double-repetitive-element PCR (DRE-PCR), and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the discriminatory power for each method or the combination of methods was compared by calculating the Hunter-Gaston discriminative index (HGI). The results obtained showed that in 6 out of 12 (50%) cases, VNTR-defined clusters were further subdivided by spoligotyping, compared to 7 out of 18 (39%) cases where spoligotyping-defined clusters were further subdivided by VNTR. When used alone, VNTR was the least discriminatory method (HGI = 0.863). Although VNTR was significantly more discriminatory when used in association with spoligotyping (HGI = 0.982), the combination of spoligotyping and DRE-PCR (HGI = 0.992) was still the most efficient among rapid, PCR-based methodologies, giving results comparable to IS6110 RFLP analysis. Nonetheless, VNTR typing may provide additional phylogenetical information that may be helpful to trace the molecular evolution of tubercle bacilli.
PMCID: PMC86957  PMID: 10878036
14.  Detection of a Previously Unamplified Spacer within the DR Locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Epidemiological Implications 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(3):1231-1234.
Spoligotyping, a method based on the variability of distribution of the 43 inter-direct repeat (DR) spacers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, is useful to study the molecular epidemiology of bovine and human tuberculosis. Recently, a major family of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates named the Haarlem family, which did not contain spacers 31 and 33 to 36, was reported in a multicenter study. Independently, a data bank containing all the published spoligotypes showed that the two most prevalent spoligotypes in the world differed only by the presence or absence of spacer 31. A careful analysis of the DR locus sequence led us to hypothesize that spacer 31 may not have been amplified in some isolates with the primer sets DRa and DRb currently used for spoligotyping. Consequently, a modified spoligotyping method based on different combinations of the 36-bp DR and IS6110 primers was devised that was able to discriminate between the left and the right parts of the DR locus and demonstrated the presence of the previously unamplified spacer 31 for some of the clinical isolates. By analogy, we suggest that a single-spacer difference in some epidemiologically linked cases of tuberculosis may simply arise due to the insertion of an extra copy of IS6110 within the DR locus, leading to its asymmetrical disruption and subsequent lack of the DRa or DRb targets. The influence of the IS6110 preferential insertion sites within the DR locus on spoligotyping results should be further investigated.
PMCID: PMC86384  PMID: 10699028

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