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1.  Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Obese Infants and Children: A Marker of Early Onset Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 
Hepatitis Monthly  2014;14(4):e14112.
Background:
Elevated aminotransferases serve as surrogate markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a feature commonly associated with the metabolic syndrome. Studies on the prevalence of fatty liver disease in obese children comprise small patient samples or focus on those patients with liver enzyme elevation.
Objectives:
We have prospectively analyzed liver enzymes in all overweight and obese children coming to our tertiary care centre.
Patients and Methods:
In a prospective study 224 healthy, overweight or obese children aged 1 - 12 years were examined. Body Mass Index-Standard Deviation Score, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase were measured.
Results:
Elevated alanine aminotransferase was observed in 29% of children. 26 % of obese and 30 % of overweight children had liver enzyme elevations. Obese children had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase levels than overweight children (0.9 vs. 0.7 times the Upper Limit of Normal; P = 0.04).
Conclusions:
Elevation of liver enzymes appears in 29 % obese children in a tertiary care centre. Absolute alanine aminotransferase levels are significantly higher in obese than in overweight children. Even obese children with normal liver enzymes show signs of fatty liver disease as demonstrated by liver enzymes at the upper limit of normal.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.14112
PMCID: PMC3989734  PMID: 24748893
Liver; Obesity; Fatty Liver; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Child
2.  Differential diagnosis in patients with suspected bile acid synthesis defects 
AIM: To investigate the clinical presentations associated with bile acid synthesis defects and to describe identification of individual disorders and diagnostic pitfalls.
METHODS: Authors describe semiquantitative determination of 16 urinary bile acid metabolites by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Sample preparation was performed by solid-phase extraction. The total analysis time was 2 min per sample. Authors determined bile acid metabolites in 363 patients with suspected defects in bile acid metabolism.
RESULTS: Abnormal bile acid metabolites were found in 36 patients. Two patients had bile acid synthesis defects but presented with atypical presentations. In 2 other patients who were later shown to be affected by biliary atresia and cystic fibrosis the profile of bile acid metabolites was initially suggestive of a bile acid synthesis defect. Three adult patients suffered from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Nineteen patients had peroxisomal disorders, and 10 patients had cholestatic hepatopathy of other cause.
CONCLUSION: Screening for urinary cholanoids should be done in every infant with cholestatic hepatopathy as well as in children with progressive neurological disease to provide specific therapy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i10.1067
PMCID: PMC3296980  PMID: 22416181
Cholestatic liver disease; Bile acid synthesis defects; Biliary atresia; Electrospray-ionization tandem-mass-spectrometry
3.  One life ends, another begins: Management of a brain-dead pregnant mother-A systematic review- 
BMC Medicine  2010;8:74.
Background
An accident or a catastrophic disease may occasionally lead to brain death (BD) during pregnancy. Management of brain-dead pregnant patients needs to follow special strategies to support the mother in a way that she can deliver a viable and healthy child and, whenever possible, also be an organ donor. This review discusses the management of brain-dead mothers and gives an overview of recommendations concerning the organ supporting therapy.
Methods
To obtain information on brain-dead pregnant women, we performed a systematic review of Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). The collected data included the age of the mother, the cause of brain death, maternal medical complications, gestational age at BD, duration of extended life support, gestational age at delivery, indication of delivery, neonatal outcome, organ donation of the mothers and patient and graft outcome.
Results
In our search of the literature, we found 30 cases reported between1982 and 2010. A nontraumatic brain injury was the cause of BD in 26 of 30 mothers. The maternal mean age at the time of BD was 26.5 years. The mean gestational age at the time of BD and the mean gestational age at delivery were 22 and 29.5 weeks, respectively. Twelve viable infants were born and survived the neonatal period.
Conclusion
The management of a brain-dead pregnant woman requires a multidisciplinary team which should follow available standards, guidelines and recommendations both for a nontraumatic therapy of the fetus and for an organ-preserving treatment of the potential donor.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-74
PMCID: PMC3002294  PMID: 21087498
4.  Right Porto-Ovarian H-Shunt for the Surgical Treatment of Symptomatic Portal Biliopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review 
HPB Surgery  2009;2009:152195.
Portal hypertension, especially when it is caused by extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis, is commonly followed by the development of an abnormal periportal and pericholedochal variceal network, which form a portal cavernoma. This may exert extrinsic pressure on the adjacent biliary ducts and gallblader, causing morphologic abnormalities, termed portal biliopathy, which is usually leading to asymptomatic cholestasis, while less frequently it can be associated with obstructive jaundice, gallstone formation, and cholangitis. Endoscopic stone extraction can effectively treat portal biliopathy when cholangitis is associated with common bile duct stones. Portosystemic shunts are indicated in cases of disease recurrence as they can achieve regression of portal cavernoma and usually relieve symptomatic portal biliopathy. This case describes an alternative partial portosystemic shunt that utilizes the right ovarian vein as an autologous conduit for the surgical treatment of symptomatic portal biliopathy.
doi:10.1155/2009/152195
PMCID: PMC2703746  PMID: 19584934
5.  Snapshot of Moving and Expanding Clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Their Global Distribution Assessed by Spoligotyping in an International Study†  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(5):1963-1970.
The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of potential indices were developed to summarize the information on the biogeographical specificity of a given shared type, as well as its geographical spreading (matching code and spreading index, respectively). To facilitate the analysis of hundreds of spoligotypes each made up of a binary succession of 43 bits of information, a number of major and minor visual rules were also defined. A total of six major rules (A to F) with the precise description of the extra missing spacers (minor rules) were used to define 36 major clades (or families) of M. tuberculosis. Some major clades identified were the East African-Indian (EAI) clade, the Beijing clade, the Haarlem clade, the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) clade, the Central Asian (CAS) clade, a European clade of IS6110 low banders (X; highly prevalent in the United States and United Kingdom), and a widespread yet poorly defined clade (T). When the visual rules defined above were used for an automated labeling of the 813 shared types to define nine superfamilies of strains (Mycobacterium africanum, Beijing, M. bovis, EAI, CAS, T, Haarlem, X, and LAM), 96.9% of the shared types received a label, showing the potential for automated labeling of M. tuberculosis families in well-defined phylogeographical families. Intercontinental matches of shared types among eight continents and subcontinents (Africa, North America, Central America, South America, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, and the Far East) are analyzed and discussed.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.5.1963-1970.2003
PMCID: PMC154710  PMID: 12734235
6.  Global Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotypes 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(11):1347-1349.
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11,708 patterns from as many clinical isolates originating from more than 90 countries. The 11,708 spoligotypes were clustered into 813 shared types. A total of 1,300 orphan patterns (clinical isolates showing a unique spoligotype) were also detected.
doi:10.3201/eid0811.020125
PMCID: PMC2738532  PMID: 12453368
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; spoligotyping

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