Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress toward this objective has been hindered by the absence of methods to attenuate or modify the virus, since it cannot be propagated in vitro. As an alternative for vaccine development, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that one of the SA-MCF vaccine candidate targets, OvHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB), could be expressed by a nonpathogenic alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and then evaluated the potential of the AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimera to be used as a vaccine and a diagnostic tool.
Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress toward this objective has been hindered by the absence of methods to attenuate or modify the virus, since it cannot be propagated in vitro. As an alternative for vaccine development, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that one of the SA-MCF vaccine candidate targets, OvHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB), could be expressed by a nonpathogenic alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and then evaluated the potential of the AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimera to be used as a vaccine and a diagnostic tool. The construction and characterization of an AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimeric virus that is nonpathogenic and expresses an OvHV-2 vaccine target are significant steps toward the development of an SA-MCF vaccine and also provide a valuable means to study OvHV-2 biology.
Chimeric virus; alcelaphine herpesvirus 1; malignant catarrhal fever; ovine herpesvirus 2; vaccine
Influenza D virus (FLUDV) was isolated from diseased pigs with respiratory disease symptoms in 2011, and since then the new virus has also been spread to cattle. Little is known about the susceptibility of other agricultural animals and poultry to FLUDV. This study was designed to determine if other farm animals such as goats, sheep, chickens, and turkey are possible hosts to this newly emerging influenza virus. 648 goat and sheep serum samples and 250 chicken and turkey serum samples were collected from 141 small ruminant and 25 poultry farms from different geographical locations in the United States and Canada. Serum samples were examined using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and the sheep and goat samples were further analyzed using the serum neutralization assay. Results of this study showed FLUDV antibodies were detected in 13.5% (17/126) of the sampled sheep farms, and 5.2% (29/557) of tested sheep serum samples were positive for FLUDV antibodies. For the goat results, the FLUDV antibodies were detected in 13.3% (2/15) of the sampled farms, and 8.8% (8/91) of the tested goat serum samples were positive for FLUDV antibodies. Furthermore, all tested poultry serum samples were negative for FLUDV antibodies. Our data demonstrated that sheep and goat are susceptible to FLUDV virus and multiple states in U.S. have this virus infection already in these two species. This new finding highlights a need for future surveillance of FLUDV virus in small ruminants toward better understanding both the origin and natural reservoir of this new virus.
Influenza virus; type D; serology; sheep; goats; chicken; turkey
Some members of the gamma herpesvirus genus Macavirus are maintained in nature as subclinical infections in well-adapted ungulate hosts. Transmission of these viruses to poorly adapted hosts, such as American bison and cattle, can result in the frequently fatal disease malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). Based on phylogenetic analysis, the MCF viruses (MCFV) cluster into two subgroups corresponding to the reservoir hosts’ subfamilies: Alcelaphinae/Hippotraginae and Caprinae. Antibody cross-reactivity among MCFVs has been demonstrated using techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent and immunofluorescence assays. However, minimal information is available as to whether virus neutralizing antibodies generated against one MCFV cross react with other members of the genus. This study tested the neutralizing activity of serum and plasma from select MCFV-infected reservoir hosts against alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). Neutralizing antibody activity against AlHV-1 was detected in samples from infected hosts in the Alcelaphinae and Hippotraginae subfamilies, but not from hosts in the Caprinae subfamily. OvHV-2 neutralizing activity was demonstrated in samples from goats (Caprinae) but not from wildebeest (Alcelaphinae). These results show that neutralizing antibody cross reactivity is present to MCFVs within a virus subgroup but not between subgroups. This information is important for diagnosing infection with MCFVs and in the development of vaccines against MCF.
Mouse B78 cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are important to the study of HSV-1 entry because both are resistant to infection at the level of viral entry. When provided with a gD-receptor such as nectin-1, these cells support HSV-1 entry by an endocytosis pathway. Treating some viruses bound to cells with the fusogen polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediates viral fusion with the cell surface but is insufficient to rescue viral entry. It is unclear whether PEG-mediated fusion of HSV with the plasma membrane of B78 or CHO cells results in successful entry and infection.
Treating HSV-1 bound to B78 or CHO cells with PEG allowed viral entry as measured by virus-induced beta-galactosidase activity. Based on the mechanism of PEG action, we propose that entry likely proceeds by direct fusion of HSV particles with the plasma membrane. Under the conditions tested, PEG-mediated infection of CHO cells progressed to the level of HSV late gene expression, while B78 cells supported HSV DNA replication. We tested whether proteolysis or acidification of cell-bound virions could trigger HSV fusion with the plasma membrane. Under the conditions tested, mildly acidic pH of 5–6 or the protease trypsin were not capable of triggering HSV-1 fusion as compared to PEG-treated cell-bound virions.
B78 cells and CHO cells, which typically endocytose HSV prior to viral penetration, are capable of supporting HSV-1 entry via direct penetration. HSV capsids delivered directly to the cytosol at the periphery of these cells complete the entry process. B78 and CHO cells may be utilized to screen for factors that trigger entry as a consequence of fusion of virions with the cell surface, and PEG treatment can provide a necessary control.
Herpesviruses; Herpes simplex virus; Viral entry; Virus-cell fusion; Membrane fusion; Endocytosis; Receptors; Low pH
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 is a multi-functional phosphoprotein expressed with immediate early kinetics. An ICP0 deletion mutant, HSV-1 dl1403, has been widely used to study the roles of ICP0 in the HSV-1 replication cycle including gene expression, latency, entry and assembly. We show that HSV-1 dl1403 virions lack detectable levels of envelope protein gC, and that gC is not synthesized in infected cells. Sequencing of the gC gene from HSV-1 dl1403 revealed a single amino acid deletion that results in a frameshift mutation. The HSV-1 dl1403 gC gene is predicted to encode a polypeptide consisting of the original 62 N-terminal amino acids of the gC protein followed by 112 irrelevant, non-gC residues. The mutation was also present in a rescuant virus and in two dl1403-derived viruses, D8 and FXE, but absent from the parental 17+, suggesting that the mutation was introduced during the construction of the dl1403 virus, and not as a result of passage in culture.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the required HSV glycoproteins, gB, gD, and gH-gL, may be sufficient for entry regardless of entry route taken. This may be distinct from entry mechanisms employed by other human herpesviruses.
ICP4 is the major transcriptional regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is expressed in infected cells with immediate early kinetics and is essential for viral growth. ICP4 is also a structural component of the virion tegument layer. Herpesviral tegument proteins exert regulatory functions important for takeover of the host cell. Tegument ICP4 has not been well characterized. We examined the ICP4 present in HSV-1 virions that were either derived from wild type infected cells or from ICP4-expressing (E5) cells infected with ICP4 deletion virus d120. Limited proteolysis demonstrated that virion-associated ICP4 from particles derived from E5 cells was indeed an internal component of the virion. A similar subset of virion structural proteins was detected in viral particles regardless of the cellular origin of ICP4. Genotypically ICP4-negative virions complemented with tegument ICP4 entered cells via a proteasome-dependent, pH-dependent pathway similar to wild type virions. In infected cells, ICP4 was distributed predominantly in intranuclear replication compartments regardless of whether it was expressed from a transgene or from the HSV genome.
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal disease, primarily of ruminants, caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Due to complexities of pathogenesis and epidemiology in various species, which are either clinically-susceptible or reservoir hosts, veterinary clinicians face significant challenges in laboratory diagnostics. The recent development of specific assays for viral DNA and antibodies has expanded and improved the inventory of laboratory tests and opened new opportunities for use of MCF diagnostics. Issues related to understanding and implementing appropriate assays for specific diagnostic needs must be addressed in order to take advantage of molecular diagnostics in the laboratory.
malignant catarrhal fever; diagnosis; cELISA; PCR; gammaherpesvirus; infection
A multiplex real-time PCR was developed using a single pair of primers and fluorescent probes specific for five malignant catarrhal fever viruses and an internal positive control. The assay was able to simultaneously detect and differentiate the viruses in clinical samples with high sensitivity (97.2%) and specificity (100%).
In this study, the kinetics of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes were characterized in Babesia equi (Theileria equi)-infected horses. IgGa and IgGb developed during acute infection, whereas IgG(T) was detected only after resolution of acute parasitemia. The same IgG isotype profile induced during acute infection was obtained by equi merozoite antigen 1/saponin immunization.
This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae.
Equi merozoite antigen 1 (EMA-1) is an immunodominant Babesia equi erythrocyte-stage surface protein. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), based on inhibition of monoclonal antibody (MAb) 36/133.97 binding to recombinant EMA-1 by equine anti-B. equi antibodies, detects horses infected with strains present throughout the world. The objectives of this study were to define the epitope bound by MAb 36/133.97 and quantify the amino acid conservation of EMA-1, including the region containing the epitope bound by MAb 36/133.97. The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of full-length EMA-1 (Florida isolate) with 15 EMA-1 sequences from geographically distinct isolates showed 82.8 to 99.6% identities (median, 98.5%) and 90.5 to 99.6% similarities (median, 98.9%) between sequences. Full-length and truncated recombinant EMA-1 proteins were expressed and tested for their reactivities with MAb 36/133.97. Binding required the presence of amino acids on both N- and C-terminal regions of a truncated peptide (EMA-1.2) containing amino acids 1 to 98 of EMA-1. This result indicated that the epitope defined by MAb 36/133.97 is dependent on conformation. Sera from persistently infected horses inhibited the binding of MAb 36/133.97 to EMA-1.2 in a competitive ELISA, indicating that equine antibodies which inhibit binding of MAb 36/133.97 also recognize epitopes in the same region (the first 98 residues). Within this region, the deduced amino acid sequences had 85.7 to 100% identities (median, 99.0%), with similarities of 94.9 to 100% (median, 100%). Therefore, the region which binds to both MAb 36/133.97 and inhibiting equine antibodies has a median amino acid identity of 99.0% and a similarity of 100%. These data provide a molecular basis for the use of both EMA-1 and MAb 36/133.97 for the detection of antibodies against B. equi.