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1.  Omics profiles used to evaluate the gene expression of Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 during cold adaptation 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):986.
Background
Exiguobacterium antarcticum strain B7 is a Gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterial species isolated in Antarctica. Although this bacteria has been poorly studied, its genome has already been sequenced. Therefore, it is an appropriate model for the study of thermal adaptation. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptomes and proteomes of E. antarcticum B7 grown at 0°C and 37°C by SOLiD RNA-Seq, Ion Torrent RNA-Seq and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (2D-DIGE-MS/MS).
Results
We found expression of 2,058 transcripts in all replicates from both platforms and differential expression of 564 genes (absolute log2FC ≥1, P-value <0.001) comparing the two temperatures by RNA-Seq. A total of 73 spots were differentially expressed between the two temperatures on 2D-DIGE, 25 of which were identified by MS/MS. Some proteins exhibited patterns of dispersion in the gel that are characteristic of post-translational modifications.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that the two sequencing platforms yielded similar results and that different omic approaches may be used to improve the understanding of gene expression. To adapt to low temperatures, E. antarcticum B7 expresses four of the six cold-shock proteins present in its genome. The cold-shock proteins were the most abundant in the bacterial proteome at 0°C. Some of the differentially expressed genes are required to preserve transcription and translation, while others encode proteins that contribute to the maintenance of the intracellular environment and appropriate protein folding. The results denote the complexity intrinsic to the adaptation of psychrotrophic organisms to cold environments and are based on two omic approaches. They also unveil the lifestyle of a bacterial species isolated in Antarctica.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-986) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-986
PMCID: PMC4247613  PMID: 25407400
Exiguobacterium antarcticum; Psychrotrophic; Proteomic; RNA-Seq; Gene expression
2.  Genome Sequence of Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7, Isolated from a Biofilm in Ginger Lake, King George Island, Antarctica 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(23):6689-6690.
Exiguobacterium antarcticum is a psychotropic bacterium isolated for the first time from microbial mats of Lake Fryxell in Antarctica. Many organisms of the genus Exiguobacterium are extremophiles and have properties of biotechnological interest, e.g., the capacity to adapt to cold, which make this genus a target for discovering new enzymes, such as lipases and proteases, in addition to improving our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation and survival at low temperatures. This study presents the genome of E. antarcticum B7, isolated from a biofilm sample of Ginger Lake on King George Island, Antarctic peninsula.
doi:10.1128/JB.01791-12
PMCID: PMC3497522  PMID: 23144424
3.  Chromobacterium violaceum: Important Insights for Virulence and Biotechnological Potential by Exoproteomic Studies 
Current Microbiology  2013;67(1):100-106.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a beta-proteobacterium with high biotechnological potential, found in tropical environments. This bacterium causes opportunistic infections in both humans and animals, that can spread throughout several tissues, quickly leading to the death of the host. Genomic studies identified potential mechanisms of pathogenicity but no further studies were done to confirm the expression of these systems. In this study 36 unique protein entries were identified in databank from a two-dimensional profile of C. violaceum secreted proteins. Chromobacterium violaceum exoproteomic preliminary studies confirmed the production of proteins identified as virulence factors (such as a collagenase, flagellum proteins, metallopeptidases, and toxins), allowing us to better understand its pathogenicity mechanisms. Biotechnologically interesting proteins (such as chitinase and chitosanase) were also identified among the secreted proteins, as well as proteins involved in the transport and capture of amino acids, carbohydrates, and oxidative stress protection. Overall, the secreted proteins identified provide us important insights on pathogenicity mechanisms, biotechnological potential, and environment adaptation of C. violaceum.
doi:10.1007/s00284-013-0334-5
PMCID: PMC3661913  PMID: 23455494
4.  Proteomics Analysis of the Effects of Cyanate on Chromobacterium violaceum Metabolism 
Genes  2011;2(4):736-747.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative betaproteobacterium that has been isolated from various Brazilian ecosystems. Its genome contains the cyn operon, which gives it the ability to metabolize highly toxic cyanate into ammonium and carbon dioxide. We used a proteomics approach to investigate the effects of cyanate on the metabolism of this bacterium. The proteome of cells grown with and without cyanate was compared on 2-D gels. Differential spots were digested and identified by mass spectrometry. The bacterium was able to grow at concentrations of up to 1 mM cyanate. Eighteen spots were differentially expressed in the presence of cyanate, of which 16 were downregulated and only two were upregulated. An additional 12 spots were detected only in extracts of cells unexposed to cyanate, and one was expressed only by the exposed cells. Fourteen spots were identified, corresponding to 13 different proteins. We conclude that cyanate promotes expression of enzymes that combat oxidative stress and represses enzymes of the citric acid cycle, strongly affecting the energetic metabolism of the cell. Other proteins that were under-expressed in bacteria exposed to cyanate are involved in amino-acid metabolism or are hypothetical proteins, demonstrating that cyanate also affects expression of genes that are not part of the cyn operon.
doi:10.3390/genes2040736
PMCID: PMC3927592  PMID: 24710289
2DE; bacteria; cyanate; mass spectrometry; proteomic
5.  Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†  
Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R. | Ferreira, Henrique B. | Bizarro, Cristiano V. | Bonatto, Sandro L. | Carvalho, Marcos O. | Pinto, Paulo M. | Almeida, Darcy F. | Almeida, Luiz G. P. | Almeida, Rosana | Alves-Filho, Leonardo | Assunção, Enedina N. | Azevedo, Vasco A. C. | Bogo, Maurício R. | Brigido, Marcelo M. | Brocchi, Marcelo | Burity, Helio A. | Camargo, Anamaria A. | Camargo, Sandro S. | Carepo, Marta S. | Carraro, Dirce M. | de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C. | Castro, Luiza A. | Cavalcanti, Gisele | Chemale, Gustavo | Collevatti, Rosane G. | Cunha, Cristina W. | Dallagiovanna, Bruno | Dambrós, Bibiana P. | Dellagostin, Odir A. | Falcão, Clarissa | Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana | Felipe, Maria S. S. | Fiorentin, Laurimar | Franco, Gloria R. | Freitas, Nara S. A. | Frías, Diego | Grangeiro, Thalles B. | Grisard, Edmundo C. | Guimarães, Claudia T. | Hungria, Mariangela | Jardim, Sílvia N. | Krieger, Marco A. | Laurino, Jomar P. | Lima, Lucymara F. A. | Lopes, Maryellen I. | Loreto, Élgion L. S. | Madeira, Humberto M. F. | Manfio, Gilson P. | Maranhão, Andrea Q. | Martinkovics, Christyanne T. | Medeiros, Sílvia R. B. | Moreira, Miguel A. M. | Neiva, Márcia | Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E. | Nicolás, Marisa F. | Oliveira, Sergio C. | Paixão, Roger F. C. | Pedrosa, Fábio O. | Pena, Sérgio D. J. | Pereira, Maristela | Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian | Piffer, Itamar | Pinto, Luciano S. | Potrich, Deise P. | Salim, Anna C. M. | Santos, Fabrício R. | Schmitt, Renata | Schneider, Maria P. C. | Schrank, Augusto | Schrank, Irene S. | Schuck, Adriana F. | Seuanez, Hector N. | Silva, Denise W. | Silva, Rosane | Silva, Sérgio C. | Soares, Célia M. A. | Souza, Kelly R. L. | Souza, Rangel C. | Staats, Charley C. | Steffens, Maria B. R. | Teixeira, Santuza M. R. | Urmenyi, Turan P. | Vainstein, Marilene H. | Zuccherato, Luciana W. | Simpson, Andrew J. G. | Zaha, Arnaldo
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(16):5568-5577.
This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae.
doi:10.1128/JB.187.16.5568-5577.2005
PMCID: PMC1196056  PMID: 16077101

Results 1-5 (5)