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1.  The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector 
Marinotti, Osvaldo | Cerqueira, Gustavo C. | de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula | Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi | Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva | Zaha, Arnaldo | Teixeira, Santuza M. R. | Wespiser, Adam R. | Almeida e Silva, Alexandre | Schlindwein, Aline Daiane | Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim | da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa | Graveley, Brenton R. | Walenz, Brian P. | Lima, Bruna de Araujo | Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes | Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo | de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto | Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida | de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso | Matiolli, Cleverson | Caffrey, Daniel | Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M. | de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães | Golenbock, Douglas | Grisard, Edmundo Carlos | Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana | de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques | Barcellos, Fernando Gomes | Prosdocimi, Francisco | May, Gemma | de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins | Guimarães, Giselle Moura | Goldman, Gustavo Henrique | Padilha, Itácio Q. M. | Batista, Jacqueline da Silva | Ferro, Jesus Aparecido | Ribeiro, José M. C. | Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel | Dabbas, Karina Maia | Cerdeira, Louise | Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella | Brocchi, Marcelo | de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira | Teixeira, Marcus de Melo | Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena | Goldman, Maria Helena S. | Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula | Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares | Hungria, Mariangela | Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana | Pereira, Maristela | Montes, Martín Alejandro | Cantão, Maurício E. | Vincentz, Michel | Rafael, Miriam Silva | Silverman, Neal | Stoco, Patrícia Hermes | Souza, Rangel Celso | Vicentini, Renato | Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes | Neves, Rogério de Oliveira | Silva, Rosane | Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco | Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira | Ürményi, Turán P. | Tadei, Wanderli Pedro | Camargo, Erney Plessmann | de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(15):7387-7400.
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt484
PMCID: PMC3753621  PMID: 23761445
2.  Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60209.
Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060209
PMCID: PMC3616161  PMID: 23560078
3.  Violacein Extracted from Chromobacterium violaceum Inhibits Plasmodium Growth In Vitro and In Vivo▿  
Violacein is a violet pigment extracted from the gram-negative bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. It presents bactericidal, tumoricidal, trypanocidal, and antileishmanial activities. We show that micromolar concentrations efficiently killed chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains in vitro; inhibited parasitemia in vivo, even after parasite establishment; and protected Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi-infected mice from a lethal challenge.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00693-08
PMCID: PMC2681540  PMID: 19273690
4.  Arcanobacterium pyogenes Sepsis in Farmer, Brazil 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(7):1131-1132.
doi:10.3201/eid1507.081072
PMCID: PMC2744241  PMID: 19624940
Arcanobacterium pyogenes; sepsis; otitis media; bacteria; letter
5.  The expression of plasmid mediated afimbrial adhesin genes in an avian septicemic Escherichia coli strain 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2008;9(1):75-83.
An Escherichia coli strain (SEPT13) isolated from the liver of a hen presenting clinical signs of septicaemia had a LD50 of 4.0 × 105 CFU/ml in one-day-old chickens, expressed Ia, Ib, E1, E3, K and B colicins and aerobactin. The strain was ampicillin and streptomycin resistant, and found to have fimA, csgA and tsh DNA related sequences; it could adhere to and invade HEp-2 and tracheal epithelial cells, expressed fimbriae (observed by electron microscopy), and had five plasmids of 2.7, 4.7, 43, 56, and 88 MDa. Transposon mutagenesis of strain SEPT13, with transposon TnphoA, resulted in a mutant strain named ST16 that had a LD50 of 1.2 × 1012 CFU/ml. All other biological characteristics of strain ST16 were the same as those detected for strain SEPT13 except for the migration of an 88 MDa plasmid to the 93 MDa position indicating the insertion of the transposon into the 88 MDa plasmid. The 93 MDa plasmid of strain ST16 was transferred, by electroporation assay, to non-pathogenic receptor strains (E. coli strains K12 MS101 and HB101), resulting in transformant strains A and B, respectively. These strains exhibited adhesion properties to in vitro cultivated HEp-2 cells but did not have the capacity for invasion. The adherence occurred despite the absence of fimbriae; this finding suggests that the 88 MDa plasmid has afimbrial adhesin genes.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2008.9.1.75
PMCID: PMC2839115  PMID: 18296891
adhesion; avian; Escherichia coli; plasmids
6.  Evidence for glycosylation on a DNA-binding protein of Salmonella enterica 
Background
All organisms living under aerobic atmosphere have powerful mechanisms that confer their macromolecules protection against oxygen reactive species. Microorganisms have developed biomolecule-protecting systems in response to starvation and/or oxidative stress, such as DNA biocrystallization with Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells). Dps is a protein that is produced in large amounts when the bacterial cell faces harm, which results in DNA protection. In this work, we evaluated the glycosylation in the Dps extracted from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This Dps was purified from the crude extract as an 18-kDa protein, by means of affinity chromatography on an immobilized jacalin column.
Results
The N-terminal sequencing of the jacalin-bound protein revealed 100% identity with the Dps of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Methyl-alpha-galactopyranoside inhibited the binding of Dps to jacalin in an enzyme-linked lectin assay, suggesting that the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of jacalin is involved in the interaction with Dps. Furthermore, monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that Dps contained mannose, glucose, and an unknown sugar residue. Finally, jacalin-binding Dps was detected in larger amounts during the bacterial earlier growth periods, whereas high detection of total Dps was verified throughout the bacterial growth period.
Conclusion
Taken together, these results indicate that Dps undergoes post-translational modifications in the pre- and early stationary phases of bacterial growth. There is also evidence that a small mannose-containing oligosaccharide is linked to this bacterial protein.
doi:10.1186/1475-2859-6-11
PMCID: PMC1855067  PMID: 17407574
7.  Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†  
Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R. | Ferreira, Henrique B. | Bizarro, Cristiano V. | Bonatto, Sandro L. | Carvalho, Marcos O. | Pinto, Paulo M. | Almeida, Darcy F. | Almeida, Luiz G. P. | Almeida, Rosana | Alves-Filho, Leonardo | Assunção, Enedina N. | Azevedo, Vasco A. C. | Bogo, Maurício R. | Brigido, Marcelo M. | Brocchi, Marcelo | Burity, Helio A. | Camargo, Anamaria A. | Camargo, Sandro S. | Carepo, Marta S. | Carraro, Dirce M. | de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C. | Castro, Luiza A. | Cavalcanti, Gisele | Chemale, Gustavo | Collevatti, Rosane G. | Cunha, Cristina W. | Dallagiovanna, Bruno | Dambrós, Bibiana P. | Dellagostin, Odir A. | Falcão, Clarissa | Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana | Felipe, Maria S. S. | Fiorentin, Laurimar | Franco, Gloria R. | Freitas, Nara S. A. | Frías, Diego | Grangeiro, Thalles B. | Grisard, Edmundo C. | Guimarães, Claudia T. | Hungria, Mariangela | Jardim, Sílvia N. | Krieger, Marco A. | Laurino, Jomar P. | Lima, Lucymara F. A. | Lopes, Maryellen I. | Loreto, Élgion L. S. | Madeira, Humberto M. F. | Manfio, Gilson P. | Maranhão, Andrea Q. | Martinkovics, Christyanne T. | Medeiros, Sílvia R. B. | Moreira, Miguel A. M. | Neiva, Márcia | Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E. | Nicolás, Marisa F. | Oliveira, Sergio C. | Paixão, Roger F. C. | Pedrosa, Fábio O. | Pena, Sérgio D. J. | Pereira, Maristela | Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian | Piffer, Itamar | Pinto, Luciano S. | Potrich, Deise P. | Salim, Anna C. M. | Santos, Fabrício R. | Schmitt, Renata | Schneider, Maria P. C. | Schrank, Augusto | Schrank, Irene S. | Schuck, Adriana F. | Seuanez, Hector N. | Silva, Denise W. | Silva, Rosane | Silva, Sérgio C. | Soares, Célia M. A. | Souza, Kelly R. L. | Souza, Rangel C. | Staats, Charley C. | Steffens, Maria B. R. | Teixeira, Santuza M. R. | Urmenyi, Turan P. | Vainstein, Marilene H. | Zuccherato, Luciana W. | Simpson, Andrew J. G. | Zaha, Arnaldo
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(16):5568-5577.
This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae.
doi:10.1128/JB.187.16.5568-5577.2005
PMCID: PMC1196056  PMID: 16077101
8.  Levels of Expression and Immunogenicity of Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains Expressing Escherichia coli Mutant Heat-Labile Enterotoxin 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(1):224-231.
The effects of heterologous gene dosage as well as Salmonella typhimurium strain variability on immune response toward both the heterologous antigen, the nontoxic mutant of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LTK63, and the carrier Salmonella strain have been analyzed. Effects of a single integration into the host DNA and different-copy-number episomal vectors were compared in S. typhimurium Δcya Δcrp Δasd strains of two different serotypes, UK-1 and SR-11. Expression of the enterotoxin in the different Salmonella isolates in vitro was found to vary considerably and, for the episomal vectors, to correlate with the plasmid copy number. LTK63-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were highest in mice immunized with the high-level-expression strain. High anti-LTK63 IgG and IgA titers were found to correspond to higher anti-Salmonella immunity, suggesting that LTK63 exerts an adjuvant effect on response to the carrier. Statistically significant differences in anti-LTK63 immune response were observed between groups of mice immunized with the attenuated Δcya Δcrp UK-1 and SR-11 derivatives producing the antigen at the same rate. These data indicate that the same attenuation in S. typhimurium strains of different genetic backgrounds can influence significantly the immune response toward the heterologous antigen. Moreover, delivery of the LTK63 enterotoxin to the immune system by attenuated S. typhimurium strains is effective only when synthesis of the antigen is very high during the initial phase of invasion, while persistence of the S. typhimurium strain in deep tissues has only marginal influence.
PMCID: PMC107881  PMID: 9423862

Results 1-8 (8)