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1.  Prevalence and Long-Term Effects of Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Women 
Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is of concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons. We observed that 2% of 400 HIV-infected women with antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen alone had occult HBV infection (i.e., detectable HBV DNA in the absence of HBV surface antigen). CD4 cell counts of <200 cells/mm3 were more common among occult HBV-infected women than among those without occult HBV infection. Aminotransferase levels did not appear to be associated with being positive for HBV DNA.
doi:10.1086/520989
PMCID: PMC4142488  PMID: 17712758
2.  The Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM): Methods, Design, and Sample Characteristics 
American journal of epidemiology  2006;163(9):860-869.
The Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM), initiated in 2000, investigates the prevalence and correlates of changes in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men and women compared with a population-based group of control men and women. Between June 2000 and September 2002, 1,480 participants (1,183 HIV-infected persons and 297 controls) were enrolled in FRAM. Measurements taken included whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of regional fat, anthropometric measurements, central laboratory analysis of metabolites, and assessment of symptoms, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle. Similar measurements were repeated among FRAM participants 4 years later (FRAM 2) for investigation of the progression of fat distribution changes, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. In FRAM 2, which is ongoing, investigators are also determining the associations of subclinical cardiovascular disease, as measured by carotid intimal-medial wall thickness, with HIV infection, fat distribution changes, insulin resistance, and other proatherogenic changes in serum lipid levels. The demographic characteristics of HIV-infected FRAM men and women were comparable to those reported from a national random sampling of HIV-infected men and women receiving medical care in the United States. The representativeness of the FRAM sample increases its value as a resource for studies on fat distribution, metabolic changes, and atherosclerosis in HIV infection.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwj111
PMCID: PMC3170407  PMID: 16524955
body fat distribution; dyslipidemias; HIV infections; insulin resistance; lipodystrophy; metabolism
3.  Factors Associated with Seronegative Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV Infection 
Background
Chronic seronegative hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined as being HCV antibody (anti-HCV) negative, but HCV RNA positivity occurs in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, associated factors are not well established because of the small number of reported cases.
Methods
Multivariate logistic regression analysis of HIV-infected subjects from 4 cohorts (Tien et al., 2006; Bonacini et al., 2001; George et al., 2002; and Hall et al., 2004) determined factors associated with HCV RNA positivity in anti-HCV–negative subjects. HCV enzyme immunoassay 2.0 was used to determine anti-HCV status.
Results
Among 1174 anti-HCV–negative, HIV-infected subjects, the prevalence of seronegative HCV infection was 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%–4.3%). History of injection drug use (IDU; OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 2.7–12.8), higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (OR, 2.0 per doubling; 95% CI, 1.3–3.2), and CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1–4.8) were associated with HCV RNA positivity in anti-HCV–negative subjects. Among those with a history of IDU who had either a CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL or an ALT level greater than the upper limit of normal, the prevalence of seronegative HCV infection was 24% (95% CI, 13%–39%).
Conclusions
Detectable HCV RNA in the context of a negative HCV enzyme immunoassay 2.0 result in HIV-infected patients is low, but higher than the reported prevalence in HIV-uninfected patients. Our findings suggest that HCV RNA testing should be performed in anti-HCV–negative, HIV-infected patients, especially those with a history of IDU and either a CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL or an abnormal ALT level.
doi:10.1086/511038
PMCID: PMC3170414  PMID: 17243063
4.  Association Between Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection and Regional Adipose Tissue Volume in HIV-Infected Men and Women 
Objective
Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is reported to be associated with a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy than HIV infection alone. We examine the association between HCV and adipose tissue volume in HIV-infected men and women.
Methods
Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected subjects from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection. MRI measured regional adipose tissue volume. Detectable HCV RNA defined HCV infection.
Results
Twenty percent of 792 men and 26% of 329 women were HIV/HCV-coinfected. HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected women had similar amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the leg, lower trunk, upper trunk, and arm and similar amounts of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Similar findings were seen in men, except in the leg and VAT. After adjustment, HCV infection remained associated with more leg fat in men (12.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3 to 25.3; P = 0.043). Among those on stavudine, HIV-monoinfected men had less leg fat (−7% effect per year of stavudine use, 95% CI: −9 to −5; P < 0.001); a weaker association was seen in HIV/HCV-coinfected men (−2% effect, 95% CI: −7 to 3; P = 0.45). Indinavir was associated with less leg fat (−4% in HIV-monoinfected men, 95% CI: −6 to −1; P = 0.002; −5% in HIV/HCV-coinfected men, 95% CI: −11 to 2; P = 0.14).
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that HIV/HCV coinfection is not associated with less SAT in men and women. HCV infection seems to mitigate the loss of leg fat seen in HIV-infected men on stavudine.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3180423a95
PMCID: PMC3164885  PMID: 17356466
adipose tissue volume; fat distribution; hepatitis C virus; HIV; lipodystrophy
5.  Antiretroviral Therapies Associated with Lipoatrophy in HIV-Infected Women 
AIDS patient care and STDs  2007;21(5):297-305.
We previously demonstrated that HIV infection is associated with peripheral and central lipoatrophy in women. We now describe the association of specific antiretroviral drugs (ARV) with body fat changes over a four-year period from 1999 to 2003. 775 HIV-positive and 205 HIV-negative women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study with anthropometric measurements, weight, bioelectric impedance analysis and ARV collected semiannually were included in analysis. Exposure to ARV was defined as report of use for 3 consecutive semiannual study visits. The average 6–month change in weight, percent total body fat, and circumference measurements (i.e., hip, waist, chest, arm, and thigh) was compared between those exposed and those unexposed to the specific ARV for any of the same three consecutive visits. Weight, percent total body fat, and hip, waist, thigh, chest, and arm circumferences decreased in HIV-positive women, but increased in HIV-negative women on average for every six-month interval over the 4-year study period. Among the HIV-positive women, didanosine was the only ARV associated with decreases in circumference measures in the hip (−0.65 cm, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.18, −0.12), waist (−0.71 cm, 95% CI: −1.37, −0.04), chest (−0.71 cm, 95% CI: −1.17, −0.26), and arm (−0.23 cm, 95% CI: −0.48, 0.03; p = 0.08). These prospective data suggest that fat loss continues to predominate in HIV-positive women and exposure to didanosine for at least 12 months may further worsen fat loss.
doi:10.1089/apc.2006.128
PMCID: PMC3133726  PMID: 17518522
6.  Association between Syphilis, Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, and Recreational Drug Use and Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
Background
Liver disease is a leading cause of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women; however, risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in this population have not been well studied.
Methods
We describe the seroprevalence and predictors of HBV infection in a cross-sectional analysis of 2132 women with and at risk for HIV infection enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study during the periods 1994–95 and 2001–02. Any test result positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen defined infection; those women with serological evidence of vaccine immunity were excluded from analysis. Women were stratified into those with a history of injection drug use (IDU), those with a history of noninjection drug use (non-IDU), and those with no history of illicit drug use.
Results
Of 1606 HIV-infected and 526 HIV-uninfected women, 7% and 12%, respectively, appeared to be vaccine immune. After exclusion of these women, 43% of 1500 HIV-infected and 22% of 461 HIV-uninfected women had HBV infection. HBV infection prevalence differed among the IDU, non-IDU, and no illicit drug use groups (76%, 30%, and 17%, respectively; P < .0001). HBV infection was strongly associated with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity in the IDU group (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–5.4) and with a history of syphilis in the non-IDU group (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4–5.0).
Discussion
We found a high prevalence of HBV infection in our cohort of women with and at risk for HIV infection. HSV-2 seropositivity and a history of syphilis appeared to be important correlates of HBV infection. Sexual transmission of HBV, particularly in those with a history of genital ulcer disease, should be a major focus of education in all high-risk groups.
doi:10.1086/424879
PMCID: PMC3118996  PMID: 15494914
8.  Antiretroviral Therapy Exposure and Insulin Resistance in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
Background
Evidence suggesting an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals has heightened the need to understand the relation of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy use, and non–HIV-related factors with insulin resistance (IR).
Methods
Prospective study of 1614 HIV-infected and 604 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study between October 2000 and March 2007. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)–estimated IR at 11,019 semiannual visits.
Results
HIV-infected women reporting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) had higher median HOMA than HIV-uninfected women {1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 to 1.30] times higher for those reporting protease inhibitor–containing HAART; 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.20) times higher for those reporting non–protease inhibitor–containing HAART}. Among HIV-infected, cumulative exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) of >3 years was associated with HOMA 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.25) times higher than the HOMA without any cumulative NRTI exposure. Cumulative exposure to the NRTI stavudine of >1 year was associated with HOMA 1.15 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.27) times higher than the HOMA without any cumulative stavudine use. Family history of diabetes, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, higher body mass index, or reporting menopause was associated with higher HOMA.
Conclusions
Longer cumulative exposure to NRTI; in particular, stavudine is associated with greater IR in HIV-infected women.
PMCID: PMC2889144  PMID: 19186350
antiretroviral therapy; HIV; HOMA; insulin resistance; nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; protease inhibitor
9.  Regional Adipose Tissue and Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels in HIV-Infected Women 
Background
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemia, but the association between regional body fat and lipid levels is not well described.
Methods
Multivariable linear regression analyzed the association between magnetic resonance imaging–measured regional adipose tissue and fasting lipids in 284 HIV-infected and 129 control women.
Results
Among African Americans, HIV-infected women had higher triglyceride (116 vs. 83 mg/dL; P < 0.001), similar high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 52 vs. 50 mg/dL; P = 0.60), and lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 99 vs. 118 mg/dL; P = 0.008) levels than controls. Among whites, HIV-infected women had higher triglyceride (141 vs. 78 mg/dL; P < 0.001), lower HDL (46 vs. 57 mg/dL; P < 0.001), and slightly lower LDL (100 vs. 107 mg/dL; P = 0.059) levels than controls. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, the highest tertile of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was associated with higher triglyceride (+85%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 55 to 121) and lower HDL (−9%, 95% CI: −18 to 0) levels in HIV-infected women; the highest tertile of leg subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was associated with lower triglyceride levels in HIV-infected women (−28%, 95% CI: −41 to −11) and controls (−39%, 95% CI: −5 to −18). After further adjustment for adipose tissue, HIV infection remained associated with higher triglyceride (+40%, 95% CI: 21 to 63) and lower LDL (−17%, 95% CI: −26 to −8) levels, whereas HIV infection remained associated with lower HDL levels (−21%, 95% CI: −29 to −12) in whites but not in African Americans (+8%, 95% CI: −2 to 19).
Conclusions
HIV-infected white women are more likely to have proatherogenic lipid profiles than HIV-infected African American women. Less leg SAT and more VAT are important factors associated with adverse lipid levels. HIV-infected women may be at particular risk for dyslipidemia because of the risk for HIV-associated lipoatrophy.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318164227f
PMCID: PMC2776070  PMID: 18197118
dyslipidemia; fat distribution; HIV infection; lipid levels; lipodystrophy; women
10.  Regional Adipose Tissue and Elevations in Serum Aminotransferases in HIV-Infected Individuals 
Background
The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population.
Methods
Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume.
Results
After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (−14.3%, 95% CI: −24.7 to −4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (−11.9%, 95% CI: −18.4 to −5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (−7.1%, 95% CI: −22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181685700
PMCID: PMC2776053  PMID: 18285711
adipose tissue; aminotransferase levels; hepatitis C virus; HIV; lipodystrophy
11.  Relationship between Body Mass Index and Mortality in HIV-Infected HAART Users in the Women's Interagency HIV Study 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0143740.
Background
Early HIV studies suggested protective associations of overweight against mortality, yet data are lacking for the era of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We evaluated associations of pre-HAART initiation body mass index (BMI) with mortality among HAART-using women.
Methods
Prospective study of time to death after HAART initiation among continuous HAART users in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted Kaplan–Meier and adjusted proportional hazards survival models assessed time to AIDS and non-AIDS death by last measured pre-HAART BMI.
Results
Of 1428 continuous HAART users 39 (2.7%) were underweight, 521 (36.5%) normal weight, 441 (30.9%) overweight, and 427 (29.9%) obese at time of HAART initiation. A total of 322 deaths occurred during median follow-up of 10.4 years (IQR 5.9–14.6). Censoring at non-AIDS death, the highest rate of AIDS death was observed among underweight women (p = 0.0003 for all 4 categories). In multivariate models, women underweight prior to HAART died from AIDS more than twice as rapidly vs. normal weight women (aHR 2.04, 95% CI 1.03, 4.04); but being overweight or obese (vs. normal weight) was not independently associated with AIDS death. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS death was similar across all pre-HAART BMI categories.
Conclusions
Among continuous HAART-using women, being overweight prior to initiation was not associated with lower risk of AIDS or non-AIDS death. Being underweight prior to HAART was associated with over double the rate of AIDS death in adjusted analyses. Although overweight and obesity may be associated with many adverse health conditions, neither was predictive of mortality among the HAART-using women.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143740
PMCID: PMC4689347  PMID: 26699870
12.  T-cell Activation, Both Pre- and Post-HAART Levels, Correlates with Carotid Artery Stiffness over 6.5 years among HIV-infected Women in the WIHS 
Objective
T-cell activation is a major pathway driving HIV disease progression. Little is known regarding the impact of T-cell activation on HIV-associated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, a common co-morbidity in HIV infection. We hypothesized that T-cell activation will predict vascular stiffness, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis.
Design
Linear regression models evaluated the covariate-adjusted association of T-cell activation with vascular stiffness.
Methods
CD38 and HLA-DR expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells was assessed by flow cytometry among 59 HIV-negative and 376 HIV-infected (185 hepatitis-C co-infected) women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). T-cell activation was defined by CD8+CD38+DR+ and CD4+CD38+DR+. Multiple activation assessments over 6.5 years were averaged. In 140 women, T-cell activation was measured before and after HAART initiation. Carotid artery ultrasounds were completed a median of 6.5 years after last measurement of T- cell activation and carotid artery stiffness including distensibility and elasticity were calculated.
Results
Percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation were significantly higher in HIV- infected compared to HIV-negative women. Among HIV-negative women, T-cell activation was not associated with carotid artery stiffness. Among HIV-infected women, higher CD4+ T-cell activation significantly predicted increased arterial stiffness independent of CD4 cell count and HIV RNA. The association was stronger among HIV/HCV co-infected compared to HIV-mono- infected women; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p-for interaction>0.05). Pre- and post-HAART levels of CD4+ T-cell activation significantly predicted carotid artery stiffness.
Conclusions
Persistent T-cell activation, even after HAART initiation, can contribute to structural and/or functional vascular damage accelerating atherogenesis in HIV infection. These results need to be confirmed in a longitudinal prospective study.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000311
PMCID: PMC4197806  PMID: 25314253
T-cell activation; arterial stiffness; HIV-infection
13.  Investigating the Effects of Metabolic Dysregulation on Hair Follicles: A Comparison of HIV-Infected Women With and Without Central Lipohypertrophy 
International journal of dermatology  2013;53(10):e443-e448.
Background
Normal lipid metabolism and functioning of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the sebaceous gland is critical to maintaining a normal hair follicle. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects lipid metabolism; some have hypothesized a link between PPAR-gamma function and lipodystrophy in HIV infection. Our objective was to determine whether lipodystrophy is associated with altered hair characteristics in HIV-infected women from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
Methods
Hair characteristics and scalp inflammation were assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Central lipohypertrophy and peripheral lipoatrophy was defined by self report of moderate to severe fat gain in central body sites and fat loss in peripheral body sites, respectively confirmed by clinical examination. Additional covariates considered in the analyses included demographics, behavioral characteristics, medical history, and HIV-related factors.
Results
There were 1037 women with data on all study variables. 76 women reported central lipohypertrophy; only 4 women reported lipoatrophy. Women with central lipohypertrophy were more likely to be older, have a self-reported history of injection drug use, statin medication use, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and have self-reported less hair and shorter eyelashes. After adjustment for age, central lipohypertrophy was associated with shorter eyelashes (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.8).
Conclusions
Central lipohypertrophy was not associated with change in scalp hair texture or scalp inflammation in this cohort. Rather, we found an association between central lipohypertrophy and shorter eyelash length. This finding may be explained by an influence of prostaglandin E2 mediators on eyelash follicles.
doi:10.1111/ijd.12044
PMCID: PMC3785560  PMID: 23786579
eyelash; hair; HIV
14.  Serum Albumin and Kidney Function Decline in HIV-Infected Women 
Background
Serum albumin concentrations are a strong predictor of mortality and cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. We studied the longitudinal associations between serum albumin levels and kidney function decline in a population of HIV-infected women.
Study Design
Retrospective cohort analysis.
Setting & Participants
The study participants were recruited from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a large observational study designed to understand risk factors for the progression of HIV infection in women living in urban communities. 908 participants had baseline assessment of kidney function and two follow-up measures over an average of 8 years.
Predictor
The primary predictor was serum albumin concentration.
Outcomes
We examined annual change in kidney function. Secondary outcomes included rapid kidney function decline and incident reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Measurements
Kidney function decline was determined by cystatin C–based (eGFRcys) and creatinine-based eGFR (eGFRcr) at baseline and follow up. Each model was adjusted for kidney disease and HIV-related risk factors using linear and relative risk regression.
Results
After multivariate adjustment, each 0.5-g/dL decrement in baseline serum albumin concentration was associated with a 0.56-mL/min faster annual decline in eGFRcys (P<0.001), which was only slightly attenuated to 0.55-mL/min/1.73 m2 after adjustment for albuminuria. Results were similar whether using eGFRcys or eGFRcr. In adjusted analyses, each 0.5-g/dL lower baseline serum albumin was associated with a 1.71-fold greater risk of rapid kidney function decline (p<0.001) and a 1.72-fold greater risk of incident reduced eGFR (p<0.001).
Limitations
The cohort is composed of only female participants from urban communities within the United States.
Conclusions
Lower levels of serum albumin were strongly associated with kidney function decline and incident reduced eGFR in HIV-infected women, independent of HIV disease status, BMI and albuminuria.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.05.015
PMCID: PMC4177337  PMID: 25059222
albumin; kidney function; HIV; incident reduced eGFR; albuminuria; disease trajectory; chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression
15.  Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV 
Current HIV/AIDS reports  2014;11(3):271-278.
HIV infection and its treatment have been associated with adipose tissue changes and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. The proportion of HIV-infected adults over the age of 50 is also growing placing HIV-infected adults at particular risk for metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular disease. The metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults has been increasingly studied but whether HIV is associated with greater risk remains unclear, likely because of the interplay of host, viral and antiretroviral factors that are associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome. While the Framingham Risk Score is a well-accepted measure of 10-year cardiovascular risk in the general population, it may not accurately predict risk in the HIV setting due to HIV-related factors such as inflammation that are not accounted for. The relationship between HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) risk has also been debated. We summarize the recent literature on metabolic syndrome, DM, and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected adults.
doi:10.1007/s11904-014-0219-7
PMCID: PMC4138538  PMID: 25027062
HIV; Metabolic Syndrome; Diabetes; Cardiovascular Risk; Framingham Risk Score; Lipodystrophy Syndrome
16.  Direct and Indirect Serum Markers of Liver Fibrosis Compared with Transient Elastography among Women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
Objective
The aim of this study was to determine the test characteristics of direct and indirect biomarkers for liver fibrosis compared with transient elastography (TE) among a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women with or without Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
Methods
Women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) from Washington DC, San Francisco, and Chicago with a body mass index (BMI)<35 underwent liver stiffness measurement using TE between October, 2010 and September, 2012. Serum samples were tested for hyaluronic acid to calculate the SHASTA and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) of significant liver fibrosis (liver stiffness ≥ 7.1 kPa by TE, correlating with a METAVIR fibrosis score of F2-F4) predicted by SHASTA and APRI were compared.
Results
Among 308 women, the median age was 48 years, BMI was 25.6, 67% were non-Hispanic black, 27% HCV+, and 78% HIV+. The overall prevalence of significant liver fibrosis was 20%, and among HIV+ women, 22%. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in the area under ROC curve (AUROC) between SHASTA and APRI relative to significant fibrosis by TE. Among HCV+ women (with or without HIV), the AUROC ranged from 0.70–0.73 for both the SHASTA and APRI compared to TE. Both SHASTA and APRI were associated with significant misclassification with a false negative rate of 33–40% for significant fibrosis compared with TE among women with HCV infection, with or without HIV.
Conclusion
Both the SHASTA and APRI, direct and indirect serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis respectively, are comparable at detection of significant liver fibrosis among women with HCV infection, regardless of HIV status. However, there was a high false negative rate in detection of significant liver fibrosis of up to 40% which is a significant limitation of use of these biomarkers.
doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000446
PMCID: PMC4524652  PMID: 26251759
HIV; HCV; Biomarkers; SHASTA; APRI; Transient elastography; WIHS; Women
17.  Antiretroviral Therapy Modifies the Genetic Effect of Known Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Risk Variants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
AIDS (London, England)  2014;28(12):1815-1823.
Objective
Type 2 diabetes (DM) incidence is increased in HIV-infected persons. We examined the associations of DM with known DM-risk alleles from the general population in the context of HIV infection and explored effect modification by combination antiretroviral treatment (cART).
Methods
The Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is a prospective cohort of HIV-infected women. Seventeen European-derived DM-risk polymorphisms were genotyped in eligible WIHS participants. Analyses were run separately for non-African-Americans (Whites, Hispanics, Asians, and other; n=378, 49 with incident DM) and African-Americans (n=591, 49 with incident DM). Cox proportional hazards models were fit to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for DM overall and within strata of cART.
Results
In non-African-Americans, heterogeneity across cART regimen was observed for 9 of 14 polymorphisms (phet<0.05). One polymorphism was statistically significantly inversely associated with DM risk among women taking 2 NRTIs+NNRTI. Five polymorphisms were statistically significantly associated with DM among women treated with ≥2 NRTIs + ≥1 PI and one polymorphism was associated with DM among those treated with ≥3 NRTIs ± NNRTI. The HR per risk allele for IGF2BP2 rs1470579 was 2.67 (95% CI 1.67–4.31) for women taking cART with ≥2 NRTIs+≥1 PI and 2.45 (95% CI 1.08–5.53) in women taking ≥3 NRTIs±NNRTI (phet=2.50×10−3). No such associations were observed in African-Americans.
Conclusions
Genetic susceptibility to DM, based on the variants studied, is substantially elevated among HIV-infected women using cART containing three or more NRTI/PI components. A personalized medicine approach to cART selection may be indicated for HIV-infected persons carrying these DM-risk variants.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000366
PMCID: PMC4269472  PMID: 24932614
type 2 diabetes; genetics; HIV; women; antiretroviral therapy
18.  Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Injury Are Associated with All-Cause Mortality in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) 
HIV medicine  2013;15(5):291-300.
Objectives
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in HIV; CKD is associated with mortality. Urinary markers of tubular injury have been associated with future kidney disease risk, but associations with mortality are unknown.
Methods
We evaluated the association of urinary interleukin-18(IL-18), liver fatty acid binding protein(L-FABP), kidney injury molecule-1(KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin(NGAL), albumin-to-creatinine ratio(ACR) with 10-year, all-cause death in 908 HIV-infected women. Kidney function was estimated using cystatin C (eGFRcys).
Results
There were 201 deaths during 9,269 person-years of follow-up. After demographic adjustment, compared to the lowest tertile, highest tertiles of IL-18 (HR 2.54,95%CI 1.75–3.68), KIM-1 (2.04,1.44–2.89), NGAL(1.50,1.05–2.14), and ACR(1.63,1.13–2.36) were associated with higher mortality. After multivariable adjustment including eGFRcys, only the highest tertiles of IL-18, (1.88,1.29–2.74) and ACR (1.46,1.01–2.12) remained independently associated with mortality. Findings with KIM-1 were borderline (1.41, 0.99–2.02). We found a J-shaped association between L-FABP and mortality. Compared to persons in the lowest tertile, HR for middle tertile of L-FABP was 0.67 (0.46–0.98) after adjustment. Findings were stronger when IL-18, ACR and L-FABP were simultaneously included in models.
Conclusions
Among HIV-infected women, some urinary markers of tubular injury are associated with mortality risk, independently of eGFRcys and ACR. These markers represent potential tools to identify early kidney injury in persons with HIV.
doi:10.1111/hiv.12113
PMCID: PMC3975680  PMID: 24313986
HIV; IL-18; KIM-1; L-FABP; NGAL; urinary biomarkers
19.  Macrophage inflammatory markers are associated with subclinical carotid artery disease in women with HIV or HCV infection 
Objective
Infection with hepatitis C (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be associated with atherosclerosis and vascular disease. Macrophages are a major component of atherosclerotic plaque, and classically activated (M1) macrophages contribute to plaque instability. Our goal was to identify plasma biomarkers that reflect macrophage inflammation and are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
Approach and results
We tested whether M1 macrophages produce galectin-3 binding protein (Gal-3BP) in-vitro. Then we measured Gal-3BP and the soluble macrophage biomarkers sCD163 and sCD14 in 264 participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Women were positive for HIV, HCV, both, or neither (66 in each group, matched for age, race/ethnicity and smoking status). Carotid artery disease was assessed by ultrasound measurement of right distal common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), distensibility, and presence of atherosclerotic lesions (IMT>1.5 mm). Plasma Gal-3BP was higher in HCV+ than HCV− women (p<0.01), but did not differ by HIV status. The three inflammatory macrophage markers were significantly correlated with each other and negatively correlated with CD4+ counts in HIV-infected women. We defined a macrophage score as 1, 2 or 3 biomarkers elevated above the median. In models adjusted for traditional risk factors, higher macrophage scores were significantly associated with increased atherosclerotic lesions and lower carotid distensibility. Receiver-operator curve analysis of lesions revealed that the markers added predictive value beyond traditional risk factors and C-reactive protein.
Conclusions
The macrophage inflammatory markers Gal-3BP, sCD163 and sCD14 are significantly associated with carotid artery disease in the setting of HIV and HCV infection.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.303153
PMCID: PMC4067091  PMID: 24651679
atherosclerosis; women; AIDS; immune system; risk factors
20.  Longitudinal Anthropometric Patterns Among HIV-infected and –uninfected Women 
Introduction
Previous studies suggest that indicators of central adiposity such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference may be altered by HIV infection, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or both.
Methods
Waist and hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) were measured among participants of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) semiannually from 1999 to 2004. Generalized linear models evaluated longitudinal patterns of these measures and associations with demographic and clinical characteristics.
Results
WHR was significantly larger while BMI, waist and hip circumference were significantly smaller at almost all eleven semiannual visits among 942 HIV-infected compared to 266 HIV-uninfected women. Among HIV-uninfected women, mean waist and hip circumference and BMI increased over the 5 year study period (waist: +4.1 cm or 4.4%, hip: +3.76 cm or 3.5% and BMI +2.43 kg/m2 or 8.2%), while WHR remained stable. Among the HIV-infected women, waist and hip circumference, BMI and WHR did not significantly change.
Independent predictors of smaller BMI among HIV-infected women included White race, HCV seropositivity, current smoking, higher viral load and lower CD4. Independent predictors of larger WHR among HIV-infected women included age, White and Other non-African-American race, higher CD4 and PI use. Use of a HAART regimen was not an independent predictor of either BMI or WHR..
Conclusions
HIV-infected women had higher WHR compared to HIV-uninfected women, despite lower BMI, waist and hip measurements. BMI, waist and hip circumference increased over 5 years among the HIV-uninfected women, but remained stable in the HIV-infected women. Among HIV-infected women, PI use was associated with larger WHR, although HAART use itself was not appreciably associated with either BMI or WHR.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318162f597
PMCID: PMC4406344  PMID: 18197125
anthropometrics; HIV; women; waist-to-hip ratio
21.  Changes in Body Mass Index Following HAART Initiation among HIV-Infected Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study 
Objective
Examine changes in, and factors associated with changing body mass index (BMI) in women following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation.
Methods
1177 HIV-infected Women's Interagency HIV Study participants who contributed 10,754 years of follow-up following HAART initiation were studied. Changes in median BMI up to 15 years following HAART initiation, and the highest and lowest BMI reached following HAART initiation were summarized by pre-HAART BMI category (<18.5 [underweight], 18.5–<25.0 [normal weight], 25.0–<30.0 [overweight], 30.0–<40.0 [obese], and ≥ 40.0 [morbidly obese]). Multivariate mixed effects ordinal logistic regression estimated the degree of association of each exposure of interest with post-HAART BMI.
Results
Before HAART, 39% percent of women had normal BMI, 31% were overweight, 23% were obese, and 5% were morbidly obese. Following HAART initiation, median BMI change (per 5 years) was 0.21 kg/m2 (90% confidence interval [CI]: −1.33, 0.42) for those with normal pre-HAART BMI, 0.39 kg/m2 (90% CI: 0.15,0.66) for overweight, 0.31 kg/m2 (90% CI: −1.18,0.67) for obese, and −0.36kg/m2 for morbidly obese women. After initiating HAART, 40% with normal pre-HAART BMI became overweight at some point; of those overweight, 46% remained overweight and 47% became obese; 71% of obese women remained obese and 27% became morbidly obese. Each year of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor use was associated with a 3% decreased odds of reaching a higher BMI category (OR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99), while each year of protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor use were associated with a 6% (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08) and 5%(OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08) increased odds of having a higher BMI category, respectively.
Conclusions
Although overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in this large cohort of HIV-infected, minority women, HAART use was associated with only a modest increase in BMI over time.
doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000323
PMCID: PMC4285631  PMID: 25580365
Obesity; Body mass index; HIV; Women; HAART; Women's interagency HIV study
22.  HIV/HCV coinfection ameliorates the atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities of HIV infection 
AIDS (London, England)  2014;28(1):49-58.
Background
Higher levels of small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The extent to which HIV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection are associated with abnormalities of lipoprotein subclasses is unknown.
Methods
Lipoprotein subclasses were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in plasma samples from 569 HIV-infected and 5948 control participants in the FRAM, CARDIA and MESA studies. Multivariable regression was used to estimate the association of HIV and HIV/HCV coinfection with lipoprotein measures with adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and waist-to-hip ratio.
Results
Relative to controls, small LDL levels were higher in HIV-monoinfected persons (+381 nmol/L, p<.0001), with no increase seen in HIV/HCV coinfection (−16.6 nmol/L). Levels of large LDL levels were lower (−196 nmol/L, p<.0001) and small HDL were higher (+8.2 μmol/L, p<.0001) in HIV-monoinfection with intermediate values seen in HIV/HCV-coinfection. Large HDL levels were higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected persons relative to controls (+1.70 μmol/L, p<.0001), whereas little difference was seen in HIV-monoinfected persons (+0.33, p=0.075). Within HIV-infected participants, HCV was associated independently with lower levels of small LDL (−329 nmol/L, p<.0001) and small HDL (−4.6 μmol/L, p<.0001), even after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
Conclusion
HIV-monoinfected participants had worse levels of atherogenic LDL lipoprotein subclasses compared with controls. HIV/HCV coinfection attenuates these changes, perhaps by altering hepatic factors affecting lipoprotein production and/or metabolism. The effect of HIV/HCV coinfection on atherosclerosis and the clinical consequences of low small subclasses remain to be determined.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000026
PMCID: PMC4267724  PMID: 24136113
HIV infection; HCV infection; lipoproteins; cardiovascular disease
23.  Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study 
Journal of neurovirology  2013;19(6):574-585.
Objective
To explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection.
Design/Methods
1690 participants (1196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity.
Results
Among HIV+ women, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with poorer cognitive performance evidenced by longer Trails A and Trails B and shorter SDMT completion times. An obese BMI (30 kg/m2 or higher) was related to better performance on Trails B and worse performance on the Stroop Interference test. Among HIV- women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop – Color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR and cognition.
Conclusion
Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV infected women.
doi:10.1007/s13365-013-0219-1
PMCID: PMC3957488  PMID: 24338243
Cognition; HIV; Women; Overweight; Obesity; Middle-Aged
24.  The Association of Self-perception of Body Fat Changes and Quality of Life in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study 
AIDS care  2013;25(12):10.1080/09540121.2013.793265.
Body fat changes are of concern to HIV-seropositive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Studies examining the association of body fat changes and quality of life (QOL) in the setting of HIV infection have been conducted predominately in men. We examined the relationship of self-perceived body fat change with QOL among 1,671 HAART-using HIV-seropositive women (mean age 40 ± 8 years; 54% African American, 24% reporting ≤ 95% HAART adherence) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Self-perception of any fat loss was associated with lower overall QOL. Report of any peripheral fat loss was strongly associated with nearly all QOL domains (i.e., physical functioning, role functioning, energy/fatigue, social functioning, pain, emotional well-being, health perception, and perceived health index) except cognitive functioning, whereas report of any central fat loss was significantly associated with lower social and cognitive functioning. Report of any central fat gain was associated with lower overall QOL, but only physical functioning, energy/fatigue, and cognitive functioning were significantly affected. A significant association of report of any peripheral fat gain with overall QOL was not observed, however peripheral fat gain was significantly associated with lower physical functioning and pain. We found that any report of fat loss, especially in peripheral body sites is associated with lower QOL, as was any report of central fat gain. Ultimately health providers and patients need to be informed of these associations so as to better support HIV-seropositive women who live with these effects.
doi:10.1080/09540121.2013.793265
PMCID: PMC3769511  PMID: 23656440
body image perception; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; Quality of life; HIV-seropositive women; HAART
25.  Association of HIV Infection, Hepatitis C Virus Infection, and Metabolic Factors With Liver Stiffness Measured by Transient Elastography 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;208(11):1776-1783.
Background. Few studies have examined the relationship of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection and its associated perturbations with liver fibrosis.
Methods. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the demographic, behavioral, metabolic and viral factors associated with transient elastography–measured liver stiffness in 314 participants (165 HIV positive/hepatitis C virus [HCV] negative, 78 HIV positive/HCV positive, 14 HIV negative/HCV positive, 57 HIV negative/HCV negative) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
Results. Compared with HIV negative/HCV negative women, HIV positive/HCV positive women had higher median liver stiffness values (7.1 vs 4.4 kPa; P < .001); HIV positive/HCV negative and HIV negative/HCV negative women had similar liver stiffness values (both 4.4 kPa; P = .94). HIV/HCV coinfection remained associated with higher liver stiffness values (74% higher; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49–104) even after multivariable adjustment. Among HCV positive women, waist circumference (per 10-cm increase) was associated with 18% (95% CI, 7.5%–30%) higher liver stiffness values after multivariable adjustment; waist circumference showed little association among HIV positive/HCV negative or HIV negative/HCV negative women. Among HIV positive/HCV negative women, history of AIDS (13%; 95% CI, 4% –27%) and HIV RNA (7.3%; 95% CI, 1.59%–13.3%, per 10-fold increase) were associated with greater liver stiffness.
Conclusions. HCV infection but not HIV infection is associated with greater liver stiffness when infected women are compared with those with neither infection. Our finding that waist circumference, a marker of central obesity, is associated with greater liver stiffness in HIV/HCV-coinfected but not HIV-monoinfected or women with neither infection suggests that in the absence of HCV-associated liver injury the adverse effects of obesity are lessened.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit357
PMCID: PMC3814832  PMID: 23901097
HIV; HCV; liver fibrosis; transient elastography; obesity; women

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