Whereas greater physical activity (PA) is known to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relative importance of performing PA in sustained bouts of activity versus shorter bouts of activity on CVD risk is not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured in bouts ≥10 minutes and <10 minutes, and CVD risk factors in a well-characterized, community-based sample of white adults.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2109 Framingham Heart Study Third Generation participants (mean age 47 years, 55% women) who underwent objective assessment of PA by accelerometry over 5–7 days. Total MVPA, MVPA done in bouts ≥10 minutes (MVPA10+), and MVPA done in bouts <10 minutes (MVPA<10) were calculated. MVPA exposures were related to individual CVD risk factors, including measures of adiposity and blood lipid and glucose levels, using linear and logistic regression.
Total MVPA was significantly associated with higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and with lower triglycerides, BMI, waist circumference and Framingham risk score (P <0.0001). MVPA<10 showed similar statistically significant associations with these CVD risk factors (P <0.001). Compliance with national guidelines (≥150 minutes of total MVPA) was significantly related to lower BMI, triglycerides, Framingham risk score, waist circumference, higher HDL, and a lower prevalence of obesity and impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001 for all).
Our cross-sectional observations on a large middle-aged community-based sample confirm a positive association of MVPA with a healthier CVD risk factor profile, and indicate that accruing physical activity in bouts <10 minutes may favorably influence cardiometabolic risk. Additional investigations are warranted to confirm our findings.
accelerometer; heart disease; exercise; guidelines
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-B1) is a highly pleiotropic cytokine whose functions include a central role in the induction of fibrosis.
To investigate the hypothesis that elevated plasma levels of TGF-B1 are positively associated with incident heart failure (HF).
Participants and Methods
The hypotheses were tested using a two-phase case-control study design, ancillary to the Cardiovascular Health Study – a longitudinal, population-based cohort study. Cases were defined as having an incident HF event after their 1992-93 exam and controls were free of HF at follow-up. TGF-B1 was measured using plasma collected in 1992-93 and data from 89 cases and 128 controls were used for analysis. The association between TGF-B1 and risk of HF was evaluated using the weighted likelihood method, and odds ratios (OR) for risk of HF were calculated for TGF-B1 as a continuous linear variable and across quartiles of TGF-B1.
The OR for HF was 1.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.26 to 2.81) for each nanogram increase in TGF-B1, and the OR for the highest quartile (compared to the lowest) of TGF-B1 was 5.79 (95% CI 1.65 – 20.34), after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein, platelet count and digoxin use. Further adjustment with other covariates did not change the results.
Higher levels of plasma TGF-B1 were associated with an increased risk of incident heart failure among older adults. However, further study is needed in larger samples to confirm these findings.
transforming growth factor-beta; heart failure; fibrosis; growth factors; cardiac remodeling
Fibrotic changes in the heart and arteries have been implicated in a diverse range of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but whether circulating biomarkers that reflect fibrosis are associated with CVD is unknown.
Methods and Results
We determined the associations of two biomarkers of fibrosis, transforming growth factor- β (TGF-β) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), with incident heart failure, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke among community-living older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We measured circulating TGF-β (n=1,371) and PIIINP (n=2,568) from plasma samples collected in 1996 and ascertained events through 2010. Given TGF-β’s pleiotropic effects on inflammation and fibrogenesis, we investigated potential effect modification by C-reactive protein (CRP) in secondary analyses. After adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical risk factors, PIIINP was associated with total CVD (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD]=1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.14) and heart failure (HR per SD=1.08, CI: 1.01-1.16), but not MI or stroke. TGF-β was not associated with any CVD outcomes in the full cohort, but was associated with total CVD (HR per SD=1.16, CI: 1.02-1.31), heart failure (HR per SD=1.16, CI: 1.01-1.34), and stroke (HR per SD=1.20, CI: 1.01-1.42) among individuals with CRP above the median, 2.3 mg/L (P-interaction < 0.05).
Our findings provide large-scale, prospective evidence that circulating biomarkers of fibrosis, measured in community-living individuals late in life, are associated with CVD. Further research on whether TGF-β has a stronger fibrogenic effect in the setting of inflammation is warranted.
collagen; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; epidemiology
Fibrosis has been implicated in diverse diseases of the liver, kidney, lungs, and heart, but its importance as a risk factor for mortality remains unconfirmed. We determined the prospective associations of 2 complementary biomarkers of fibrosis, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), with total and cause-specific mortality risks among community-living older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study (1996–2010). We measured circulating TGF-β and PIIINP levels in plasma samples collected in 1996 and ascertained the number of deaths through 2010. Both TGF-β and PIIINP were associated with elevated risks of total and pulmonary mortality after adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical risk factors. For total mortality, the hazard ratios per doubling of TGF-β and PIIINP were 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.17; P = 0.02) and 1.14 (CI: 1.03, 1.27; P = 0.01), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for pulmonary mortality were 1.27 (CI: 1.01, 1.60; P = 0.04) for TGF-β and 1.52 (CI: 1.11, 2.10; P = 0.01) for PIIINP. Associations of TGF-β and PIIINP with total and pulmonary mortality were strongest among individuals with higher C-reactive protein concentrations (P for interaction < 0.05). Our findings provide some of the first large-scale prospective evidence that circulating biomarkers of fibrosis measured late in life are associated with death.
biomarkers; fibrosis; inflammation; mortality
Cardiac fibrosis is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Retrospective studies have suggested that circulating fibrosis biomarkers are associated with AF, but prospective studies are limited.
We measured circulating levels of 2 fibrosis biomarkers, procollagen type III, N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) and transforming growth factor β1 among participants of the CHS, a population-based study of older Americans. We used Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models to examine adjusted risk of incident AF over a median follow-up of 8.8 years.
Levels of PIIINP were assessed in 2,935 participants, of whom 767 developed AF. Compared with the median PIIINP level (4.45 μg/L), adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 0.85 (0.72–1.00) at the 10th percentile, 0.93 (0.88–0.99) at the 25th percentile, 1.04 (0.95–1.04) at the 75th percentile, and 1.07 (0.90–1.26) at the 90th. Transforming growth factor β1 levels, assessed in 1,538 participants with 408 cases of incident AF, were not associated with AF risk.
In older adults, PIIINP levels were associated with risk of incident AF in a complex manner, with an association that appeared to be positive up to median levels but with little relationship beyond that. Further studies are required to confirm and possibly delineate the mechanism for this relationship.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in
high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE
and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To
identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a 2-stage
genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in
the extended CHARGE VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident
VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes
for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to
~2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using
study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results
identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top
1,047 tag SNPs (p≤0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for
association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three
case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional
genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at
F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11)
and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from
FGG) (p<5.0×10−13 for both).
The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained
by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and
OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations
(p<5.0×10-6) and constitute new candidate genes. In
conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in
F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance
of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies
are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11
and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations.
venous thrombosis; genetics; genome-wide association; genetic epidemiology
With white blood cell count emerging as an important risk factor for chronic inflammatory diseases, genetic associations of differential leukocyte types, specifically monocyte count, are providing novel candidate genes and pathways to further investigate. Circulating monocytes play a critical role in vascular diseases such as in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. We performed a joint and ancestry-stratified genome-wide association analyses to identify variants specifically associated with monocyte count in 11 014 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network. In the joint and European ancestry samples, we identified novel associations in the chromosome 16 interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) gene (P-value = 2.78×10(−16), β = −0.22). Other monocyte associations include novel missense variants in the chemokine-binding protein 2 (CCBP2) gene (P-value = 1.88×10(−7), β = 0.30) and a region of replication found in ribophorin I (RPN1) (P-value = 2.63×10(−16), β = −0.23) on chromosome 3. The CCBP2 and RPN1 region is located near GATA binding protein2 gene that has been previously shown to be associated with coronary heart disease. On chromosome 9, we found a novel association in the prostaglandin reductase 1 gene (P-value = 2.29×10(−7), β = 0.16), which is downstream from lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1. This region has previously been shown to be associated with monocyte count. We also replicated monocyte associations of genome-wide significance (P-value = 5.68×10(−17), β = −0.23) at the integrin, alpha 4 gene on chromosome 2. The novel IRF8 results and further replications provide supporting evidence of genetic regions associated with monocyte count.
Non-adherence to cardiovascular medications such as statins is a common, important problem. Clinicians currently rely on intuition to identify medication non-adherence. The visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of LDL-C may represent an opportunity to identify statin non-adherence with greater accuracy. We examined the clinical and pharmacy data from 782 members of the Boston Medical Center (BMC) Health Plan, seen at either BMC or its affiliated Community Health Centers, who were taking statins and had at least 3 LDL-C measurements between 2008 and 2011. The LDL-C VVV (defined by the within-patient standard deviation) was categorized into quintiles. Multivariable logistic regression models were generated with statin non-adherence (defined by the standard 80% pharmacy refill based medication possession ratio threshold) as the dependent variable. The proportion of statin non-adherence increased across quintiles of LDL-C VVV (64.3%, 71.2%, 89.2%, 92.3%, 91.7%). Higher quintiles of LDL-C VVV had a strong positive association with statin non-adherence with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.4 (CI: 1.7–7.1) in the highest versus lowest quintile of LDL-C VVV. The age and gender adjusted model had poor discrimination [C-statistic 0.62 (CI: 0.57, 0.67)] while the final adjusted (age, gender, race, mean LDL-C) model demonstrated good discrimination [C-statistic 0.75 (CI: 0.71, 0.79)] between adherent and non-adherent patients. In conclusion, the VVV of LDL-C demonstrated a strong association with statin non-adherence in a clinic setting. Further, a VVV- of LDL-C based model has good discrimination characteristics for statin non-adherence. Research is needed to validate and generalize these findings to other populations and biomarkers.
Visit-to-visit variability; statins; medication adherence
Using data from four community-based cohorts of African Americans (AA), we tested the association between genome-wide markers (SNPs) and cardiac phenotypes in the Candidate-gene Association REsource (CARe) study.
Methods and Results
Among 6,765 AA, we related age, sex, height and weight-adjusted residuals for nine cardiac phenotypes (assessed by echocardiogram or MRI) to 2.5 million SNPs genotyped using Genome-Wide Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affy6.0) and the remainder imputed. Within cohort genome-wide association analysis was conducted followed by meta-analysis across cohorts using inverse variance weights (genome-wide significance threshold=4.0 ×10−07). Supplementary pathway analysis was performed. We attempted replication in 3 smaller cohorts of African ancestry and tested look-ups in one consortium of European ancestry (EchoGEN). Across the 9 phenotypes, variants in 4 genetic loci reached genome-wide significance: rs4552931 in UBE2V2 (p=1.43 × 10−07) for left ventricular mass (LVM); rs7213314 in WIPI1 (p=1.68 × 10−07) for LV internal diastolic diameter (LVIDD); rs1571099 in PPAPDC1A (p= 2.57 × 10−08) for interventricular septal wall thickness (IVST); and rs9530176 in KLF5 (p=4.02 × 10−07) for ejection fraction (EF). Associated variants were enriched in three signaling pathways involved in cardiac remodeling. None of the 4 loci replicated in cohorts of African ancestry were confirmed in look-ups in EchoGEN.
In the largest GWAS of cardiac structure and function to date in AA, we identified 4 genetic loci related to LVM, IVST, LVIDD and EF that reached genome-wide significance. Replication results suggest that these loci may represent unique to individuals of African ancestry. Additional large-scale studies are warranted for these complex phenotypes.
echocardiography; ethnic; genome-wide association studies; Left atrium genetics; left ventricular mass genetics
Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene) was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10−8. This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value = 2.11×10−12 in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts). In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
Gene–lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (β = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13–0.31], P = 1.63 × 10−6). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (β = 0.06–0.12 mmol/allele, P ≤ 1.53 × 10−7), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ≥ 0.04). In this large study of gene–lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions.
Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction, but contributed little to our understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways may be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interaction between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a novel joint meta-analytical approach to test associations with fasting insulin (FI) and glucose (FG) on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown FI loci at P<5×10−8 in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels, suggestive of a role for these FI loci in insulin resistance pathways. The localization of these additional loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.
Mild retinopathy (microaneurysms or dot-blot hemorrhages) is observed in persons without diabetes or hypertension and may reflect microvascular disease in other organs. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mild retinopathy in persons without diabetes.
A working group agreed on phenotype harmonization, covariate selection and analytic plans for within-cohort GWAS. An inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis was performed with GWAS results from six cohorts of 19,411 Caucasians. The primary analysis included individuals without diabetes and secondary analyses were stratified by hypertension status. We also singled out the results from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously shown to be associated with diabetes and hypertension, the two most common causes of retinopathy.
No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the primary analysis or the secondary analysis of participants with hypertension. SNP, rs12155400, in the histone deacetylase 9 gene (HDAC9) on chromosome 7, was associated with retinopathy in analysis of participants without hypertension, −1.3±0.23 (beta ± standard error), p = 6.6×10−9. Evidence suggests this was a false positive finding. The minor allele frequency was low (∼2%), the quality of the imputation was moderate (r2 ∼0.7), and no other common variants in the HDAC9 gene were associated with the outcome. SNPs found to be associated with diabetes and hypertension in other GWAS were not associated with retinopathy in persons without diabetes or in subgroups with or without hypertension.
This GWAS of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes showed little evidence of genetic associations. Further studies are needed to identify genes associated with these signs in order to help unravel novel pathways and determinants of microvascular diseases.
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by computed tomography is a non-invasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, that underlies most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to identify common genetic variants associated with CAC and further investigate their associations with MI.
Methods and Results
Computed tomography was used to assess quantity of CAC. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for CAC was carried out in 9,961 men and women from five independent community-based cohorts, with replication in three additional independent cohorts (n=6,032). We examined the top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CAC quantity for association with MI in multiple large genome-wide association studies of MI. Genome-wide significant associations with CAC for SNPs on chromosome 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B (top SNP: rs1333049, P=7.58×10−19) and 6p24 (top SNP: rs9349379, within the PHACTR1 gene, P=2.65×10−11) replicated for CAC and for MI. Additionally, there is evidence for concordance of SNP associations with both CAC and with MI at a number of other loci, including 3q22 (MRAS gene), 13q34 (COL4A1/COL4A2 genes), and 1p13 (SORT1 gene).
SNPs in the 9p21 and PHACTR1 gene loci were strongly associated with CAC and MI, and there are suggestive associations with both CAC and MI of SNPs in additional loci. Multiple genetic loci are associated with development of both underlying coronary atherosclerosis and clinical events.
cardiac computed tomography; coronary artery calcification; coronary atherosclerosis; genome-wide association studies; myocardial infarction
Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a by-product of protein methylation. Once released from proteins, SDMA is eliminated by the kidneys; consequently, plasma concentration has been suggested as a sensitive marker of renal function. Furthermore, recent work implicates SDMA in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. To date, reference limits for SDMA plasma concentrations in healthy individuals are lacking.
We defined reference limits for plasma SDMA concentrations in 840 relatively healthy individuals of the Offspring Cohort from Framingham Heart Study (mean age 56 years, 61 % women). Plasma SDMA concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay.
The median SDMA concentration in the reference sample was 0.37 μmol/L [Q1, Q3: 0.32, 0.43 μmol/L], and the reference limits were 0.225 and 0.533 (2.5th and 97.5th percentile). In a multivariable regression model, serum creatinine, age, and total homocysteine were positively associated with SDMA (p<0.001 for all), whereas the body mass index and diastolic blood pressure were inversely related to SDMA (p-values <0.01 and 0.03 respectively).
We report plasma SDMA reference limits from the community-based Framingham Heart Study. Plasma SDMA concentration was related positively to advancing age, but inversely to renal function. These reference limits may allow the identification of individuals with raised plasma SDMA concentrations.
Framingham Heart Study; LC-MS/MS; symmetric dimethylarginine
Genetic variability has been shown to affect statin responsiveness. Participants from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetics (UCP) studies were enrolled from a population-based registry of pharmacy records linked to hospital discharge records (PHARMO) to investigate tagging SNPs within candidate genes involved in the cholesterol lowering pathway for modification of the effectiveness of statins in reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Patients who received a prescription for an antihypertensive drug and/or had hypercholesterolemia were selected from the PHARMO database. We designed a nested case-control study in which cases were hospitalized for MI and controls were not. Patients were contacted through their community pharmacies. For this study, only hypercholesterolemic participants were selected. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate pharmacogenetic interactions. The Heart and Vascular Health Study (HVH) was used to replicate findings from UCP.
The study population included 668 cases and 1217 controls. We selected 231 SNPs of which 209 SNPs in 27 genes passed quality control. Ten SNPs in eight genes were found to influence the effectiveness of statins in UCP, of which the most significant interaction was found with SCARB1 rs4765615. Other genes that reached statistical significance (p<0.05) included two SNPs in PCSK9 (rs10888896 and rs505151 (E670G)), two SNPs in ABCG5 (rs4245786 and rs1864815), LIPC rs16940379, ABCA1 rs4149264, PPARG rs2972164, LRP1 rs715948, and SOAT1 rs2493121. None of the total of 5 SNPs that were available for replication in HVH reached statistical significance.
In conclusion, ten SNPs were found to modify the effectiveness of statins in reducing the risk of MI in the UCP study. Five were also tested in the HVH study, but no interactions reached statistical significance.
pharmacogenetics; statin; case-control study; cholesterol; myocardial infarction; PCSK9; SCARB1
The genetic background of atrial fibrillation (AF) in whites and African Americans is largely unknown. Genes in cardiovascular pathways have not been systematically investigated.
Methods and Results
We examined a panel of approximately 50,000 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,095 cardiovascular candidate genes and AF in three cohorts with participants of European (n=18,524; 2,260 cases) or African American descent (n=3,662; 263 cases) in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Association Resource. Results in whites were followed up in the German Competence Network for AF (n=906, 468 cases). The top result was assessed in relation to incident ischemic stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Stroke Consortium (n= 19,602 whites, 1544 incident strokes). SNP rs4845625 in the IL6R gene was associated with AF (relative risk (RR) C allele, 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85–0.95; P=0.0005) in whites, but did not reach statistical significance in African Americans (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72–1.03; P=0.09). The results were comparable in the German AF Network replication, (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57–0.89; P=0.003). No association between rs4845625 and stroke was observed in whites. The known chromosome 4 locus near PITX2 in whites also was associated with AF in African Americans (rs4611994, hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16–1.69; P=0.0005).
In a community-based cohort meta-analysis, we identified genetic association in IL6R with AF in whites. Additionally, we demonstrated that the chromosome 4 locus known from recent genome-wide association studies in whites is associated with AF in African Americans.
atrial fibrillation; single nucleotide polymorphism; epidemiology; cohort study; race/ethnicity
Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
Elevated serum urate levels can lead to gout and are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We performed genome-wide association to search for genetic susceptibility loci for serum urate and gout, and investigated the causal nature of the associations of serum urate with gout and selected cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD).
Methods and Results
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed in 5 population-based cohorts of the CHARGE consortium for serum urate and gout in 28,283 white individuals. The effect of the most significant SNP at all genome-wide significant loci on serum urate was added to create a genetic urate score. Findings were replicated in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS; n=22,054). SNPs at 8 genetic loci achieved genome-wide significance with serum urate levels (p-values 4×10−8 to 2×10−242; SLC22A11, GCKR, R3HDM2-INHBC region, RREB1, PDZK1, SLC2A9, ABCG2, SLC17A1). Only two loci [SLC2A9, ABCG2] showed genome-wide significant association with gout. The genetic urate score was strongly associated with serum urate and gout (odds ratio 12.4 per 100 umol/L; p-value=3×10−39), but not with blood pressure, glucose, eGFR, chronic kidney disease, or CHD. The lack of association between the genetic score and the latter phenotypes was also observed in WGHS.
The genetic urate score analysis suggested a causal relationship between serum urate and gout but did not provide evidence for one between serum urate and cardiovascular risk factors and CHD.
urate; gout; cardiovascular disease risk factors; genome-wide association study; Mendelian randomization
Atrial fibrillation is a highly prevalent arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure and death1. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, including 6,707 with and 52,426 without atrial fibrillation. Six new atrial fibrillation susceptibility loci were identified and replicated in an additional sample of individuals of European ancestry, including 5,381 subjects with and 1 0,030 subjects without atrial fibrillation (P < 5 × 10−8). Four of the loci identified in Europeans were further replicated in silico in a GWAS of Japanese individuals, including 843 individuals with and 3,350 individuals without atrial fibrillation. The identified loci implicate candidate genes that encode transcription factors related to cardiopulmonary development, cardiac-expressed ion channels and cell signaling molecules.
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)are part of the spectrum of vascular injury associated with aging of the brain and are thought to reflect ischemic damage to the small deep cerebral vessels. WMH are associated with an increased risk of cognitive and motor dysfunction, dementia, depression, and stroke. Despite a significant heritability, few genetic loci influencing WMH burden have been identified.
We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for WMH burden in 9,361 stroke-free individuals of European descent from 7 community-based cohorts. Significant findings were tested for replication in 3,024 individuals from 2 additional cohorts.
We identified 6 novel risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)in one locus on chromosome 17q25 encompassing 6 known genes including WBP2, TRIM65, TRIM47, MRPL38, FBF1, and ACOX1. The most significant association was for rs3744028 (Pdiscovery= 4.0×10−9; Preplication =1.3×10−7; Pcombined =4.0×10−15). Other SNPs in this region also reaching genome-wide significance are rs9894383 (P=5.3×10−9), rs11869977 (P=5.7×10−9), rs936393 (P=6.8×10−9), rs3744017 (P=7.3×10−9), and rs1055129 (P=4.1×10−8). Variant alleles at these loci conferred a small increase in WMH burden (4–8% of the overall mean WMH burden in the sample).
This large GWAS of WMH burden in community-based cohorts of individuals of European descent identifies a novel locus on chromosome 17. Further characterization of this locus may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of cerebral WMH.
Whereas it is well established that plasma lipid levels have substantial heritability within populations, it remains unclear how many of the genetic determinants reported in previous studies (largely performed in European American cohorts) are relevant in different ethnicities.
We tested a set of ∼50,000 polymorphisms from ∼2,000 candidate genes and genetic loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) in 25,000 European Americans and 9,000 African Americans in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe). We replicated associations for a number of genes in one or both ethnicities and identified a novel lipid-associated variant in a locus harboring ICAM1. We compared the architecture of genetic loci associated with lipids in both African Americans and European Americans and found that the same genes were relevant across ethnic groups but the specific associated variants at each gene often differed.
We identify or provide further evidence for a number of genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels through population association studies. In many loci the determinants appear to differ substantially between African Americans and European Americans.
The withdrawal of cerivastatin involved an uncommon but serious adverse reaction, rhabdomyolysis. The bimodal response--rhabdomyolysis in a small proportion of users-- points to genetic factors as a potential cause. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate genetic markers for cerivastatin-associated rhabdomyolysis.
The study had two components: a candidate gene study to evaluate variants in CYP2C8, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, and SLCO1B1; and a genome-wide association (GWA) study to identify risk factors in other regions of the genome. 185 rhabdomyolysis cases were frequency matched to statin-using controls from the Cardiovascular Health Study (n=374) and the Heart and Vascular Health Study (n=358). Validation relied on functional studies.
Permutation test results suggested an association between cerivastatin-associated rhabdomyolysis and variants in SLCO1B1 (p = 0.002), but not variants in CYP2C8 (p = 0.073) or the UGTs (p = 0.523). An additional copy of the minor allele of SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (p.Val174Ala) was associated with the risk of rhabdomyolysis (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.56). In transfected cells, this variant reduced cerivastatin transport by 40% compared with the reference transporter (p < 0.001). The GWA identified an intronic variant (rs2819742) in the ryanodine receptor 2 gene (RYR2) as significant (p=1.74E-07). An additional copy of the minor allele of the RYR2 variant was associated with a reduced risk of rhabdomyolysis (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.63).
We identified modest genetic risk factors for an extreme response to cerivastatin. Disabling genetic variants in the candidate genes were not responsible for the bimodal response to cerivastatin.
Genetics; drugs; epidemiology; rhabdomyolysis
Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 66,867 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. We identified 68 genomic loci reliably associated with platelet count and volume mapping to established and putative novel regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. These genes show megakaryocyte-specific gene expression patterns and extensive network connectivity. Using gene silencing in Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster, we identified 11 of the genes as novel regulators of blood cell formation. Taken together, our findings advance understanding of novel gene functions controlling fate-determining events during megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation, providing a new example of successful translation of GWAS to function.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as concomitant disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, central obesity, and high blood pressure, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study tests whether common genetic variants with pleiotropic effects account for some of the correlated architecture among five metabolic phenotypes that define MetS.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Seven studies of the STAMPEED consortium, comprising 22,161 participants of European ancestry, underwent genome-wide association analyses of metabolic traits using a panel of ∼2.5 million imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phenotypes were defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria for MetS in pairwise combinations. Individuals exceeding the NCEP thresholds for both traits of a pair were considered affected.
Twenty-nine common variants were associated with MetS or a pair of traits. Variants in the genes LPL, CETP, APOA5 (and its cluster), GCKR (and its cluster), LIPC, TRIB1, LOC100128354/MTNR1B, ABCB11, and LOC100129150 were further tested for their association with individual qualitative and quantitative traits. None of the 16 top SNPs (one per gene) associated simultaneously with more than two individual traits. Of them 11 variants showed nominal associations with MetS per se. The effects of 16 top SNPs on the quantitative traits were relatively small, together explaining from ∼9% of the variance in triglycerides, 5.8% of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 3.6% of fasting glucose, and 1.4% of systolic blood pressure.
Qualitative and quantitative pleiotropic tests on pairs of traits indicate that a small portion of the covariation in these traits can be explained by the reported common genetic variants.