To determine if premenopausal ovarian reserve is associated with susceptibility for atherosclerosis.
Female cynomologus macaques (n = 66, women’s equivalent age = 45 yrs) consumed an atherogenic diet for ~5 months prior to the measurement of a marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone, AMH), plasma lipids, follicular phase estradiol (E2) and body weight (BW). Monkeys were then ovariectomized (OVX, n =17) remained premenopausal (PRE, n=20) or induced to have reduce ovarian reserve (ROR, n=29). After 26 additional months on the diet, atherosclerosis measurements and risk variables were reassessed.
No differences in baseline AMH, plasma lipids, BW, E2 or post-diet lipids and BW, were observed among the groups subsequently assigned to OVX, PRE or ROR conditions. Post-diet measurements of atherosclerosis extent did not differ among the groups. However, analysis of plaque size by tertile of baseline AMH revealed that plaques were largest in monkeys that began the experiment with the lowest baseline AMH, followed by those in the middle and high tertiles (plaque extent mm2: Low AMH = 0.76 ± 0.12, Mid AMH = 0.46 ± 0.1, High AMH = 0.34 ± 0.08, p=0.02). Baseline AMH and plaque size were also correlated negatively (r = −0.31, p = 0.01). Plasma lipids were also correlated significantly with plaque extent (all p’s <0.01), but not with AMH.
We report for the first time an inverse relationship between a marker of ovarian reserve (AMH) and subsequent atherosclerosis risk.
Atherosclerosis; antimüllerian hormone; ovariectomy; ovarian reserve; cynomologus; nonhuman primate
The prevalence of bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries, their co-occurrence, and their relationship to carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are only understood partially.
We screened 1026 wrists of 513 Latino manual laborers in North Carolina for bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries using electrodiagnosis and ultrasound.
A total of 8.6% of wrists had a bifid median nerve, and 3.7% of wrists had a persistent median artery independent of subgroup ethnicity, age, gender, or type of work. An association with definite carpal tunnel syndrome was not found. The presence of either anatomic variant was associated with a high likelihood of co-occurrence of another variant in the same or the contralateral wrist.
The occurrence of median anatomic variants can be determined in field studies using ultrasound. Persistent median arteries and bifid median nerves tend to co-occur but do not put manual laborers at additional risk of developing CTS.
entrapment neuropathy; epidemiology; neuromuscular ultrasound; occupational health; poultry workers
Gravitropism is a complex process involving a series of physiological pathways. Despite ongoing research, gravitropism sensing and response mechanisms are not well understood. To identify the key transcripts and corresponding pathways in gravitropism, a whole-genome microarray approach was used to analyze transcript abundance in the shoot base of rice (Oryza sativa sp. japonica) at 0.5 h and 6 h after gravistimulation by horizontal reorientation. Between upper and lower flanks of the shoot base, 167 transcripts at 0.5 h and 1202 transcripts at 6 h were discovered to be significantly different in abundance by 2-fold. Among these transcripts, 48 were found to be changed both at 0.5 h and 6 h, while 119 transcripts were only changed at 0.5 h and 1154 transcripts were changed at 6 h in association with gravitropism. MapMan and PageMan analyses were used to identify transcripts significantly changed in abundance. The asymmetric regulation of transcripts related to phytohormones, signaling, RNA transcription, metabolism and cell wall-related categories between upper and lower flanks were demonstrated. Potential roles of the identified transcripts in gravitropism are discussed. Our results suggest that the induction of asymmetrical transcription, likely as a consequence of gravitropic reorientation, precedes gravitropic bending in the rice shoot base.
“Physicians-recruiting-physicians” is the preferred recruitment approach for practice-based research. However, yields are variable; and the approach can be costly and lead to biased, unrepresentative samples. We sought to explore the potential efficiency of alternative methods.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of the yield and cost of 10 recruitment strategies used to recruit primary care practices to a randomized trial to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management. We measured response and recruitment yields and the resources used to estimate the value of each strategy. Providers at recruited practices were surveyed about motivation for participation.
Response to 6 opt-in marketing strategies was 0.40% (53/13290), ranging from 0% to 2.86% by strategy; 33.96% (18/53) of responders were recruited to the study. Of those recruited from opt-out strategies, 8.68% joined the study, ranging from 5.35% to 41.67% per strategy. A strategy that combined both opt-in and opt-out approaches resulted in a 51.14% (90/176) response and a 10.80% (19/90) recruitment rate. Cost of recruitment was $613 per recruited practice. Recruitment approaches based on in-person meetings (41.67%), previous relationships (33.33%), and borrowing an Area Health Education Center’s established networks (10.80%), yielded the most recruited practices per effort and were most cost efficient. Individual providers who chose to participate were motivated by interest in improving their clinical practice (80.5%); contributing to CVD primary prevention (54.4%); and invigorating their practice with new ideas (42.1%).
This analysis provides suggestions for future recruitment efforts and research. Translational studies with limited funds could consider multi-modal recruitment approaches including in-person presentations to practice groups and exploitation of previous relationships, which require the providers to opt-out, and interactive opt-in approaches which rely on borrowed networks. These approaches can be supplemented with non-relationship-based opt-out strategies such as cold calls strategically targeted to underrepresented provider groups.
Job stress has been associated with cognitive function, but the relationship is often overlooked when considering occupational health and safety issues of farmworkers. This study examined the relationship between stress and change in stress with change in cognitive function in a representative sample of 123 Latino farmworkers. METHODS: A prospective study design was used in which stress and cognitive function data were collected at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Linear regression models were used for analyses. Potential confounders included baseline gender, age, education, number of years worked in U.S. agriculture, ever smoking status, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms.
Baseline stress was significantly correlated with baseline cognitive function (r = −.27; p <.001). Adjusting for confounders, increased baseline stress was associated with greater decline in cognitive function (p = .024). Short-term changes in stress were not associated with cognitive change in this cohort.
Stress at work is an important risk factor for poor cognitive function. This analysis suggests several implications for the provision of health care and for the organization of work for farmworkers.
stress; cognitive function; occupational health; farmworkers
Although the health risk to farmworkers of working in hot conditions is recognized, potential for excessive heat exposure in housing affecting rest and recovery has been ignored. We assessed heat index (HI) in common and sleeping rooms in 170 North Carolina farmworker camps across a summer and examined associations with time of summer and air conditioning use. Dangerous HIs were recorded in most rooms, regardless of time or air conditioning. Policies to reduce HI in farmworker housing should be developed.
Preparing and consuming nutritionally adequate and safe food is critical to the work capacity of migrant farmworkers. This paper: (1) describes observed cooking and eating facilities in migrant farmworker camps, (2) compares observed conditions with existing farmworker housing regulations, and (3) examines associations of violations with camp characteristics.
Data were collected in 182 farmworker camps in eastern NC during the 2010 agricultural season. Observations were compared with 15 kitchen-related housing regulations specified by federal and state housing standards.
Violations of 8 regulations were observed in at least 10% of camps: improper refrigerator temperature (65.5%), cockroach infestation (45.9%), contaminated water (34.4%), rodent infestation (28.9%), improper flooring (25.8%), unsanitary conditions (21.2%), improper fire extinguisher (19.9%), and holes/leaks in walls (12.1%). Logistic regression showed that violations were related to the time of the agricultural season, housing type, number of dwellings and residents, and presence of workers with H-2A visas.
Cooking and eating facilities for migrant farmworkers fail to comply with regulations in a substantial number of camps. Greater enforcement of regulations, particularly post-occupancy during the agricultural season, is needed to protect farmworkers.
To assess water quality in migrant farmworker camps in North Carolina (NC), and determine associations of water quality with migrant farmworker housing characteristics.
Data were collected in 181 farmworker camps in eastern NC during the 2010 agricultural season. Water samples were tested using the Total Coliform Rule (TCR) and housing characteristics were assessed using NC Department of Labor (NCDOL) standards.
A total of 61 (34%) of 181 camps failed the TCR. Total coliform bacteria were found in all 61 camps, with E. coli also being detected in 2. Water quality was not associated with farmworker housing characteristics or with access to registered public water supplies. Multiple official violations of water quality standards had been reported for the registered public water supplies.
Water supplied to farmworker camps often does not comply with current standards and poses a great risk to the physical health of farmworkers and surrounding communities. Expansion of water monitoring to more camps and changes to the regulations such as testing during occupancy and stronger enforcement are needed to secure water safety.
Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed.
migrant farmworker; housing quality; occupational justice
The quality of housing provided to migrant farmworkers is often criticized, but few studies have investigated these housing conditions. This analysis examines housing regulation violations experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina, and the associations of camp characteristics with the presence of housing violations.
Data were collected in183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Housing regulation violations for the domains of camp, sleeping room, bathroom, kitchen, laundry room, and general housing, as well as total violations were assessed using North Carolina Department of Labor standards.
Violations of housing regulations were common, ranging from 4 to 22 per camp. Housing regulation violations were common in all domains; the mean number of camp violations was 1.6, of sleeping room violations was 3.8, of bathroom violations was 4.5, of kitchen violations was 2.3, of laundry room violations was 1.2, and of general housing violations was 3.1. The mean number of total housing violations was 11.4. Several camp characteristics were consistently associated with the number of violations; camps with workers having H-2A visas, with North Carolina Department of Labor Certificates of Inspection posted, and assessed early in the season had fewer violations.
These results argue for regulatory changes to improve the quality of housing provided to migrant farmworkers, including stronger regulations and the more vigorous enforcement of existing regulations.
Migrant farmworker; housing conditions; substandard housing; housing standards; enforcement
This analysis delineates the predisposing, need, and enabling factors that are significantly associated with regular and recent dental care in a multi-ethnic sample of rural older adults.
A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties.
Almost no edentulous rural older adults received dental care. Slightly more than one-quarter (27.1%) of dentate rural older adults received regular dental care and slightly more than one-third (36.7%) received recent dental care. Predisposing (education) and enabling (regular place for dental care) factors associated with receiving regular and recent dental care among dentate participants point to greater resources being the driving force in receiving dental care. Contrary to expectations of the Behavioral Model of Health Services, those with the least need (e.g., better self-rated oral health) received regular dental care; this has been referred to as the Paradox of Dental Need.
Regular and recent dental care are infrequent among rural older adults. Those not receiving dental care are those who most need care. Community access to dental care and the ability of older adults to pay for dental care must be addressed by public health policy to improve the health and quality of life of older adults in rural communities.
dental care utilization; aging; gerontology; rural health; minority health; public health policy
This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted.
Oral health disparities; social engagement; social network; rural aging
The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles in placentas from preeclamptic pregnancies versus normal placentas. Placental tissues were obtained immediately after delivery from women with normal pregnancies (n=6) and patients with preeclampsia (n=6). The gene expression profile was assessed by oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Functional relationships and canonical pathways/networks of differentially-expressed genes were evaluated by GeneSpring™ GX 11.0 software, and ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). A total of 939 genes were identified that differed significantly in expression: 483 genes were upregulated and 456 genes were downregulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas (fold change ≥2 and p<0.05 by unpaired t-test corrected with Bonferroni multiple testing). The IPA revealed that the primary molecular functions of these genes are involved in cellular function and maintenance, cellular development, cell signaling, and lipid metabolism. Pathway analysis provided evidence that a number of biological pathways, including Notch, Wnt, NF-κB, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways, were aberrantly regulated in preeclampsia. In conclusion, our microarray analysis represents a comprehensive list of placental gene expression profiles and various dysregulated signaling pathways that are altered in preeclampsia. These observations may provide the basis for developing novel predictive, diagnostic, and prognostic biomarkers of preeclampsia to improve reproductive outcomes and reduce the risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease.
Little is known about the HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors of Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. This study was designed to describe risk factors for HIV and STD infection, explore personal characteristics associated with condom use, and evaluate the feasibility of collecting self-report and biomarker data from farmworkers.
Self-report and biomarker data were collected from a sample of male farmworkers living in 29 camps in North Carolina during the 2008 growing season.
Over half of the 100 male workers, mean age 37.1 (range 19–68) years, reported binge drinking during the past 12 months. Forty percent of those who reported having had sex during the past three months indicated that they were under the influence of alcohol. Knowledge of HIV and STD transmission and prevention was low. Among the 25 workers who reported having had sex during the past three months, 16 and 2 reported using a condom consistently during vaginal and anal sex, respectively, and nearly one out of six workers reported paying a woman to have sex. Two workers tested positive for syphilis.
Farmworkers in this sample demonstrated significant HIV and STD risks; however, when exploring potential bivariate associations with consistent condom use no statistically significant associations were identified perhaps due to the small sample size. Because it was feasible to collect self-report and biomarker data related to HIV and STDs from Hispanic/Latino farmworkers, research needed to further explore risks and develop interventions to reduce disease exposure and transmission among this vulnerable population.
To determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Latino poultry processing workers.
Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to prospectively assess 287 Latino poultry processing workers and 226 Latinos in other manual labor occupations.
The prevalence of CTS was higher in poultry processing (8.7%) compared to non-poultry manual workers (4.0%, p < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of CTS in poultry workers was 2.51 (95% CI of 1.80 to 3.50) compared to non-poultry workers. Within the poultry workers, those who performed packing, sanitation, and chilling had a trend toward less CTS than those who performed tasks requiring more repetitive and strenuous hand movements.
Latino poultry processing workers have a high prevalence of CTS, which likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of the work.
This analysis described Latino migrant farmworkers' work safety climate and its association with musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured or ill, and depressive symptoms.
Data were from a cross-sectional survey of 300 farmworkers conducted in North Carolina in 2009. Generalized estimating equations models were used to investigate the association of work safety climate with health and safety outcomes.
Farmworkers perceived their work safety climate to be poor. About 40% had elevated musculoskeletal discomfort, 5.0% had worked at least 1 day while injured or ill, and 27.9% had elevated depressive symptoms. The odds of elevated musculoskeletal discomfort were 12% lower and the odds of working while injured or ill were 15% lower with each 1-unit increase in the work safety climate. Work safety climate was not associated with depressive symptoms.
Work safety climate was important for agricultural workers. Poor work safety climate was associated with health outcomes (musculoskeletal discomfort) and safety (working while injured or ill). Interventions to improve work safety climate in agriculture are needed, with these interventions being directed to employers and workers.
This study categorizes older adults living in rural areas by denture status, assesses the frequency of wearing dentures during meals, and determines whether denture status or use is associated with dietary quality or the number of foods avoided. A multi-ethnic population-based sample of adults ≥60 years (N=635) in the rural US was interviewed. Survey included denture use, removing dentures before eating, and foods avoided due to oral health problems. Dietary intakes were converted into Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Sixty percent wore removable dentures of some type; 55% never, 27% sometimes, and 18% always removed dentures when eating. More frequent removal was associated with lower dietary quality and more foods avoided. Those with severe tooth loss had the lowest dietary quality and avoided the most foods. Many rural older adults wear dentures. Learning how they adapt to denture use will offer insight into their nutritional self-management and help explain differences in dietary quality.
In this study the authors estimated the prevalence of elevated daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and musculoskeletal pain among Latino migrant farmworkers, and examined the relationship among these symptoms. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of migrant farmworkers (300) conducted in eastern North Carolina in 2009.
Eleven percent of Latino farmworkers reported elevated levels of daytime sleepiness, 28% reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, and 5% reported moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain on a daily or weekly basis. Depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness were positively associated. Depression and daytime sleepiness may increase risk of injury; further research regarding sleep issues is warranted.
Depression; Excessive Daytime Sleepiness; Musculoskeletal; migrant; farmworkers; Latino
To determine the degree to which rural older adults are able to complete a measure of dental anxiety and to assess the prevalence, as well as the demographic and oral health characteristics, of individuals reporting high dental anxiety.
A population-based sample of 635 African American, American Indian and white older adults (age ≥60 years) completed an in-home survey, and 362 dentate participants completed an oral examination. Dental anxiety was measured using the 4-item Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). Gender, ethnicity, age, education and oral health outcomes were compared between those who completed all four DAS questions (completers) and those who did not (non-completers) as well as, among completers, those with high versus low DAS scores.
There were 94 (14.8%) non-completers. Non-completion was associated with older age, lower education, being edentulous, and having gingival recession. 12.4% of DAS completers had high DAS scores, which was more common among those aged 60-70 years, women, and those with oral pain and sore or bleeding gums. In logistic regression analysis, only sore and bleeding gums had a significant association with a high DAS score (OR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.09-5.26).
About one in eight rural older adults have high dental anxiety, which is associated with poor oral health outcomes. Identifying new approaches to measure dental anxiety among a population with limited interaction with dental care providers is needed.
Dental Anxiety; Oral Health Outcomes; Rural Older Adults; African Americans; American Indians
Depression and sleepiness are both risk factors for occupational accidents and unintentional injury. Relatively little is known about the experiences of these risk factors in the immigrant Latino farmworker population. This analysis uses prospective panel data from a sample of Latino farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina that was collected at monthly intervals during the 2008 agricultural season to: describe depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness among immigrant Latino farmworkers across the agricultural season; delineate associations of depressive symptoms with sleepiness across time; and determine whether depressive symptoms precede sleepiness, or if sleepiness precedes depressive symptoms. Results indicated that 45% of farmworkers experienced elevated depressive symptoms across the season, whereas 20% experienced elevated sleepiness. Elevated depressive symptoms were more common among farmworkers living in barracks, and less common among those living in trailers. Sleepiness was more common among women than men. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms contributed to sleepiness, or that sleepiness contributed to depressive symptoms. The pattern of results suggests that a substantial proportion of Latino farmworkers experience levels of depressive symptoms or sleepiness that places them at risk for occupational accident or unintentional injury. The results also suggest that depressive symptoms and sleepiness do not cause each; rather, the association of depressive symptoms with sleepiness hints at the possibility of a common physiologic mechanism such as circadian disruption.
depression; sleepiness; farmworkers; immigrants
Atherosclerosis developed during premenopausal years predicts postmenopausal atherosclerosis burden. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary soy protein isolate (SPI) and social status on atherogenesis and arterial gene expression in a premenopausal monkey model.
Socially housed premenopausal cynomolgus macaques (n = 84) were fed an atherogenic diet deriving protein from casein/lactalbumin or SPI (containing 1.88 mg isoflavones/g). After 36 months of diet consumption, iliac artery biopsies were assessed for atherosclerosis and expression of mRNA transcripts related to inflammation, macrophage and T-cell content, and estrogen receptors (ERs).
SPI reduced plaque size (P < 0.05), total plasma cholesterol, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and the total plasma cholesterol/HDLc ratio (all P < 0.003), while increasing triglycerides (P < 0.006) and HDLc (P < 0.0001). Arterial mRNA for CD68 (P < 0.001), CD3 (P < 0.02), and CD4 (P < 0.001) and inflammatory markers monocyte chemotactic protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and interleukin-6 (all P < 0.0001) were also lower in the group receiving SPI. For most outcomes, this effect remained even after adjustments for plaque size and plasma lipid concentrations. Arterial ER-α was inversely associated with atherosclerosis (P < 0.02) and increased with SPI (P < 0.001). Subordinate monkeys had lower ER-β (P < 0.02) and higher interleukin-6 (P < 0.05) transcripts but did not differ from dominant monkeys in extent of atherosclerosis (P > 0.9).
Premenopausal consumption of SPI had plasma lipid–independent beneficial effects on the pathobiological processes involved in atherosclerotic plaque development, thus potentially establishing the basis for reduced postmenopausal complications. Dominant social status provided similar, albeit less extensive, benefits in risk markers.
Isoflavones; Inflammation; Nuclear factor-κB; Social status; Cynomolgus macaques
To compare oral health status by ethnicity and socioeconomic status among African American (AA), American Indian (AI), and white dentate and edentulous community-dwelling older adults.
Cross-sectional study; data from self-reports and oral examinations.
A multi-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 635 participants aged 60+ from rural North Carolina counties with substantial AA and AI populations.
Participants completed in-home interviews and oral examinations. Self-reported data included socio-demographic indicators, self-rated oral health status, and presence/absence of periodontal disease, bleeding gums, oral pain, dry mouth, and fit of prostheses. Oral examination data included number of teeth and numbers of anterior and posterior functional occlusal units.
Compared to whites, AAs and AIs had significantly lower incomes and educational attainment. Self-rated oral health was significantly higher in whites, compared to both AAs and AIs. Prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease and bleeding gums was lower in whites. Among dentate participants, AAs were significantly more likely than whites to have moderately reduced numbers of teeth (11–20 teeth) and posterior occlusal contacts. Oral health deficits remained associated with ethnicity when adjusted for socioeconomic variables.
Oral health disparities in older adults in a multi-ethnic rural area are largely associated with ethnicity and not socioeconomic status. Clinicians should be aware of these health disparities in oral health status and their possible role in disparities in chronic disease. Further research is necessary to understand whether these oral health disparities reflect current or lifetime access to care, diet, or attitudes toward oral health care.
Several studies have documented poor housing conditions for farmworkers but none has focused on migrant farmworker housing, which is often provided as a condition of employment. Farmworker housing quality is regulated, but little documentation exists of compliance with regulations.
A 2007 survey of 43 randomly selected farmworker camps and a 2008 survey of 27 camps randomly selected from the 2007 sample documented housing conditions via interviewer administered questionnaire and housing checklist.
Substandard conditions are common in migrant housing. All camps had at least one exterior housing problem; 93% had at least one interior problem. Housing conditions worsen across the agricultural season. Characteristics including no residents with H2A visa and 11 or more residents are associated with poorer conditions.
Housing standards are not adequately enforced. An increase in post-occupancy inspections and targeting camps with characteristics that place them at increased risk for substandard conditions are recommended.
Migrant farmworker; housing conditions; substandard housing; housing standards; enforcement
Respiratory health is an important component of the ability to perform physically demanding work. We assessed the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms among Latino farmworkers primarily engaged in crop production and investigated work activities as risk factors for respiratory symptoms. During June-September 2008, 122 farmworkers completed up to three interviewer-administered questionnaires. We estimated the associations between work activities and wheezing symptoms using alternating logistic regression, controlling for age and smoking. At the first data collection, 24% (n=29) of farmworkers reported ever wheezing and 8% reported wheezing within the past month. Though not statistically significant, the odds of wheezing were elevated for individuals who reported performing tobacco-related work in the last three days. The odds were decreased among individuals who reported harvesting activities (odds ratio: 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 1.0). Among Latino farmworkers, respiratory symptoms may be associated with work activities.
agriculture; asthma; epidemiology; occupational lung disease; respiratory diseases
More than 25 years ago our laboratory reported sex-dependent relationships between social status and coronary artery atherosclerosis among cholesterol-fed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) maintained in social groups of four to six animals each. Dominant males developed more atherosclerosis than subordinates, but only if housed in recurrently reorganized social groups. In contrast, dominant females developed significantly less atherosclerosis than subordinates, irrespective of social setting. Although we have continued to study these associations, no confirmatory investigations have been reported by other laboratories or using other atherosclerosis-susceptible monkey species. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-analysis of all relevant data sources developed in our laboratory since 1982 to determine whether the originally-reported relationships between social status and atherosclerosis reflected robust associations. The sentinel (first) studies were comprised of 16 females and 27 males. The current meta-analysis encompassed 419 animals (200 females, 219 males) derived from 11 separate investigations. The results confirmed that, among males, dominant individuals developed more extensive atherosclerosis than subordinates when housed in recurrently reorganized (unstable) social groups in which an estrogen-implanted female was also present. Dominant males in stable social groups tended to have less atherosclerosis than similarly housed subordinates, but this effect was not significant. In contrast, we found that dominant females developed reliably less atherosclerosis than subordinates.
meta-analysis; dominance; monkey; atherosclerosis