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1.  Assessment of Cryptodiag for Diagnosis of Cryptosporidiosis and Genotyping Cryptosporidium Species▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(8):2590-2594.
The performance of a new commercial PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cryptodiag; Bio Advance, France) for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and the identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum from stool samples was examined. This test is based on PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA extracted from stools, followed by an ELISA based on hybridization with Cryptosporidium sp.-, C. hominis-, or C. parvum-specific probes. In spiking experiments, approximately five oocysts were detected either in water or in stool suspensions while assessing for the efficient removal of stool PCR inhibitors. No cross-reactivity was observed in the detection of C. parvum and C. hominis using the respective specific probes. Thirty-three fecal samples from patients with microscopically proven cryptosporidiosis and 118 from patients with or without other digestive protozoan infections were tested by Cryptodiag, blinded to the results of microscopy. Compared to microscopy, the sensitivity of Cryptodiag was 97.0% (32/33) and 100% (33/33), including the gray zone, and specificity was 98.3% (116/118) and 96.6% (114/118), including the gray zone. Among 34 positive results, Cryptodiag identified 19 due to C. hominis, 8 due to C. parvum, and 7 due to Cryptosporidium spp. Genotyping by Cryptodiag agreed with reference typing methods in 85% of cases of C. parvum or C. hominis infections. Cryptodiag proved to be reliable and sensitive for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. The use of specific probes allowed the identification of C. hominis and C. parvum, i.e., the two main species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis, and rapidly provided information on the possible source of infection.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00226-08
PMCID: PMC2519490  PMID: 18550739
2.  Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Isolates Obtained from Humans in France 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(10):3472-3480.
Cryptosporidium parvum is usually considered the agent of human cryptosporidiosis. However, only in the last few years, molecular biology-based methods have allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes, and only a few data are available from France. In the present work, we collected samples of whole feces from 57 patients from France (11 immunocompetent patients, 35 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected patients, 11 immunocompromised but non-HIV-infected patients) in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were recognized by clinical laboratories. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene encompassing the hypervariable region was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The results revealed that the majority of the patients were infected with cattle (29 of 57) or human (18 of 57) genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum. However, a number of immunocompromised patients were infected with C. meleagridis (3 of 57), C. felis (6 of 57), or a new genotype of C. muris (1 of 57). This is the first report of the last three species of Cryptosporidium in humans in France. These results indicate that immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.10.3472-3480.2001
PMCID: PMC88374  PMID: 11574558
3.  In vitro model to assess effect of antimicrobial agents on Encephalitozoon cuniculi. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1994;38(10):2440-2448.
We have developed a new micromethod to study the effect of drugs on microsporidia, using MRC5 fibroblasts infected by 10(5) spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. After 3 days of incubation with various concentrations of drugs, parasitic foci were counted in stained cultures. The inhibition of microsporidial growth exceeding 90% with albendazole (0.005 microgram/ml), fumagillin (0.001 microgram/ml), 5-fluorouracil (3 micrograms/ml), and sparfloxacin (30 micrograms/ml) was observed. Chloroquine, pefloxacin, azithromycin, and rifabutin were partially effective, at high concentrations. Arprinocid, metronidazole, minocycline, doxycycline, itraconazole, and difluoromethylornithine were not evaluable, since concentrations that inhibited microsporidia were also toxic for fibroblasts. Pyrimethamine, piritrexim, sulfonamides, paromomycin, roxithromycin, atovaquone, and flucytosine were ineffective. Our results confirm that albendazole and fumagillin have marked activity against E. cuniculi and show the antimicrosporidial activity of 5-fluorouracil and sparfloxacin. These data may form the basis for treatment of Encephalitozoon hellem and Septata intestinalis infections and represent an attempt to identify drugs effective against Enterocytozoon bieneusi.
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PMCID: PMC284758  PMID: 7840584
4.  Laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(7):1661-1663.
In four cases of pulmonary toxoplasmosis occurring in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Toxoplasma sp. was discovered in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (three cases) and in lung biopsy specimen (one case) by using the following methods: direct examination of smears stained with eosine-methylene blue fast stain, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and inoculation of MRC5 fibroblast cell line in tissue culture.
PMCID: PMC267636  PMID: 2671023

Results 1-4 (4)