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author:("drouin, F")
1.  Multicentric Evaluation of a New Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantification of Cryptosporidium spp. and Identification of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(8):2556-2563.
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite responsible for gastroenteritis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis relies on microscopy, antigen detection, and nucleic acid detection and analysis. Among the numerous molecular targets available, the 18S rRNA gene displays the best sensitivity and sequence variations between species and can be used for molecular typing assays. This paper presents a new real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of all Cryptosporidium species associated with the identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The sensitivity and specificity of this new PCR assay were assessed on a multicentric basis, using well-characterized Cryptosporidium-positive and -negative human stool samples, and the efficiencies of nine extraction methods were comparatively assessed using Cryptosporidium-seeded stool samples and phosphate-buffered saline samples. A comparison of extraction yields showed that the most efficient extraction method was the Boom technique in association with mechanical grinding, and column extraction showed higher binding capacity than extraction methods based on magnetic silica. Our PCR assay was able to quantify at least 300 oocysts per gram of stool. Satisfactory reproducibility between laboratories was observed. The two main species causing human disease, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, were identified using a duplex real-time PCR assay with specific TaqMan minor-groove-binding ligand (MGB) probes for the same amplicon. To conclude, this one-step quantitative PCR is well suited to the routine diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis since practical conditions, including DNA extraction, quantification using well-defined standards, and identification of the two main species infecting humans, have been positively assessed.
doi:10.1128/JCM.03458-12
PMCID: PMC3719639  PMID: 23720792
2.  Evaluation of Four Commercial Rapid Immunochromatographic Assays for Detection of Cryptosporidium Antigens in Stool Samples: a Blind Multicenter Trial▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(4):1605-1607.
In a multicenter study, potassium dichromate-preserved stools from patients infected with Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 20), C. hominis (n = 20), and other Cryptosporidium species (n = 10) and 60 controls were examined using four immunochromatographic assays. Assay sensitivity ranged between 50.1% and 86.7% for C. parvum and C. hominis but was <35% for other species.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02074-10
PMCID: PMC3122847  PMID: 21289154
3.  Assessment of Cryptodiag for Diagnosis of Cryptosporidiosis and Genotyping Cryptosporidium Species▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(8):2590-2594.
The performance of a new commercial PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cryptodiag; Bio Advance, France) for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and the identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum from stool samples was examined. This test is based on PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA extracted from stools, followed by an ELISA based on hybridization with Cryptosporidium sp.-, C. hominis-, or C. parvum-specific probes. In spiking experiments, approximately five oocysts were detected either in water or in stool suspensions while assessing for the efficient removal of stool PCR inhibitors. No cross-reactivity was observed in the detection of C. parvum and C. hominis using the respective specific probes. Thirty-three fecal samples from patients with microscopically proven cryptosporidiosis and 118 from patients with or without other digestive protozoan infections were tested by Cryptodiag, blinded to the results of microscopy. Compared to microscopy, the sensitivity of Cryptodiag was 97.0% (32/33) and 100% (33/33), including the gray zone, and specificity was 98.3% (116/118) and 96.6% (114/118), including the gray zone. Among 34 positive results, Cryptodiag identified 19 due to C. hominis, 8 due to C. parvum, and 7 due to Cryptosporidium spp. Genotyping by Cryptodiag agreed with reference typing methods in 85% of cases of C. parvum or C. hominis infections. Cryptodiag proved to be reliable and sensitive for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. The use of specific probes allowed the identification of C. hominis and C. parvum, i.e., the two main species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis, and rapidly provided information on the possible source of infection.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00226-08
PMCID: PMC2519490  PMID: 18550739
4.  Multicenter Evaluation of a Commercial PCR-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Diagnostic Kit (Onychodiag) for Diagnosis of Dermatophytic Onychomycosis▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(4):1205-1210.
We prospectively evaluated a new PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Onychodiag; BioAdvance, France) for the diagnosis of dermatophytic onychomycosis by testing nail samples from 438 patients with suspected onychomycosis and from 108 healthy controls in three independent laboratories. In two laboratories, samples were collected by trained mycologists as close as possible to the lesions (proximal samples). In one laboratory, samples were collected by other physicians. All samples were processed by conventional mycological techniques and by Onychodiag, blindly to the mycological results. An additional distal sample, collected by clipping the nail plate, was obtained from 75 patients and tested with Onychodiag alone. In patients with culture-proven dermatophytic onychomycosis, the sensitivity of Onychodiag was 83.6% (87.9% including the gray zone) and ranged from 75 to 100% according to the laboratory and the sampling conditions. The specificity was 100% when healthy subjects were considered true negative controls. Onychodiag was positive on 68 patient samples that were sterile or yielded nondermatophyte species in culture. Based on the results of Onychodiag for mycologically proven positive samples and true-negative samples, these results were considered true positives, and the poor performance of mycology on these samples was attributed to inconvenient sampling conditions or to contaminants. When tested on distal samples, Onychodiag was positive in 49/53 (92%) cases of proven dermatophytic onychomycosis. Finally, with either proximal or distal samples, Onychodiag provided a diagnosis of dermatophytic onychomycosis within 24 to 48 h after sampling, and its sensitivity was close to that of mycological techniques applied to proximal samples.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01418-06
PMCID: PMC1865812  PMID: 17287330
5.  Determination of genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from patients with toxoplasmosis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(6):1411-1414.
To determine the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis, we developed a sensitive approach for typing parasites grown from clinical samples by short-term in vitro culture. A newly described nested PCR assay was capable of amplifying genomic DNA from as few as five parasites in the presence of host tissues. Typing was based on DNA polymorphisms at the SAG2 locus, encoding tachyzoite surface antigen p22. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in PCR-amplified SAG2 products were used to classify strains into one of the three major lineages of T. gondii. This approach was successfully used to determine the genotypes of 68 of 72 samples that had been previously isolated from patients with congenital, cerebral, and disseminated toxoplasmosis. Type II strains of T. gondii were found in a majority of the samples, accounting for 55 (81%) of the 68 toxoplasmosis cases. In contrast, type I and III strains were found in only 7 (10%) and 6 (9%) of the 68 cases, respectively. The results of this study support the previous finding that type II strains are most often associated with human toxoplasmosis. Nested PCR analysis at the SAG2 locus provides rapid assignment of T. gondii to a specific genotype that should be useful in analyzing a variety of clinical samples.
PMCID: PMC229759  PMID: 9163454
6.  In vitro and in vivo effects of rifabutin alone or combined with atovaquone against Toxoplasma gondii. 
The efficacy of rifabutin (RIFA) alone or in combination with atovaquone (ATO) was examined in vitro and in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. In vitro studies were performed with MRC5 fibroblast tissue cultures, with quantification of Toxoplasma growth by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For in vivo studies, mice were acutely infected with 10(4) tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain and were then treated perorally for 10 days from day 1 or day 4 postinfection. The efficacy of each drug regimen was assessed by determination of survival rates and sequential titration of parasites in blood, brain, and lungs by a tissue culture method. In vitro, RIFA was inhibitory for Toxoplasma growth at concentrations between 0.5 and 20 micrograms/ml; the 50% inhibitory concentration was estimated to be 1.68 micrograms/ml. When RIFA and ATO were combined, synergistic effects were noted for RIFA at 20 micrograms/ml combined with ATO at 0.01 or 0.02 microgram/ml and RIFA at 1, 2, or 5 micrograms/ml combined with ATO at 0.02 microgram/ml. In vivo, administration of RIFA at 200 mg/kg of body weight per day from day 1 to day 10 resulted in a 100% protection during treatment, with clearance of parasites from the blood, brain, and lungs. After the cessation of therapy, relapses occurred in the brain and lungs; the mortality was 46% at the end of the experiment (day 30). Among the mice treated with RIFA at 200 mg/kg/day from day 4 to day 14, no death was recorded during the treatment period and a marked reduction in parasite burdens was observed in blood and tissues; however, relapses occurred and 10% of mice survived until day 30. Administration of RIFA at 200 mg/kg/day in combination with ATO at 100 mg/kg/day resulted in a marked prolongation of survival compared with that for mice that received ATO or RIFA alone. However, in mice receiving the combination, parasite burdens in blood and organs were similar to those in mice treated with RIFA alone. These results confirmed the activity of RIFA in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis and the potential of the combination of RIFA-ATO since the two drugs act synergistically against Toxoplasma gondii.
PMCID: PMC163465  PMID: 8878573
7.  Combination of PS-15, epiroprim, or pyrimethamine with dapsone in prophylaxis of Toxoplasma gondii and Pneumocystis carinii dual infection in a rat model. 
In a rat model of dual infection, we studied such dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors as PS-15 (25 mg/kg of body weight), epiroprim (100 mg/kg), and pyrimethamine (3 mg/kg) alone or in combination with various doses of dapsone (50, 25, or 5 mg/kg) for the prevention of pneumocystosis and toxoplasmosis. Rats latently infected with Pneumocystis carinii were immunosuppressed by corticosteroids for 7 weeks, and the drugs were administered from the initiation of the corticosteroid treatment. At week 5, the rats were inoculated intraperitoneally with the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Infections were monitored by the counting of P. carinii cysts in lung homogenates and the titration of T. gondii in organs by quantitative culture and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Fourteen of the 15 untreated rats died after T. gondii challenge, with P. carinii infection in the lungs and T. gondii infection in the lungs, liver, spleen, and brain. Of the three tested DHFR inhibitors, only PS-15 exhibited anti-P. carinii activity; none prevented toxoplasmosis in 100% of the rats. After the DHFR inhibitors were combined with dapsone (50 or 25 mg/kg), both pneumocystosis and toxoplasmosis were completely prevented. On the basis of these results, PS-15 and epiroprim combined with dapsone are candidates for use for the prevention of both pneumocystosis and toxoplasmosis.
PMCID: PMC163474  PMID: 8878582
8.  Therapy of visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum: experimental assessment of efficacy of AmBisome. 
The tolerance and efficacy of amphotericin B (AmB) deoxycholate (Fungizone) were compared with those of liposomal AmB (AmBisome) in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis induced by Leishmania infantum. Control groups consisted of untreated mice and mice treated with a pentavalent antimonial (Glucantime). BALB/c mice were infected intravenously on day 0 with 10(7) promastigotes of L. infantum and then treated from day 7 to 17 (early treatment group) or from day 60 to 70 (delayed treatment group). The pentavalent antimonial was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection, whereas AmB formulations were administered intravenously on alternate days. On days 20, 60, and 120 (early treatment group) and on days 72 and 125 (delayed treatment group), parasite burdens in the liver, spleen, and lungs were determined by subculturings using a microtitration method. A dose range study showed that administration of AmBisome at the well-tolerated doses of 5 or 50 mg/kg of body weight completely eradicated the parasites from the tissues. At 0.8 mg/kg, AmBisome proved more efficacious than AmB deoxycholate administered at the same dose. We also compared the levels of AmB deoxycholate and AmBisome in plasma and tissue. Mice treated with AmBisome had levels of AmB in tissue much higher than did AmB deoxycholate-treated mice with persistent detectable levels 14 weeks after treatment. These results seem to account for the remarkable efficacy of the liposomal formulation of AmB in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis due to L. infantum.
PMCID: PMC163294  PMID: 8723469
9.  Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1996;49(1):89-92.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was performed prospectively in the blood of 19 patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The B1 gene and TGR1E sequence were used as targets and results were confirmed by hybridisation. Controls consisted of 24 HIV infected patients with tissue culture proven T gondii parasitaemia and 57 HIV infected patients without toxoplasmosis. PCR was positive with both targets in 20 of 24 samples (84%) from patients with parasitaemia. Three of 57 samples (5%) from patients without toxoplasmosis were PCR positive with either target, but none was positive with both targets. Only three of the 19 patients (16%) with cerebral toxoplasmosis had a positive PCR with both targets before the start of specific treatment. PCR performed in blood is of little diagnostic value in cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis but could be useful in patients with disseminated infection.
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PMCID: PMC1023168  PMID: 8666697
10.  Culture microtitration: a sensitive method for quantifying Leishmania infantum in tissues of infected mice. 
We developed a microtitration method to determine the parasite burdens in homogenized organs of mice infected with Leishmania infantum. This method proved more sensitive than direct enumeration of amastigotes in stained organs, was appropriate for describing the kinetics of infection, and can be considered for physiopathological or pharmaceutical experimental studies.
PMCID: PMC162906  PMID: 8540741
11.  In vitro model to assess effect of antimicrobial agents on Encephalitozoon cuniculi. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1994;38(10):2440-2448.
We have developed a new micromethod to study the effect of drugs on microsporidia, using MRC5 fibroblasts infected by 10(5) spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. After 3 days of incubation with various concentrations of drugs, parasitic foci were counted in stained cultures. The inhibition of microsporidial growth exceeding 90% with albendazole (0.005 microgram/ml), fumagillin (0.001 microgram/ml), 5-fluorouracil (3 micrograms/ml), and sparfloxacin (30 micrograms/ml) was observed. Chloroquine, pefloxacin, azithromycin, and rifabutin were partially effective, at high concentrations. Arprinocid, metronidazole, minocycline, doxycycline, itraconazole, and difluoromethylornithine were not evaluable, since concentrations that inhibited microsporidia were also toxic for fibroblasts. Pyrimethamine, piritrexim, sulfonamides, paromomycin, roxithromycin, atovaquone, and flucytosine were ineffective. Our results confirm that albendazole and fumagillin have marked activity against E. cuniculi and show the antimicrosporidial activity of 5-fluorouracil and sparfloxacin. These data may form the basis for treatment of Encephalitozoon hellem and Septata intestinalis infections and represent an attempt to identify drugs effective against Enterocytozoon bieneusi.
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PMCID: PMC284758  PMID: 7840584
12.  Molecular epidemiology of nosocomial invasive aspergillosis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1994;32(3):684-690.
Moderately repeated DNA sequences were used to fingerprint strains of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from patients with invasive aspergillosis and their hospital environment. Most strains sampled from the environment displayed different Southern blot hybridization patterns. A temporal survey of air contaminants showed that some strains can persist in the same environment for at least 6 months. Patients with invasive aspergillosis were infected by a single strain. In two patients, a nosocomial origin of infection was suggested.
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PMCID: PMC263107  PMID: 8195379
13.  In vitro and in vivo activities of the hydroxynaphthoquinone atovaquone alone or combined with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, clarithromycin, or minocycline against Toxoplasma gondii. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1993;37(11):2371-2378.
The efficacy of atovaquone alone or combined with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, clarithromycin, and minocycline was examined in vitro and in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. In vitro studies were performed with MRC5 fibroblast tissue cultures, with quantification of Toxoplasma growth by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For in vivo studies, mice were acutely infected intraperitoneally with 10(4) tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain and then treated perorally for 10 days from day 1 postinfection. The following drug regimens were investigated: atovaquone at 100 and 50 mg/kg of body weight per day and the combinations of atovaquone at 50 mg/kg with sulfadiazine at 200 mg/kg, pyrimethamine at 12.5 mg/kg, clarithromycin at 200 mg/kg, or minocycline at 50 mg/kg. Efficacy was assessed by determination of survival rates and sequential determination of parasite burdens in blood, brain, and lungs. In vitro, atovaquone inhibited Toxoplasma growth at a concentration of > or = 0.02 mg/liter; the 50% inhibitory concentration was estimated to be 0.023 mg/liter. No synergistic effect was observed when it was combined with sulfadiazine, clarithromycin, or minocycline, whereas a significant antagonistic effect was noted for the combination of atovaquone with pyrimethamine. In vivo, administration of atovaquone at 100 or 50 mg/kg/day for 10 days resulted in prolonged survival compared with that in untreated mice; this survival was associated with a reduction of parasite burdens in blood and tissues during the course of treatment. The combinations of atovaquone with pyrimethamine, clarithromycin, or sulfadiazine were more efficient than each drug administered alone, in terms of survival, but parasite burdens in blood and organs were not reduced compared with those in mice treated with any of the agents alone. These experimental results confirmed the activity of atovaquone against Toxoplasma gondii, but no marked improvement in efficacy was observed in vitro and in vivo when this drug was combined with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, minocycline, or clarithromycin.
PMCID: PMC192394  PMID: 8285620
14.  Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in venous blood from AIDS patients by polymerase chain reaction. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1993;31(7):1866-1869.
Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may facilitate the diagnosis and follow-up of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. We evaluated this approach with seven patients with tissue culture-proven parasitemia, 14 patients with presumptive cerebral toxoplasmosis, and 17 healthy human immunodeficiency virus-positive controls. Each sample of blood was assayed on three different occasions by a PCR assay based on detection of the gene encoding the P30 surface protein. A positive PCR diagnosis required positivity in at least two of the three PCR tests. None of the controls had a positive PCR diagnosis, but six of the seven patients with parasitemia did. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 13 of the 14 patients with a presumptive diagnosis; diagnosis by PCR was positive before treatment for 9 of these 13 patients, whereas tissue culture was positive for only 1 patient. During treatment, blood samples were taken from 14 patients at regular intervals until day 12. PCR diagnosis became negative on ethidium-stained gels, but persistent signals were observed after hybridization, in some cases, for up to 12 days after initiation of therapy. PCR on venous blood could thus be a sensitive and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of cerebral and disseminated toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients and could be a potential tool for monitoring the effects of treatment.
PMCID: PMC265647  PMID: 8349765
15.  Interaction between human immunodeficiency virus and Toxoplasma gondii replication in dually infected monocytoid cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(4):1596-1598.
THP-1 monocytoid cells, either not infected or chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), were challenged with Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitic growth, as assessed by trophozoite counting and measurement of supernatant p30 membrane antigen, was similar in HIV-infected and noninfected THP-1 cells. Also, T. gondii did not affect HIV replication. These experiments therefore failed to demonstrate any interaction between HIV-1 and T. gondii replication in concurrently infected monocytoid cells.
PMCID: PMC281410  PMID: 8454371
16.  Synergistic activity of clarithromycin and minocycline in an animal model of acute experimental toxoplasmosis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1992;36(12):2852-2855.
The efficacy of clarithromycin in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis was studied. Clarithromycin was administered alone and concurrently with minocycline, and efficacy was assessed by survival rates and sequential determination of parasite burden in blood, brains, and lungs. Limited protection resulted from administration of each drug alone, whereas a remarkable synergistic effect followed concurrent administration. Survival of mice treated with 200 mg of clarithromycin plus 20 mg of minocycline per kg of body weight daily was 95%; that of mice treated with 50 mg of clarithromycin plus 50 mg of minocycline per kg daily was 93%. The parasite burden in the blood and organ tissues of these mice was markedly reduced compared with that in mice treated with a single agent. In mice treated with 200 mg of clarithromycin plus 50 mg of minocycline per kg per day, survival was 100% during the 30-day experiment; no parasites were found in blood and tissues.
PMCID: PMC245560  PMID: 1482160
17.  Synergistic activity of azithromycin and pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine in acute experimental toxoplasmosis. 
The efficacy of azithromycin administered alone or combined with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine was examined in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. Outbred Swiss mice acutely infected with tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain were treated for 10 days from day +1 postinfection. The efficacy of each regimen was assessed in terms of survival rates and sequential titration of parasites in blood, brain, and lungs by using a tissue culture method. Administration of azithromycin at 300, 150, or 75 mg/kg of body weight per day resulted in prolonged survival relative to that of untreated controls; sequential examination of parasite burden showed early eradiaction of Toxoplasma gondii from the lungs, whereas dissemination to the brain was not prevented. A remarkable synergistic effect was observed when azithromycin (150 mg/kg/day) was administered in combination with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine at noncurative dosages, i.e., 12.5 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. In mice treated with azithromycin plus sulfadiazine and azithromycin plus pyrimethamine, parasite burdens in blood and organs, relapses after cessation of therapy, and mortality were all markedly reduced relative to mice treated with any of the agents alone. These results show that azithromycin, which is remarkably active on pulmonary Toxoplasma infection, significantly potentiates the curative effect of sulfadiazine or pyrimethamine.
PMCID: PMC188824  PMID: 1324642
18.  Anti-Toxoplasma effects of dapsone alone and combined with pyrimethamine. 
The efficacy of dapsone alone or combined with pyrimethamine against Toxoplasma gondii was investigated experimentally. For in vitro studies, a sensitive immunoassay was used for assessment of Toxoplasma growth in tissue cultures; dapsone was found to have a significant inhibitory effect at a concentration of 0.5 micrograms/ml in the cultures, and the 50% inhibitory concentration was estimated to be 0.55 micrograms/ml. When pyrimethamine and dapsone were combined, an important synergistic effect which was associated with morphological alterations of the parasites was observed. In vivo studies were performed in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis in which a tissue culture method was used to estimate the parasite burden in the blood, lungs, and brains of infected mice. Dapsone alone, which was administered at 100 mg/kg/day for 10 days from day 1 after infection, was unable to prevent parasite dissemination and only delayed the time to death of treated mice compared with the time of death of untreated controls. When dapsone and pyrimethamine (18.5 mg/kg/day) were administered in combination from day 4 after infection, parasites were cleared from blood and organs within 6 days, but relapses were observed 15 days after the cessation of therapy. When treatment was started at day 1 after infection, 100% of mice survived and relapses were not observed, suggesting a good efficacy of this combination for preventive therapy.
PMCID: PMC244986  PMID: 2024957
19.  In vivo assessment of antimicrobial agents against Toxoplasma gondii by quantification of parasites in the blood, lungs, and brain of infected mice. 
The in vivo effects of antimicrobial agents against Toxoplasma gondii were evaluated in mice that were infected intraperitoneally with 10(4) tachyzoites of the RH strain by determination of survival rates and study of the kinetics of growth of T. gondii in infected mice. At various intervals after infection, subcultures of serial dilutions of blood, lung, and brain homogenates were performed in fibroblast tissue cultures for determination of parasitic loads. Pyrimethamine (18.5 mg/kg per day), sulfadiazine (375 mg/kg per day), and clindamycin (300 mg/kg per day) were administered for 10 days from day 1 or day 4 after infection. Untreated control mice died within 9 days and showed early and predominant lung involvement. All mice treated with sulfadiazine administered from day 1 survived and were apparently healthy; parasitic loads decreased early after treatment, but a relapse was observed 5 days after the cessation of therapy. When pyrimethamine was administered from day 1, 7 of 11 mice died within 25 days; by determination of parasitic loads, the effect of pyrimethamine was only demonstrable from day 6, and a relapse was constantly observed after the cessation of therapy. When pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were administered in combination, 100% of mice survived; when therapy was started at day 1, parasites remained undetectable; in mice treated from day 4, parasites were eradicated by day 8 but infection relapsed 8 days after the cessation of therapy. All mice treated with clindamycin from day 1 or day 4 died within 10 days, but parasitemia was always undetectable. These results indicate that study of the kinetics of parasitic loads in blood and organs may provide additional information on the effect of antimicrobial agents against T. gondii in regard to the evolution of the infection and may represent a reliable basis for the determination of therapeutic regimens in humans.
PMCID: PMC171854  PMID: 2221854
20.  In vitro effects of folate inhibitors on Toxoplasma gondii. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1989;33(10):1753-1759.
Three sulfonamides and four dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors were tested alone and in combination to determine their in vitro effects on two strains of Toxoplasma gondii grown in MRC5 fibroblast tissue culture. Toxoplasma growth was quantitated by an enzyme immunoassay performed directly on the fixed cultures, and linear regression models were used to quantify the relationship between the optical density values generated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the concentrations of the antimicrobial agents in the culture medium. The cytopathic effects of antimicrobial agents on T. gondii were examined in Giemsa-stained cultures. Sulfonamides and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors exhibited similar patterns of inhibition, consisting of an important increase of the inhibitory effect within a narrow range of concentrations. Sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfisoxazole were all found to have important inhibitory effects on T. gondii; the 50% inhibitory concentrations estimated from the regression models were 2.5 micrograms/ml for sulfadiazine, 1.1 micrograms/ml for sulfamethoxazole, and 6.4 micrograms/ml for sulfisoxazole. This inhibition of growth was associated with a reduction of the number of parasitized cells and intracellular parasites that were morphologically normal. With dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, including pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, trimetrexate-glycuronate, and piritrexim, a strong inhibition of Toxoplasma growth was observed, which was associated with striking morphological changes of the parasites. The 50% inhibitory concentrations were 0.04 microgram/ml for pyrimethamine, 2.3 micrograms/ml for trimethoprim, 0.16 ng/ml for trimetrexate-glycuronate, and 6.9 ng/ml for piritrexim. When sulfonamides and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors were used in combination, a synergistic effect was observed with sulfadiazine combined with pyrimethamine, trimetrexate-glycuronate, and piritrexim; sulfisoxazole combined with pyrimethamine; and trimethoprim combined with sulfamethoxazole. These results were analyzed in comparison with human pharmacokinetics data.
PMCID: PMC172750  PMID: 2531568
21.  Laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(7):1661-1663.
In four cases of pulmonary toxoplasmosis occurring in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Toxoplasma sp. was discovered in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (three cases) and in lung biopsy specimen (one case) by using the following methods: direct examination of smears stained with eosine-methylene blue fast stain, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and inoculation of MRC5 fibroblast cell line in tissue culture.
PMCID: PMC267636  PMID: 2671023
22.  Enzyme immunoassay to assess effect of antimicrobial agents on Toxoplasma gondii in tissue culture. 
Toxoplasma gondii grown on MRC5 fibroblasts in 96-well tissue culture plates was tested for susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents. T. gondii growth was quantitated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which was performed directly on the fixed cultures, using a rabbit anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G as the first antibody and a phosphatase-labeled anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G as the second antibody. Optical density values were highly correlated with the number of T. gondii organisms in the Giemsa-stained cultures (r = 0.89), and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess the effect of antimicrobial agents at various concentrations. For each drug, regression models were used to quantify the relationship between optical density values and antimicrobial agent concentrations in the cultures. A significant inhibitory effect was found with pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine for concentrations greater than or equal to 0.05 and 30 micrograms/ml, respectively. With spiramycin, a progressive increase in inhibition of T. gondii was observed for increasing concentrations from 1 to 100 micrograms/ml. Ornidyl (difluoromethylornithine) and (2R,5R)-6-heptyne-2,5-diamine, which are ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors, were found to have a marked inhibitory effect for concentrations greater than or equal to 25 and 2 mM, respectively. This proposed method was sensitive and easy to perform and does not require the use of radiolabeled compounds; since it allows experimental design on replicate cultures and can be partially automated, it thus may prove useful for the systematic screening of the activity of new compounds against T. gondii.
PMCID: PMC172164  PMID: 3284458
23.  Comparative study of tissue culture and mouse inoculation methods for demonstration of Toxoplasma gondii. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1987;25(9):1597-1600.
Two methods for the isolation of Toxoplasma gondii were analyzed and compared. Bradyzoites or tachyzoites of three strains of T. gondii were injected into mice and introduced in parallel onto MRC5 fibroblasts cultured on cover slips. In the cultures, the parasites were more readily identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay than by examination of unstained or Giemsa-stained cultures. With the RH strain, the tachyzoites replicated actively, and large foci of parasites were observed in 24 h. The bradyzoites or tachyzoites of the other strains could also be cultivated, but grew rather slowly; 2 days after inoculation, early stages of multiplication could be observed: from day +4, Toxoplasma clusters or foci were easily identified at a x100 magnification. The course of infection in mice was greatly dependent on the virulence of the strain and on the parasitic stage inoculated. In the chronically infected mice, evidence of Toxoplasma infection was only detected 45 days after inoculation through the demonstration of cysts in the brain or the presence of specific antibodies in the serum. The mean ratio of infected mice and positive cultures was compared in relation to the inoculum size. The tissue culture method was found to be at least as sensitive as mouse inoculation. Since Toxoplasma organisms may be isolated within a few days in tissue culture, it is proposed that this method should be used when early isolation of the parasite is crucial for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
PMCID: PMC269290  PMID: 3308946
24.  Evaluation of cellular immune response during chronic schistosomiasis in humans by the leukocyte aggregation test and the leukocyte migration inhibition test. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1985;21(4):649-651.
Cellular immune response was evaluated in 31 patients with chronic Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections and in 15 healthy normal persons by using S. mansoni soluble worm and egg antigens. Although the leukocyte migration inhibition test demonstrated false-positive reactions, the specificity of the leukocyte aggregation test was confirmed by the negativity of all of the controls. Among the patients, only 10% were positive for the leukocyte aggregation test. This low cellular reactivity was in contrast to markedly elevated specific humoral response determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G and paper allergosorbent test for immunoglobulin E with soluble worm antigen. These results confirm that the cellular immune reactivity to schistosome antigen as demonstrated by the leukocyte aggregation test is either minimal or absent in chronically infected patients.
PMCID: PMC271742  PMID: 3988906

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