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1.  Encouraging Physical Activity in Pediatric Asthma: A Case–Control Study of the Wonders of Walking (WOW) Program 
Pediatric pulmonology  2009;44(9):909-916.
Summary
Objectives
The complex overlap between asthma and obesity may be explained in part by activity avoidance in asthma. We compared responses to a walking intervention between matched groups of children with and without asthma. We expected youth with asthma to have lower baseline and post-intervention activity levels. Psychosocial, demographic, and physiologic correlates of activity were also examined.
Design/Participants
We compared baseline and post-intervention activity levels among 59 children aged 10–16 with well-controlled asthma and 59 healthy matched controls. Participants completed spirometry, physical examination, anthropometric measurement, and psychosocial questionnaires.
Intervention/Outcome Measure
Participants wore blinded calibrated pedometers for a baseline typical activity week, returning to complete the Wonders of Walking (WOW) intervention, followed by a week of post-intervention pedometer monitoring.
Results
Contrary to expectation, no differences between cases (median steps = 6,348/day) and controls (median steps = 6,825/day) in baseline activity were found. Response to the WOW intervention was comparable, with both groups demonstrating an increase of approximately 1,485 steps per day (equivalent to more than 5 additional miles walked during the post-intervention week). Health beliefs did not correlate to activity at baseline or intervention response. No significant associations between activity and asthma control, FEV1, or duration of diagnosis were found. Intervention response was comparable across racial/ethnic groups, children versus adolescents, and between normal weight and overweight youth.
Conclusions
Contrary to expectation, we found similar rates of objectively measured physical activity among youth with well-controlled asthma and controls. Importantly, we documented statistically significant increases in physical activity across both groups following a brief, pedometer-based intervention. The intervention was successful even among typically sedentary groups, and represents an effective, safe, and inexpensive walking program.
doi:10.1002/ppul.21077
PMCID: PMC3971919  PMID: 19658109
asthma; adolescent; obesity; physical activity; intervention
2.  The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men* 
Journal of drug education  2012;42(3):347-359.
Background
Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct and indirect effects on adolescent drinking and driving as well as whether they moderate the effect of adolescent drinking on their drinking-and-driving behavior.
Methods
The assessment is conducted using data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM) with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analyses.
Results
The data reveal that peer drinking has direct and indirect effects on adolescent drinking-and-driving behavior when adolescent drinking behavior is controlled. It also moderates the effect of adolescent drinking behavior on their drinking and driving. However, parental drinking does not have these direct and interactive effects, although it may have an indirect effect on adolescent drinking and driving via adolescent drinking behavior.
Conclusions
These findings imply that peer drinking behavior should be considered seriously in prevention and intervention for reducing the risk of adolescent drinking-and-driving behavior.
PMCID: PMC3873718  PMID: 23705513
parental and peer drinking behaviors; underage drinking and driving
3.  Meta-analysis of the ocular biocompatibility of a new multipurpose lens care system 
Background
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel multipurpose solution (MPS) with a dual disinfectant system containing polyaminopropyl biguanide and polyquaternium-1 (Biotrue®) by analysis of biomicroscopy signs and adverse events in six large clinical trials.
Methods
Data from six consecutive, prospective clinical trials conducted from February 2008 to March 2010 were combined for meta-analysis. Subjects used the new MPS daily for periods of 2 weeks to 6 months. Slit-lamp signs were graded at each follow-up visit using an ordinal scale (0, one; 1, trace; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe). Analysis for biocompatibility included tracking of greater than grade 2 slit-lamp findings and number of adverse events.
Results
A total of 1,567 subjects (3,134 eyes) and 81 clinical investigators participated in the six studies, with 1,499 subjects completing the studies. Based on subject days in the studies, there were 72,904 exposures to the MPS and 7,212 biomicroscopy examinations. The completion rate for the studies was 96.3%. Per observation incidence of any finding greater than grade 2 at the follow-up visits were: corneal staining 0.08%, limbal injection 0.04%, bulbar injection 0.04%, tarsal conjunctiva abnormality 0.09%, and neovascularization 0.01%. There were no other slit-lamp signs greater than grade 2 and no statistically significant difference between hydrogels and silicone hydrogels for any finding. There were no reports of adverse events during the trials.
Conclusion
Analysis of over 72,000 daily exposures and 7,212 eye examinations showed that the novel MPS exhibited excellent biocompatibility in subjects using daily wear hydrogel or silicone hydrogel lenses.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S48914
PMCID: PMC3798238  PMID: 24143073
contact lens; solutions; disinfection; meta-analysis; silicone; hydrogel
4.  A meta-analysis of studies on cosmetically tinted soft contact lenses 
Background
Concerns regarding the safety of cosmetically tinted contact lenses have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety of cosmetically tinted contact lenses in a large number of patients across six clinical trials that varied from 1 week to 3 months in duration.
Methods
Lenses tested included: Naturelle limbal ring daily disposable, Lacelle limbal ring daily disposable, Lacelle colored cosmetic daily disposable, Lacelle limbal ring planned replacement at 2 weeks, and Alamode traditional/annual colored cosmetic lens. The primary safety outcome was slit-lamp examination, including epithelial edema, epithelial microcysts, corneal staining, bulbar injection, limbal injection, upper lid tarsal conjunctival abnormalities, corneal neovascularization, and corneal infiltrates. High contrast logMAR visual acuity with lenses, and lens wearing time, movement, and centration, are also presented.
Results
A total of 871 subjects (1,742 eyes) and 23 clinical investigators participated in the six studies, with an average completion rate of 96.4% across all studies. The mean age of the patients was 26.8 ± 6.6 years, and 86.7% of participants were female. The total number of slit-lamp examinations across the six studies was 2,456 visits by eye (1,228 visits by patient). There were no slit-lamp signs > grade 2 for any finding, with the exception of corneal staining in one study. In this study, grade 3 corneal staining was noted in one eye (0.1%) at follow-up visit 1 and four (0.6%) of all eligible dispensed eyes at follow-up visit 2, with no eyes requiring medical treatment. No adverse events were reported during any of the trials.
Conclusion
The cosmetically tinted lenses evaluated in this meta-analysis appear to be safe when properly prescribed by an eye care professional and used in a compliant manner.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S51600
PMCID: PMC3798236  PMID: 24143071
contact lens; hydrogel; cosmetically tinted contact lens; compliance
5.  EARLY ONSET OF DELINQUENCY AND THE TRAJECTORY OF ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING AMONG YOUNG MALES* 
Addictive behaviors  2011;36(12):1154-1159.
Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.07.012
PMCID: PMC3221960  PMID: 21831528
Delinquency onset; alcohol-impaired driving; young males
6.  Sequential Cognitive Skills in Emphysema Patients Following Lung Volume Reduction Surgery: A Two Year Longitudinal Study 
PURPOSE
This study compared visuomotor speed and cognitive flexibility in emphysema patients treated either with standard multidisciplinary medical therapy (MT) or lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), followed over a 2-year period.
METHODS
MT patients (n=544) and 542 LVRS patients completed the Trail Making Test (TMT) Parts A and B prior to randomization (baseline). Testing was repeated at 1 and 2 years.
RESULTS
There were no differences on scores for TMT Part A and B between the LVRS and MT groups at baseline or at years 1 and 2. No significant difference between MT and LVRS was noted in terms of overall change in TMT Part A and B over 2 years. The MT group had a significant improvement on TMT-Part A at each followup time compared to baseline (P<.03) but the LVRS group did not. Both the MT and LVRS groups had a significant decline in performance (increase in time to completion) on TMT-Part B when comparing year 1 to baseline (P<.0001).
CONCLUSION
Emphysema patients who received LVRS or MT as treatment performed similarly on measures of visuomotor speed and flexibility at baseline and 1 and 2 year followup. Both groups showed improvement on visuomotor speed during the first year yet overall cognitive flexibility declined. By the second year neither group had any significant change from baseline. These findings suggest that improvement on visuomotor speed and flexibility, observed in a previous 6-month study of LVRS subjects, was not sustained at 1 and 2 year followup.
doi:10.1097/HCR.0b013e3182343bc8
PMCID: PMC3221608  PMID: 22089885
Lung volume reduction surgery; Medical therapy; Sequential skills
7.  Early-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Associated with Female Sex, Maternal Factors, and African American Race in the COPDGene Study 
Rationale: The characterization of young adults who develop late-onset diseases may augment the detection of novel genes and promote new pathogenic insights.
Methods: We analyzed data from 2,500 individuals of African and European ancestry in the COPDGene Study. Subjects with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 70, age < 55 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted) were compared with older subjects with COPD (n = 306, age > 64 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted).
Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with severe, early-onset COPD were predominantly females (66%), P = 0.0004. Proportionally, early-onset COPD was seen in 42% (25 of 59) of African Americans versus 14% (45 of 317) of non-Hispanic whites, P < 0.0001. Other risk factors included current smoking (56 vs. 17%, P < 0.0001) and self-report of asthma (39 vs. 25%, P = 0.008). Maternal smoking (70 vs. 44%, P = 0.0001) and maternal COPD (23 vs. 12%, P = 0.03) were reported more commonly in subjects with early-onset COPD. Multivariable regression analysis found association with African American race, odds ratio (OR), 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–24; P = 0.0007); maternal COPD, OR, 4.7 (95% CI, 1.3–17; P = 0.02); female sex, OR, 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1–8.7; P = 0.03); and each pack-year of smoking, OR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.0; P = 0.03).
Conclusions: These observations support the hypothesis that severe, early-onset COPD is prevalent in females and is influenced by maternal factors. Future genetic studies should evaluate (1) gene-by-sex interactions to address sex-specific genetic contributions and (2) gene-by-race interactions.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201011-1928OC
PMCID: PMC3175544  PMID: 21562134
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; female; African Americans
8.  Antibodies Against N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus without Major Neuropsychiatric Syndromes 
Purpose
Approximately 14-54% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without a history of major neuropsychiatric syndromes (nonNPSLE) have cognitive deficits. Elevated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies (anti-NR2) have been reported in 35% of patients with SLE, but few studies have utilized controls or a composite memory index. We hypothesized that serum anti-NR2 would be elevated in nonNPSLE compared to healthy controls, and that elevated anti-NR2 would be associated with memory dysfunction and depression.
Methods
Subjects included 43 nonNPSLE patients with a mean age of 36.5 (SD=9.0) and mean education level of 14.7 years (SD=2.5). Twenty-seven healthy control subjects with similar demographic characteristics were also enrolled in this study. A global cognitive impairment index (CII) and a memory impairment index (MII) were calculated using impaired test scores from the ACR-SLE neuropsychological battery. Serum samples were analyzed using a standard ELISA for anti-NR2.
Results
Elevations of serum anti-NR2 were found in 14.0% of the nonNPSLE and 7.4% of the controls (p=0.47). There was no relationship between elevated anti-NR2 status and higher CII or performance on the MII. No relationship between levels of depressive symptoms and anti-NR2 was found.
Conclusions
The frequency of elevated anti-NR2 was low (14.0%) in this sample of SLE patients and not significantly different from controls. A relationship was not found between the presence of anti-NR2 in serum and global cognitive or memory indices, or with depression. Results suggest that serum anti-NR2 is not likely related to mild cognitive dysfunction in SLE patients without a prior history of NPSLE.
doi:10.1016/j.jns.2010.04.016
PMCID: PMC2920062  PMID: 20546792
SLE; neuropsychology; autoantibodies; NMDA
9.  Delinquency and alcohol-impaired driving among young males: A longitudinal study 
Journal of criminal justice  2010;38(4):439-445.
The present study assessed how the trajectory of delinquency affects the growth curve of alcohol-impaired driving using three-waves of data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). Using the structural equation modeling method, latent growth modeling was utilized to assess four age cohorts of sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen years of age at the first wave. The data indicated that the growth rate of delinquency significantly and positively affects the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the respondents who were sixteen at the first wave. The growth rate of drinking was also significantly and positively associated with the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for this age cohort. Although the growth rate of delinquency had no significant effect on the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the age cohort which was seventeen at Wave 1, the growth rates of both drinking and drug use did affect for this age cohort. The data, however, showed that alcohol-impaired driving had a significant increase across the waves for the eighteen year old cohort, but there was no significant variation in the rate across respondents. Finally, for the nineteen year old cohort there was no significant increase in alcohol-impaired driving across the waves, and also no significant variation of the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving across the respondents. These findings indicated that interventions focused on reducing delinquency, alcohol and drug use by sixteen and seventeen year old male adolescents will also reduce their alcohol-impaired driving.
doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.04.012
PMCID: PMC2928484  PMID: 20802847
10.  Cognitive and Psychological Issues in Emphysema 
Various psychological and cognitive difficulties have been documented in patients with emphysema. The aim of this article is to review prior literature on the prevalence of these difficulties in emphysema, as well as identify specific studies demonstrating improvement in these areas after therapy. Traditional therapies such as continuous and intermittent oxygen therapy and comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation are reviewed. In general, these studies demonstrate reductions in symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as specific improvements in complex attention and verbal fluency. In a more recent study, patients with emphysema who underwent lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) demonstrated improved psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and naming skills at 6 months compared with patients with emphysema who were in comprehensive rehabilitation only. The patients with emphysema who had LVRS also demonstrated greater decline in depressive symptoms compared with the rehabilitation patients at 6 months. There were no associations between improved neuropsychological tests and changes in depression, exercise tests, pulmonary function, oxygenation, or quality of life scores, and thus the mechanism of behavioral improvement identified in the patients who underwent LVRS remained unclear. Overall, studies suggest that psychological and cognitive improvements occur subsequent to a variety of medical and behavioral treatment therapeutic approaches, and that LVRS appears to have an advantage for some patients with emphysema.
doi:10.1513/pats.200708-123ET
PMCID: PMC2645335  PMID: 18453371
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; lung volume reduction surgery; neurobehavioral
11.  Neuropsychological patterns in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with depression 
Thirteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and depression (Depressed-SLE), 10 Depressed-Control subjects, and 25 Healthy Control subjects completed cognitive testing and self-report questionnaires of pain, depression, and fatigue. The Depressed-SLE group scored higher on the American College of Rheumatology Neuropsychological Battery for systemic lupus erythematosus cognitive impairment index compared to Depressed-Control and Healthy Control subjects (p < 0.05 and p < 0.02, respectively). No correlations between cognitive impairment and pain, fatigue, or perceived cognitive failures were observed in the Depressed-SLE participants. Moderate agreement (86.4%) was found between a comprehensive neuropsychology battery cognitive impairment index and the ACR-SLE impairment index in the Depressed-SLE patients. Overall, the magnitude and pattern of cognitive impairment in Depressed-SLE patients cannot be explained by depression alone.
doi:10.1186/ar2203
PMCID: PMC2206349  PMID: 17504538

Results 1-11 (11)