Idiomarina sp. strain 28-8 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, flagellar bacterium isolated from the bodies of ark shells (Scapharca broughtonii) collected from underwater sediments in Gangjin Bay, South Korea. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Idiomarina sp. 28-8 (2,971,606 bp, with a G+C content of 46.9%), containing 2,795 putative coding sequences.
A 50-year-old man had undergone lumbar vertebral surgery and was confined to bed in the supine position for three months. When he sat up from the prolonged supine position, he showed clinical signs of orthostatic hypotension and reported decreased vision in both eyes. He also had underlying anemia. Ophthalmologic findings suggested bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) as the cause of the visual loss. Although there are numerous reports of ION in the setting of hemodynamic compromise, such as systemic hypotension, cases of ION-associated orthostatic hypotension are very rare.
Ischemic optic neuropathy; Optic disc edema; Orthostatic hypotension; Visual loss
Crossed aphasia (CA) refers to language impairment secondary to right hemisphere lesion. Imaging analysis on the lesion location of CA has not yet been reported in the literature. This study was proposed to analyze the most prevalent lesion site related to CA. Brain MRI of 7 stroke patients satisfying the criteria for CA were used to define Region of interest (ROIs) before overlaying the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Anatomical lesions where more than 3 patients' images were overlapped were considered significant. The overlayed ROIs of 7 patients revealed the lentiform nucleus as the most frequently involved area, overlapping in 6 patients. Our study first demonstrates the areas involved in CA by lesion mapping using brain MRI, and lentiform nucleus is the responsible neural substrate for crossed aphasia.
Aphasia; Stroke; Lentiform Nucleus; Crossed Aphasia
We previously demonstrated seasonal variation in sensitization to aeroallergens in a small group of patients with exercise-induced asthma. This study was performed to confirm the relationship in a much larger population.
The charts of 1,891 patients who received allergy skin prick tests were reviewed retrospectively. The test results from subjects aged ≤60 years were compared between the groups classified according to the season when the patients received the tests (spring: March-May, summer: June-August, fall: September-November, winter: December-February). The data from 25 respiratory allergy patients who received the tests two or more times and showed a positive response at least once were analyzed longitudinally.
The most prevalent among 29 tested aeroallergens were house dust mites (HDMs) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae. The skin sensitization rates to D. pteronyssinus (23.2% vs. 32.1%, P=0.004) and D. farinae (22.2% vs. 30.2%, P=0.009) were significantly lower in the summer and higher in the fall (38.3% vs. 26.6% and 35.6% vs. 25.3%; P=0.001 respectively) than those in other seasons in patients with a respiratory allergy (n=1,102). The sensitization rates to weed pollens in the fall (13.9% vs. 8.3%, P=0.006) and to Aspergillus fumigatus in the winter (2.9% vs. 0.7%, P=0.005) were significantly higher. In patients with non-respiratory allergy such as urticaria/anaphylaxis (n=340), the D. farinae sensitization rate was significantly lower in the summer also but higher in the spring. The trend of the HDM sensitization rate being lower in the summer and higher in the fall was observed in the longitudinal study.
Skin sensitivity to aeroallergens such as HDMs, pollens, and molds demonstrates seasonal variation in respiratory allergy patients. Non-respiratory allergy patients also showed seasonal variation in sensitivity to aeroallergens, which might be related to the "priming" effect of allergens.
Seasonal variation; skin sensitivity; aeroallergens; allergy
Osteopontin (OPN) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), which are expressed on the surface of tumor cells, are associated with hypoxia during tumor development and progression. However, the roles of these proteins in the plasma of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are poorly understood. Herein, we hypothesized that plasma OPN and CAIX levels could be used as diagnostic and prognostic tumor markers in patients with NSCLC.
Fifty-three patients with NSCLC and 50 healthy control subjects were enrolled. We selected controls without malignancy and matched them with NSCLC patient cases according to age and gender. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis; the plasma levels of OPN and CAIX were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
The plasma levels of OPN in the patients with NSCLC were significantly elevated as compared to those in the controls (p=0.016). However, there was no difference in the plasma level of CAIX between the NSCLC patients and controls. NSCLC patients with a distant metastasis had a remarkable increase in plasma OPN compared with patients without metastasis (p=0.026), but no such correlation was found for CAIX. There was no difference in overall survival rates according to the plasma level of OPN between the two groups (by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis).
Plasma OPN levels were elevated in patients with NSCLC as compared with the controls, with greater elevation of OPN levels in the advanced stages of disease. Therefore, plasma OPN may have utility as a diagnostic, but not prognostic, biomarker of advanced NSCLC.
Osteopontin; CA9 Protein, Human; Lung Neoplasms
The authors report a caruncular abscess caused by actinomycosis. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with persistent purulent discharge from the caruncle of the left eye for a duration of six months. Excisional drainage was performed, and 'sulfur granules' were observed, consistent with actinomyces infection. Intraoperative lacrimal probing and irrigation were performed to confirm that the abscess and canaliculus were not connected. Oral and topical antibiotics were administered postoperatively; the lesion resolved with no evidence of recurrence, and the symptom improved.
Abscess; Actinomycosis; Caruncle; Lacrimal apparatus
We identified and characterized the primary structure of the Korean oily bitterling Acheilognathus koreensis fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 (Akmlc2f), gene. Encoded by seven exons spanning 3955 bp, the deduced 168-amino acid AkMLC2f polypeptide contained an EF-hand calcium-binding motif and showed strong homology (80%–98%) with the MLC2 proteins of Ictalurus punctatus and other species, including mammals. Akmlc2f mRNA was highly enriched in skeletal muscles, and was detectable in other tissues. The upstream regions of Akmlc2f included a TATA box, one copy of a putative MEF-2 binding site and several putative C/EBPβ binding sites. The functional activity of the promoter region of Akmlc2f was examined using luciferase and red fluorescent protein reporters. The Akmlc2f promoter-driven reporter expressions were detected and increased by the C/EBPβ transcription factor in HEK293T cells. The activity of the promoter of Akmlc2f was also confirmed in the developing zebrafish embryo. Although the detailed mechanism underlying the expression of Akmlc2f remains unknown, these results suggest the muscle-specific expression of Akmlc2f transcript and the functional activation of Akmlc2f promoter by C/EBPβ.
Acheilognathus koreenis; C/EBPβ; expression; Korean oily bitterling; myosin light chain 2; promoter assay
A novel recombinant baculovirus, NeuroBactrus, was constructed to develop an improved baculovirus insecticide with additional beneficial properties, such as a higher insecticidal activity and improved recovery, compared to wild-type baculovirus. For the construction of NeuroBactrus, the Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein gene (here termed cry1-5) was introduced into the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome by fusion of the polyhedrin–cry1-5–polyhedrin genes under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. In the opposite direction, an insect-specific neurotoxin gene, AaIT, from Androctonus australis was introduced under the control of an early promoter from Cotesia plutellae bracovirus by fusion of a partial fragment of orf603. The polyhedrin–Cry1-5–polyhedrin fusion protein expressed by the NeuroBactrus was not only occluded into the polyhedra, but it was also activated by treatment with trypsin, resulting in an ∼65-kDa active toxin. In addition, quantitative PCR revealed that the neurotoxin was expressed from the early phase of infection. NeuroBactrus showed a high level of insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella larvae and a significant reduction in the median lethal time against Spodoptera exigua larvae compared to those of wild-type AcMNPV. Rerecombinant mutants derived from NeuroBactrus in which AaIT and/or cry1-5 were deleted were generated by serial passages in vitro. Expression of the foreign proteins (B. thuringiensis toxin and AaIT) was continuously reduced during the serial passage of the NeuroBactrus. Moreover, polyhedra collected from S. exigua larvae infected with the serially passaged NeuroBactrus showed insecticidal activity similar to that of wild-type AcMNPV. These results suggested that NeuroBactrus could be recovered to wild-type AcMNPV through serial passaging.
Existing functional evaluation tools do not accurately reveal the improved function following botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection for post-stroke upper limb spasticity. With the aim of developing an alternate method of measuring functional improvement following BTX-A injection, this study tested the feasibility, validity and reliability of video clip analysis performed by the clinicians. Seventy-nine patients administered BTX-A due to post-stroke upper limb spasticity, were retrospectively evaluated using video clip analysis. Pre- and post-injection video clips recorded at 1-month intervals were randomly allocated and sent to three blinded physician evaluators who were asked to choose the one that seemed more improved in terms of hand motion and associated upper limb reaction during gait. The three physicians chose the post-injection video clip as depicting improved hand motion (82.3%, 79.7%, and 72.2%) and associated upper limb reaction during gait (73.4%, 70.9%, and 70.9%). Kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of interrater reliability among the three physicians was 0.86 and 0.79 for the hand, and 0.92 and 0.92 for associated upper limb reaction during gait, respectively. The percent overall agreement of the physicians was 78.1% and 71.7% for hand function and associated upper limb reaction, respectively. Retrospective pre- and post-BTX-A injection video clip analyses is a clinically feasible alternative method to evaluate the improvement following BTX-A injection for post-stroke upper limb spasticity, especially in busy clinical practice setting.
botulinum toxin A; injection; spasticity; upper limb; video; stroke
A 35-year-old woman presented with history of a painless, slow-growing nodule in a left eye caruncle over the last 2 months. The visual acuity was 20 / 20 and the ocular movements were in the normal range. The venereal disease research laboratory test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum angiotensin converting enzyme level, and chest radiograph were all normal. An excisional biopsy was done to confirm the diagnosis. A 1.3 × 0.5 × 0.3 cm sized nodule was extracted and sent for histopathologic examination. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed follicular hyperplasia with perifollicular fibrosis, an eosinophil infiltrate, and proliferation of capillary vessels. The capillaries were lined by normal-appearing, flat, spindle-shaped endothelial cells. On the basis of these histopathologic findings, the diagnosis of Kimura disease in a caruncle was established. This is the first report describing Kimura disease localized to a caruncle. Kimura disease should be suspected and included in the differential diagnosis of a caruncular mass lesion.
Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia; Asian continental ancestry group; Caruncle; Women
Background and objectives
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the characteristics of stable COPD patients in the pulmonology clinics of seven Asian cities and also evaluated whether the exposure to biomass fuels and dusty jobs were related to respiratory symptoms, airflow limitation, and quality of life in the COPD patients.
This cross-sectional observational study recruited 922 COPD patients from seven cities of Asia. The patients underwent spirometry and were administered questionnaires about their exposure to cigarette smoking, biomass fuels, and dusty jobs in addition to respiratory symptoms and health related quality of life.
Of the patients, there appeared to be variations from city to city in the history of exposure to biomass fuels and dusty jobs and also in respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheeze, and dyspnea. These symptoms were more frequent in those COPD patients with a history of exposure to biomass fuels than without and those with a history of exposure to dusty jobs than without (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). Airflow limitation was more severe in those COPD patients with a history of exposure to biomass fuels than without (52.2% predicted versus 55.9% of post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], P = 0.009); quality of life was poorer in those with exposure to biomass fuels than without (40.4 versus 36.2 of the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] total score, P = 0.001). Airflow limitation was more severe in those COPD patients with a history of exposure to dusty jobs than without (51.2% predicted versus 57.3% of post-bronchodilator FEV1, P < 0.001); quality of life was poorer in those with dusty jobs than without (41.0 versus 34.6 of SGRQ score, P = 0.006).
In Asian cities, the characteristics of COPD patients vary and the history of exposure to biomass fuels or dusty jobs was related to frequency of symptoms, severe airflow limitation, and poor quality of life.
COPD; Asia; biomass; dust
To investigate the relationship between severity of peripheral polyneuropathy (PPN) and degree of depression and quality of life in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis (HD).
Forty seven chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis were recruited (22 male, 25 female, mean age of 63.17±12.52) and etiology, disease duration, hemodialysis duration, creatinine and hemoglobin were recorded. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies were carried out on bilateral median, ulnar, tibial and peroneal nerves for diagnosis of polyneuropathy according to our laboratory criteria. The Korean version of Beck depression inventory (BDI) questionnaire translated into Korean for diagnosis of depression, and Korean version of Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36) questionnaire for measurement of general health level were measured in those diagnosed with uremic PPN.
Out of 52 patients, 47 were diagnosed with polyneuropathy and mean score for BDI was 18.49±9.18. Mean scores for each of Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) of SF-36 were 50.84±15.42 and 47.41±18.68. The correlation between the scores and polyneuropathy were analyzed by Pearson coefficient. The MCS score was the significant (p<0.05) correlation parameter with depression (R=-0.635) and the PCS score was the only parameter with a significant (p<0.05) correlation with polyneuropathy (R=-0.340).
Uremic polyneuropathy is commonly observed in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis. Depression in CRF with uremic PPN is affected by psychological factors other than the PPN itself.
Neuropathy; Chronic renal failure; Depression; Quality of life
It has been proposed that the pro-inflammatory catalytic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a key role in the aging process. However, it remains unclear whether the COX-2 activity is a causal factor for aging and whether COX-2 inhibitors could prevent aging. We here examined the effect of COX-2 inhibitors on aging in the intrinsic skin aging model of hairless mice. We observed that among two selective COX-2 inhibitors and one non-selective COX inhibitor studied, only NS-398 inhibited skin aging, while celecoxib and aspirin accelerated skin aging. In addition, NS-398 reduced the expression of p53 and p16, whereas celecoxib and aspirin enhanced their expression. We also found that the aging-modulating effect of the inhibitors is closely associated with the expression of type I procollagen and caveolin-1. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory catalytic activity of COX-2 is not a causal factor for aging at least in skin and that COX-2 inhibitors might modulate skin aging by regulating the expression of type I procollagen and caveolin-1.
caveolin-1; cyclooxygenase inhibitors; procollagen; skin aging
The development of COPD in subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is likely to be influenced by modifier genes. Genome-wide association studies and integrative genomics approaches in COPD have demonstrated significant associations with SNPs in the chromosome 15q region that includes CHRNA3 (cholinergic nicotine receptor alpha3) and IREB2 (iron regulatory binding protein 2).
We investigated whether SNPs in the chromosome 15q region would be modifiers for lung function and COPD in AAT deficiency.
The current analysis included 378 PIZZ subjects in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study and a replication cohort of 458 subjects from the UK AAT Deficiency National Registry. Nine SNPs in LOC123688, CHRNA3 and IREB2 were selected for genotyping. FEV1 percent of predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were analyzed as quantitative phenotypes. Family-based association analysis was performed in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. In the replication set, general linear models were used for quantitative phenotypes and logistic regression models were used for the presence/absence of emphysema or COPD.
Three SNPs (rs2568494 in IREB2, rs8034191 in LOC123688, and rs1051730 in CHRNA3) were associated with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. Two SNPs (rs2568494 and rs1051730) were associated with the post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted and pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio; SNP-by-gender interactions were observed. In the UK National Registry dataset, rs2568494 was significantly associated with emphysema in the male subgroup; significant SNP-by-smoking interactions were observed.
IREB2 and CHRNA3 are potential genetic modifiers of COPD phenotypes in individuals with severe AAT deficiency and may be sex-specific in their impact.
CHRNA3; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Genetic association analysis; Genetic modifiers; IREB2
We report the draft genome sequence of Kocuria rhizophila P7-4, which was isolated from the intestine of Siganus doliatus caught in the Pacific Ocean. The 2.83-Mb genome sequence consists of 75 large contigs (>100 bp in size) and contains 2,462 predicted protein-coding genes.
Acinetobacter sp. strain P8-3-8 is an aerobic, Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from the intestine of the bluespotted cornetfish (Fistularia commersonii). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. P8-3-8 (3,905,565 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%) containing 3,621 putative coding sequences. The genome data reveal a high density of genes encoding transcriptional regulators involved in anaerobic respiration.
The principal determining factors influencing the development of the airway disease and emphysema components of COPD have not been clearly defined. Genetic variability in COPD patients might influence the varying degrees of involvement of airway disease and emphysema. Therefore, we investigated genetic association of SNPs in COPD candidate genes for association with emphysema severity and airway wall thickness phenotypes.
Polymorphisms in six candidate genes were analyzed in 379 subjects of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) Genetics Ancillary Study with quantitative chest CT data. Genetic association with percent of lung below −950 hounsfield units (LAA950), airway wall thickness (WT), and derived square root wall area of 10 mm internal perimeter airways (SRWA) were investigated.
Three SNPs in EPHX1, five SNPs in SERPINE2, and one SNP in GSTP1 were significantly associated with LAA950. Five SNPs in TGFB1, two SNPs in EPHX1, one SNP in SERPINE2, and two SNPs in ADRB2 were associated with airway wall phenotypes in NETT.
In conclusion, several COPD candidate genes showed evidence for association with airway wall thickness and emphysema severity using CT in a severe COPD population. Further investigation will be required to replicate these genetic associations for emphysema and airway wall phenotypes.
Airway; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; computed tomography; emphysema; genetic association
To date, clinico-physiologic indices have not been compared with quantitative CT imaging indices in determining the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. We therefore compared clinico-physiologic and CT imaging indices as risk factors for COPD exacerbation in patients with COPD. We retrospectively analyzed 260 COPD patients from pulmonary clinics at 11 hospitals in Korea from June 2005 to November 2009 and followed-up for at least one year. At the time of enrollment, none of these patients had COPD exacerbations for at least 2 months. All underwent clinico-physiologic and radiological evaluation for risk factors of COPD exacerbation. After 1 yr, 106 of the 260 patients had at least one exacerbation of COPD. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that old age, high Charlson Index, and low FEV1 were significant in a clinico-physiologic model, with C-statistics of 0.69, and that increased age and emphysema index were significant in a radiologic model, with C-statistics of 0.64. The difference between the two models was statistically significant (P = 0.04 by bootstrap analysis). Combinations of clinico-physiologic risk factors may be better than those of imaging risk factors in predicting COPD exacerbation.
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Exacerbation; Risk Factors; Computed Tomography
Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The differences in virulence of O. tsutsugamushi prototypes in humans are still unknown. We investigated whether there are any differences in the clinical features of the Boryoung and Karp genotypes.
Patients infected with O. tsutsugamushi, as Boryoung and Karp clusters, who had visited 6 different hospitals in southwestern Korea were prospectively compared for clinical features, complications, laboratory parameters, and treatment responses. Infected patients in the Boryoung cluster had significantly more generalized weakness, eschars, skin rashes, conjunctival injection, high albumin levels, and greater ESR and fibrinogen levels compared to the Karp cluster. The treatment response to current antibiotics was significantly slower in the Karp cluster as compared to the Boryoung cluster.
The frequency of occurrence of eschars and rashes may depend on the genotype of O. tsutsugamushi.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and responses to therapies are highly variable. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of pulmonary function response to 3 months of treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD. A total of 127 patients with stable COPD from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort, which were prospectively recruited from June 2005 to September 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The prediction models for the FEV1, FVC and IC/TLC changes after 3 months of treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone were constructed by using multiple, stepwise, linear regression analysis. The prediction model for the FEV1 change after 3 months of treatment included wheezing history, pre-bronchodilator FEV1, post-bronchodilator FEV1 change and emphysema extent on CT (R = 0.578). The prediction models for the FVC change after 3 months of treatment included pre-bronchodilator FVC, post-bronchodilator FVC change (R = 0.533), and those of IC/ TLC change after 3 months of treatment did pre-bronchodilator IC/TLC and post-bronchodilator FEV1 change (R = 0.401). Wheezing history, pre-bronchodilator pulmonary function, bronchodilator responsiveness, and emphysema extent may be used for predicting the pulmonary function response to 3 months of treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD.
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Emphysema; Corticosteroids; Adrenergic beta-Agonists; Respiratory Function Tests
Airflow limitation in COPD patients is not fully reversible. However, there may be large variability in bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) among COPD patients, and familial aggregation of BDR suggests a genetic component. Therefore we investigated the association between six candidate genes and BDR in subjects with severe COPD. A total of 389 subjects from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) were analyzed. Bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol was expressed in three ways: absolute change in FEV1, change in FEV1 as a percent of baseline FEV1, and change in FEV1 as a percent of predicted FEV1. Genotyping was completed for 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes (EPHX1, SFTPB, TGFB1, SERPINE2, GSTP1, ADRB2). Associations between BDR phenotypes and SNP genotypes were tested using linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, and height. Genes associated with BDR phenotypes in the NETT subjects were assessed for replication in 127 pedigrees from the Boston Early-Onset COPD (EOCOPD) Study. Three SNPs in EPHX1 (p = 0.009 – 0.04), three SNPs in SERPINE2 (p = 0.004 – 0.05) and two SNPs in ADRB2 (0.04 – 0.05) were significantly associated with BDR phenotypes in NETT subjects. BDR. One SNP in EPHX1 (rs1009668, p = 0.04) was significantly replicated in EOCOPD subjects. SNPs in SFTPB, TGFB1, and GSTP1 genes were not associated with BDR. In conclusion, a polymorphism of EPHX1 was associated with bronchodilator responsiveness phenotypes in subjects with severe COPD.
bronchodilator responsiveness; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; genetics; association analysis
Kidney volume is regarded as the most precise indicator of kidney size. However, it is not widely used clinically, because its measurement is difficult due to the complex kidney shape. We attempted to evaluate the normal kidney volume in young Korean men by using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed MDCT data of young Korean men (113 patients). After data processing, we measured the volume and length of the kidneys. Body parameters (height, body weight, body-surface area, and total body water) and laboratory data were collected. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation.
The mean kidney volume was 205.29 ± 36.81 cm3; and mean kidney length was 10.80 ± 0.69 cm. The former correlated significantly with height, body weight, body-surface area, and total body water (p < 0.05, correlation coefficient : γ = 0.328, 0.649, 0.640, and 0.638, respectively). The latter also correlated significantly with all body indexes, however the correlation was weaker, except with height (p < 0.05, correlation coefficient : γ = 0.457, 0.473, 0.505, and 0.503, respectively). Only kidney volume significantly predicted estimated GFR (adjusted R2 = 0.431, F = 85.90 and p < 0.05).
The kidney volume measured with MDCT is correlated well with body parameters, and is useful to predict renal function.
Kidney; volume measurement; computed tomography
AIM: To determine intestinal permeability, the serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and urine nitric oxide (NO) metabolites are altered in liver cirrhosis (LC) with or without ascites.
METHODS: Fifty-three patients with LC and 26 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. The intestinal permeability value is expressed as the percentage of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 and 3350 retrieval in 8-h urine samples as determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Serum TNF-α concentrations and urine NO metabolites were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Greiss reaction method, respectively.
RESULTS: The intestinal permeability index was significantly higher in patients with LC with ascites than in healthy control subjects or patients with LC without ascites (0.88 ± 0.12 vs 0.52 ± 0.05 or 0.53 ± 0.03, P < 0.05) and correlated with urine nitrite excretion (r = 0.98). Interestingly, the serum TNF-α concentra-tion was significantly higher in LC without ascites than in control subjects or in LC with ascites (198.9 ± 55.8 pg/mL vs 40.9 ± 12.3 pg/mL or 32.1 ± 13.3 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Urine nitrite excretion was significantly higher in LC with ascites than in the control subjects or in LC without ascites (1170.9 ± 28.7 μmol/L vs 903.1 ± 55.1 μmol/L or 956.7 ± 47.7 μmol/L, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Increased intestinal macromolecular permeability and NO is probably of importance in the pathophysiology and progression of LC with ascites, but the serum TNF-α concentration was not related to LC with ascites.
Intestinal permeability; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Nitric oxide; Liver cirrhosis; Ascites
Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, is an important fish species in Asia, both for fisheries and aquaculture. As the first step for better understanding the genomic structure and functional analysis, we constructed a genetic linkage map for olive flounder based on 180 microsatellites and 31 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived markers. Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes of this species. The total map distance was 1,001.3 cM based on Kosambi sex-average mapping, and the average inter-locus distance was 4.7 cM. Linkage between the loci was identified by an LOD score of ≥3. This linkage map may be used to map quantitative trait loci associated with important traits of the species and may assist in breeding programs.
EST; flounder; linkage; microsatellite; Paralichthys olivaceus
We report results on the seroprevalence of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in cattle and healthy people in Korea. Upon agreement with dairy owners, serum samples from 414 dairy cattle were collected between March and June 2001 and samples from 205 people for health screening were collected between April and December 2002. The sera were analyzed for the presence of anti-C. burnetii phase II antibodies using an indirect microimmunofluorescence test; strong fluorescence at a 1:32 dilution was regarded as positive. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii in cattle in Korea was 25.6%, with regional variation from 8.9 to 59.3%. Of the positive serum samples, 75.5% had antibody titers ≥1:256. By contrast, only 1.5% of people in a rural area were seropositive, and most of the positive samples had low antibody titers. In conclusion, this study showed that relatively high seropositivity of C. burnetii in dairy cattle, accordingly, the studies on the high-risk groups are needed to evaluate the seroprevalence for this organism in Korea.
Coxiella burnetii; Seroepidemiological Studies; Seroprevalence; Korea; Q Fever