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1.  Evaluation of a comprehensive AIDS education curriculum in Hungary – the role of good educators1 
Journal of adolescence  2002;25(5):495-508.
The aim of this research was to evaluate a school-based AIDS education programme in Eastern Europe. Four evaluation segments were undertaken: process and outcome evaluations of the training of AIDS educators and of the educational activities for students. While most AIDS education curricula focus on the content of the education, our findings demonstrate that other aspects — including the characteristics of those educators who appear to be most effective, the way in which education is affected by teachers’ attitudes, and the cultural implications of transferring programmes from one country to another – also need to be considered, especially in international environments.
PMCID: PMC2925669  PMID: 12234556
2.  Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Risk and Escherichia coli O157:H7 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(12):1955-1957.
We reviewed medical records of 238 hospitalized patients with Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhea to identify risk factors for progression to diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Data indicated that young age, long duration of diarrhea, elevated leukocyte count, and proteinuria were associated with HUS.
doi:10.3201/eid1112.050607
PMCID: PMC3367638  PMID: 16485489
hemolytic uremic syndrome; Escherichia coli; risk factor; dispatch
3.  Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Incidence in New York1 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(5):928-931.
A comparison of New York’s traditional communicable disease surveillance system for diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome with hospital discharge data showed a sensitivity of 65%. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was found in 63% of samples cultured from hemolytic uremic syndrome patients, and samples were more likely to be positive when collected early in illness.
doi:10.3201/eid1005.030456
PMCID: PMC3323227  PMID: 15200834
hemolytic uremic syndrome; Escherichia coli 0157:H7; surveillance; capture-recapture; sensitivity
4.  Molecular Subtyping to Detect Human Listeriosis Clusters 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2003;9(6):672-680.
We analyzed the diversity (Simpson’s Index, D) and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in human listeriosis cases in New York State (excluding New York City) from November 1996 to June 2000 by using automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We applied a scan statistic (p<0.05) to detect listeriosis clusters caused by a specific Listeria monocytogenes subtype. Of 131 human isolates, 34 (D=0.923) ribotypes and 74 (D=0.975) PFGE types were found. Nine (31% of cases) clusters were identified by ribotype or PFGE; five (18% of cases) clusters were identified by using both methods. Two of the nine clusters (13% of cases) identified corresponded with investigated multistate listeriosis outbreaks. While most human listeriosis cases are considered sporadic, highly discriminatory molecular subtyping approaches thus indicated that 13% to 31% of cases reported in New York State may represent single-source clusters. Listeriosis control and reduction efforts should include broad-based subtyping of human isolates and consider that a large number of cases may represent outbreaks.
doi:10.3201/eid0906.020702
PMCID: PMC3000145  PMID: 12781006
Listeria monocytogenes; foodborne; outbreak; detection; clustering analysis; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; PFGE; ribotype; surveillance; research
5.  Detection, Isolation, and Molecular Subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni Associated with a Large Waterborne Outbreak 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(1):174-180.
The largest reported outbreak of waterborne Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the United States occurred in upstate New York following a county fair in August 1999. Culture methods were used to isolate E. coli O157:H7 from specimens from 128 of 775 patients with suspected infections. Campylobacter jejuni was also isolated from stools of 44 persons who developed diarrheal illness after attending this fair. There was one case of a confirmed coinfection with E. coli O157:H7 and C. jejuni. Molecular detection of stx1 and stx2 Shiga toxin genes, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and selective culture enrichment were utilized to detect and isolate E. coli O157:H7 from an unchlorinated well and its distribution points, a dry well, and a nearby septic tank. PCR for stx1 and stx2 was shown to provide a useful screen for toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7, and IMS subculture improved recovery. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to compare patient and environmental E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Among patient isolates, 117 of 128 (91.5%) were type 1 or 1a (three or fewer bands different). Among the water distribution system isolates, 13 of 19 (68%) were type 1 or 1a. Additionally, PFGE of C. jejuni isolates revealed that 29 of 35 (83%) had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. The PFGE results implicated the water distribution system as the main source of the E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This investigation demonstrates the potential for outbreaks involving more than one pathogen and the importance of analyzing isolates from multiple patients and environmental samples to develop a better understanding of bacterial transmission during an outbreak.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.1.174-180.2003
PMCID: PMC149601  PMID: 12517844
6.  Public Health Impact of Reemergence of Rabies, New York 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(9):909-913.
This report summarizes the spread of a raccoon rabies epizootic into New York in the 1990s, the species of animals affected, and human postexposure treatments (PET). A total of 57,008 specimens were submitted to the state laboratory from 1993 to 1998; 8,858 (16%) animals were confirmed rabid, with raccoons the most common species (75%). After exposure to 11,769 animals, 18,238 (45%) persons received PET, mostly because of contact with saliva or nervous tissue. We analyzed expenditure reports to estimate the cost of rabies prevention activities. An estimated $13.9 million was spent in New York State to prevent rabies from 1993 to 1998. Traditional prevention methods such as vaccinating pets, avoiding wildlife, and verifying an animal’s rabies status must be continued to reduce costly PET. To reduce rabid animals, exposures, and costs, oral vaccination of wildlife should also be considered.
doi:10.3201/eid0809.010524
PMCID: PMC2732541  PMID: 12194765
rabies; epidemiology; vaccination
7.  Neonatal meningitis in England and Wales: a review of routine national data 
The objective of this study was to describe trends in neonatal meningitis in England and Wales during the years 1975-91. Laboratory reports and, for the years 1983-91, data on statutory notifications and deaths from neonatal meningitis were reviewed.
The mean annual total of laboratory reports of neonatal bacterial meningitis 1975-91 was 109 cases (range 69-133) with a slight upward trend apparent in the latter half of the study period. The mean annual number of reports of neonatal viral meningitis was only 14 cases with no trend apparent. The leading bacteria isolated were group B streptococci, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes accounting for 34·1%, 28·5%, and 6·8% of reports, respectively. There was a change in the pattern of causative bacteria from 1981 onwards with the group B streptococcus displacing E coli as the leading cause. With respect to neonatal viral meningitis, echoviruses and coxsackie viruses accounted for 55·4% and 38·6% of cases, respectively. Neonatal meningitis was seriously undernotified; the ratio of laboratory reported cases to cases notified ranged from 12:1 in 1985 to 4:1 in 1989. The annual numbers of deaths ranged from 18 to 39.
The laboratory reporting system provided the most useful data on secular trends and causative organisms for neonatal meningitis. The slight upward trend in the number of reports of bacterial meningitis merits continued surveillance.
PMCID: PMC1061087  PMID: 7979482
8.  A National Case-Control Study Identifies Human Socio-Economic Status and Activities as Risk Factors for Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Poland 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45511.
Background
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to Europe and medically highly significant. This study, focused on Poland, investigated individual risk factors for TBE symptomatic infection.
Methods and Findings
In a nation-wide population-based case-control study, of the 351 TBE cases reported to local health departments in Poland in 2009, 178 were included in the analysis. For controls, of 2704 subjects (matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence) selected at random from the national population register, two were interviewed for each case and a total of 327 were suitable for the analysis. Questionnaires yielded information on potential exposure to ticks during the six weeks (maximum incubation period) preceding disease onset in each case. Independent associations between disease and socio-economic factors and occupational or recreational exposure were assessed by conditional logistic regression, stratified according to residence in known endemic and non-endemic areas. Adjusted population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed for significant variables. In endemic areas, highest TBE risk was associated with spending ≥10 hours/week in mixed forests and harvesting forest foods (adjusted odds ratio 19.19 [95% CI: 1.72–214.32]; PAF 0.127 [0.064–0.193]), being unemployed (11.51 [2.84–46.59]; 0.109 [0.046–0.174]), or employed as a forester (8.96 [1.58–50.77]; 0.053 [0.011–0.100]) or non-specialized worker (5.39 [2.21–13.16]; 0.202 [0.090–0.282]). Other activities (swimming, camping and travel to non-endemic regions) reduced risk. Outside TBE endemic areas, risk was greater for those who spent ≥10 hours/week on recreation in mixed forests (7.18 [1.90–27.08]; 0.191 [0.065–0.304]) and visited known TBE endemic areas (4.65 [0.59–36.50]; 0.058 [−0.007–0.144]), while travel to other non-endemic areas reduced risk.
Conclusions
These socio-economic factors and associated human activities identified as risk factors for symptomatic TBE in Poland are consistent with results from previous correlational studies across eastern Europe, and allow public health interventions to be targeted at particularly vulnerable sections of the population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045511
PMCID: PMC3446880  PMID: 23029063

Results 1-8 (8)