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1.  CHRONIC DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND FRAMINGHAM CORONARY RISK IN HIV- INFECTED AND UNINFECTED WOMEN 
AIDS Care  2011;24(3):394-403.
Depression is common in people with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and those with HIV, and is a risk factor for CVD-related mortality. However, little is known about whether HIV influences the relationship between depression and cardiovascular risk. 526 HIV-infected and 132 uninfected women from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study were included in an analysis of women who completed twice-yearly study visits over 9.5 years. CVD risk was calculated at baseline and approximately 9.5 years later using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Chronic depressive symptoms were defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores of 16 or greater at ≥75% of study visits. Over the follow-up period, 22.8% of HIV-infected women and 15.9% of HIV-uninfected women had chronic depressive symptoms (p=0.08). Baseline FRS were similar between HIV infected and uninfected women (M=−5.70±SE=0.30 vs. M=−6.90± SE=0.60, p=0.07) as was follow-up FRS (M=0.82±SE=0.30 vs. M=−0.44± SE=0.73, p=0.11). Among HIV-infected and uninfected women, together, follow-up FRS were higher among women with chronic depressive symptoms as compared to those without (M=1.3± SE=0.6 vs. M=−0.3± SE=0.40, p<0.01), after adjusting for baseline FRS and other covariates. HIV status did not modify the relationship between chronic depressive symptoms and FRS. Chronic depressive symptoms accelerated CVD risk scores to a similar extent in both HIV infected and uninfected women. This implies that the diagnosis and treatment of depression may be an important consideration in CV risk reduction in the setting of HIV-infection. The determination of factors that mediate the depression/CVD relationship merits further study.
doi:10.1080/09540121.2011.608791
PMCID: PMC3243818  PMID: 21902560
2.  Elevated NT-pro-BNP Levels Are Associated with Comorbidities among HIV-Infected Women 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2009;25(10):997-1004.
Abstract
HIV infection is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These conditions result in elevation of plasma natriuretic peptide (NP) levels. The present study compares N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) levels in HIV-infected and -uninfected women and identifies factors influencingNT-pro-BNP levels in HIV-infected women. A total of 454 HIV-infected and 200 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) had NT-pro-BNP determination. Elevated NT-pro-BNP level was defined using previously determined age stratified cut-off values of >164 ng/liter (age <60 years) and >225 (age ≥ 60 years). HIV-infected women were older (41.6 ± 8.9 vs. 38.9 ± 10.5 years, p < 0.01) and were more likely to have anemia, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, and kidney dysfunction than HIV-uninfected women. HIV-infected women had significantly higher NT-pro-BNP levels (142.4 ± 524.8 vs. 73.6 ± 115.1 ng/liter, p = 0.01) and a higher prevalence of elevated NT-pro-BNP (12.1% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.08). In univariate analyses, elevated NT-pro-BNP was significantly associated with age, systolic BP, hypertension, anemia, triglyceride levels, kidney disease, and HCV seropositivity, but not HIV infection. In multivariate analysis, elevated NT-pro-BNP levels were significantly associated with anemia and kidney function, and had a borderline association with the presence of HCV antibodies. Among HIV-infected women, NT-pro-BNP levels were not independently associated with measures of severity of infection or with HAART use. Although HIV-infected women have higher NT-pro-BNP levels than HIV-uninfected women, the differences are due to non-HIV factors such as anemia, kidney disease, and HCV coinfection. These findings suggest that natriuretic peptide levels are a global marker of comorbidity in the setting of HIV infection.
doi:10.1089/aid.2009.0038
PMCID: PMC2791362  PMID: 19803714
3.  The Association of HIV Infection with Left Ventricular Mass/Hypertrophy 
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of major cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular risk is increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. To assess LV mass/hypertrophy in HIV infection, 654 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study underwent transthoracic echocardiography. There were 454 HIV-infected and 200 uninfected women, mean age 40.8 ± 9.3 years. LV mass/height2.7 was similar between the HIV-infected and the HIV-uninfected groups (41.4 ± 11.1 vs. 39.9 ± 10.3 g/h2.7; p = 0.37). The prevalence of LVH was similar between the two groups (LVH by LV mass/height2.7 criteria 15.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.29). Relative wall thickness (RWT), defined as the ratio of LV wall thickness to cavity diameter, was also similar between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups (0.36 ± 0.05 vs. 0.37 ± 0.06, p = 0.16). On multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for age, W/H ratio, triceps skinfold thickness, systolic/diastolic BP, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia; HIV status (b = 2.08, p = 0.02, CI 0.27–3.88); weight (b per kg = 0.15, p<0.01, CI 0.08–0.22); and smoking duration (b per one-year increase = 0.08, p = 0.03, CI 0.01–0.16) were independent correlates of LV mass/height2.7 (Model R2 = 0.20, p<0.001). Weight (aOR = 1.04, CI 1.01–1.06) and smoking duration (aOR = 1.03, CI 1.01–1.06) were independent correlates of LVH. Being HIV negative, increased age, increased triceps skinfold thickness, and higher W/H ratio were independent correlates of higher RWT. Among HIV-infected women, higher LV mass was not associated with a history of AIDS-defining illness, nadir CD4+ count <200 cells/μl, or with the duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Women taking NRTIs had higher LV mass. Higher RWT was associated with current CD4+ count. In conclusion, HIV infection is associated with greater LV mass but not with a higher prevalence of LVH. Among HIV-infected women, RWT, but not LV mass, is associated with the degree of immunosuppression.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0170
PMCID: PMC2801578  PMID: 19397399
4.  The Association of HIV Infection with Left Ventricular Mass/Hypertrophy 
Abstract
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of major cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular risk is increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. To assess LV mass/hypertrophy in HIV infection, 654 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study underwent transthoracic echocardiography. There were 454 HIV-infected and 200 uninfected women, mean age 40.8 ± 9.3 years. LV mass/height2.7 was similar between the HIV-infected and the HIV-uninfected groups (41.4 ± 11.1 vs. 39.9 ± 10.3 g/h2.7; p = 0.37). The prevalence of LVH was similar between the two groups (LVH by LV mass/height2.7 criteria 15.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.29). Relative wall thickness (RWT), defined as the ratio of LV wall thickness to cavity diameter, was also similar between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups (0.36 ± 0.05 vs. 0.37 ± 0.06, p = 0.16). On multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for age, W/H ratio, triceps skinfold thickness, systolic/diastolic BP, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia; HIV status (b = 2.08, p = 0.02, CI 0.27–3.88); weight (b per kg = 0.15, p < 0.01, CI 0.08–0.22); and smoking duration (b per one-year increase = 0.08, p = 0.03, CI 0.01–0.16) were independent correlates of LV mass/height2.7 (Model R2 = 0.20, p < 0.001). Weight (aOR = 1.04, CI 1.01–1.06) and smoking duration (aOR = 1.03, CI 1.01–1.06) were independent correlates of LVH. Being HIV negative, increased age, increased triceps skinfold thickness, and higher W/H ratio were independent correlates of higher RWT. Among HIV-infected women, higher LV mass was not associated with a history of AIDS-defining illness, nadir CD4+ count <200 cells/μl, or with the duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Women taking NRTIs had higher LV mass. Higher RWT was associated with current CD4+ count. In conclusion, HIV infection is associated with greater LV mass but not with a higher prevalence of LVH. Among HIV-infected women, RWT, but not LV mass, is associated with the degree of immunosuppression.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0170
PMCID: PMC2801578  PMID: 19397399
5.  Elevated NT-pro-BNP Levels Are Associated with Comorbidities among HIV-Infected Women 
AIDS research and human retroviruses  2009;25(10):997-1004.
HIV infection is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These conditions result in elevation of plasma natriuretic peptide (NP) levels. The present study compares N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) levels in HIV-infected and -uninfected women and identifies factors influencing NT-pro-BNP levels in HIV-infected women. A total of 454 HIV-infected and 200 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) had NT-pro-BNP determination. Elevated NT-pro-BNP level was defined using previously determined age stratified cut-off values of >164 ng/liter (age <60 years) and >225 (age ≥60 years). HIV-infected women were older (41.6 ± 8.9 vs. 38.9 ± 10.5 years, p <0.01) and were more likely to have anemia, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, and kidney dysfunction than HIV-uninfected women. HIV-infected women had significantly higher NT-pro-BNP levels (142.4 ± 524.8 vs. 73.6 ± 115.1 ng/liter, p = 0.01) and a higher prevalence of elevated NT-pro-BNP (12.1% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.08). In univariate analyses, elevated NT-pro-BNP was significantly associated with age, systolic BP, hypertension, anemia, triglyceride levels, kidney disease, and HCV seropositivity, but not HIV infection. In multivariate analysis, elevated NT-pro-BNP levels were significantly associated with anemia and kidney function, and had a borderline association with the presence of HCV antibodies. Among HIV-infected women, NT-pro-BNP levels were not independently associated with measures of severity of infection or with HAART use. Although HIV-infected women have higher NT-pro-BNP levels than HIV-uninfected women, the differences are due to non-HIV factors such as anemia, kidney disease, and HCV coinfection. These findings suggest that natriuretic peptide levels are a global marker of comorbidity in the setting of HIV infection.
doi:10.1089/aid.2009.0038
PMCID: PMC2791362  PMID: 19803714
6.  Plasma PLTP activity is inversely associated with HDL-C levels 
Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an important modulator of lipoprotein metabolism, including interparticle phospholipid transfer, remodeling of HDL, cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from peripheral tissues, and the production of hepatic VLDL. PLTP also plays an important role in inflammation and oxidative stress. Accordingly, PLTP has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between PLTP activity and lipoprotein metabolism in a Chinese patients cohort with or without coronary heart disease (CHD group n = 407, control group n = 215), the PLTP activity was measured and PLTP genotyping was screened for sequence anomalies by PCR. We found that human plasma PLTP activity was negatively associated with plasma HDL and apoA-I levels, and positively associated with plasma TG, apoB and apoE levels. We also found that PLTP rs2294213 polymorphism was tended to be associated with increased plasma PLTP activity.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-49
PMCID: PMC2793253  PMID: 19948027
7.  Vasoconstriction Seen in Coronary Bypass Grafts During Handgrip in Humans 
In animal studies, sympathetically mediated coronary vasoconstriction has been demonstrated during exercise. Human studies examining coronary artery dynamics during exercise are technically difficult to perform. Recently, noninvasive transthoracic Duplex ultrasound studies demonstrated that: 1) patients with left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafts to the left anterior descending artery can be imaged; and 2) the LIMA blood flow patterns are similar to those seen in normal coronary arteries. Accordingly, subjects with LIMA to the left anterior descending artery were studied during handgrip protocols as blood flow velocity in the LIMA was determined. Beat-by-beat analysis of changes in diastolic coronary blood flow velocity (CBV) was performed in six male clinically stable volunteers (60 ± 2 yrs) during two handgrip protocols. Arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were also measured and an index of coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated as diastolic BP/CBV). Fatiguing handgrip performed at (40% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC) followed by circulatory arrest did not evoke an increase in CVR (P = NS). In protocol 2, short bouts of handgrip (15 s) led to increases in CVR (18 ± 3% at 50% MVC and 20 ± 8% at 70% MVC). BP was also increased during handgrip. Our results reveal that in conscious humans, coronary vasoconstriction occurs within 15 s of onset of static handgrip at intensities at or greater than 50% MVC. These responses are likely to be due to sympathetic vasoconstriction of the coronary circulation.
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00618.2006
PMCID: PMC2430656  PMID: 17068218
muscle reflexes; left internal mammary artery; autonomic nervous system

Results 1-7 (7)