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1.  Genotypic Stability of Cold-Adapted Influenza Virus Vaccine in an Efficacy Clinical Trial 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(2):839-845.
An investigational live influenza virus vaccine, FluMist, contains three cold-adapted H1N1, H3N2, and B influenza viruses. The vaccine viruses are 6/2 reassortants, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes are derived from the circulating wild-type viruses and the remaining six genes are derived from the cold-adapted master donor strains. The six genes from the cold-adapted master donor strains ensure the attenuation, and the HA and NA genes from the wild-type viruses confer the ability to induce protective immunity against contemporary influenza strains. The genotypic stability of this vaccine was studied by employing clinical samples collected during an efficacy trial. Viruses present in the nasal and throat swab specimens and in supernatants after culturing the specimens were detected and subtyped by multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Complete genotypes of these detected viruses were determined by a combination of RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism, multiplex RT-PCR and fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism, and nucleic acid sequencing analysis. The FluMist vaccine appeared to be genotypically stable after replication in the human host. All viruses detected during the 2-week postvaccination period were shed vaccine viruses and had maintained the 6/2 genotype.
PMCID: PMC86217  PMID: 10655394
2.  Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa 
AIDS (London, England)  2013;27(17):2775-2786.
Objective:
To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).
Design:
Prospective cohort.
Methods:
Adults and youth with documented HIV-1 infection in the past 12 months were recruited from seroincidence cohorts in East and Southern Africa and followed at 3–6 month intervals. Blood for lymphocyte subset and viral load determination was collected at each visit. Pol was sequenced from the first positive specimen to ascertain subtype. Preantiretroviral therapy disease progression was measured by three time-to-event endpoints: CD4+ cell count 350 cells/μl or less, viral load measurement at least 1 × 105 copies/ml, and clinical AIDS.
Results:
From 2006 to 2011, 615 participants were enrolled at nine research centers in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia; 579 (94.1%) had viral subtyping completed. Predominant subtypes were C (256, 44.2%), A (209, 36.1%), and D (84, 14.5%). After adjustment for age, sex, and human leukocyte antigen alleles in Cox regression analyses, subtype C-infected participants progressed faster than subtype A to all three endpoints [CD4+ hazard ratio 1.60, 95% (confidence interval) CI 1.16, 2.20; viral load hazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.12, 2.25; and AIDS hazard ratio 1.60, 95% CI 1.11, 2.31). Subtype D-infected participants reached high viral load more rapidly (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.01, 2.57) and progressed nearly twice as fast to AIDS compared to subtype A (hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.21, 3.09).
Conclusion:
Subtype-specific differences in HIV disease progression suggest that the local subtype distribution be considered when planning HIV programs and designing and defining clinical endpoints for HIV prevention trials.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000012
PMCID: PMC3815107  PMID: 24113395
Africa; AIDS; CD4+ cell count; HIV disease progression; HIV-1 subtype; HIV-serodiscordant couples; men who have sex with men; viral load
3.  Safety and Immunogenicity of DNA Prime and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus-HIV Subtype C Vaccine Boost in Healthy Adults 
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial was conducted in 32 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of 3 doses of DNA vaccine (Advax) plus 1 dose of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) (TBC-M4) or 3 doses of TBC-M4 alone (groups A and B, respectively). Both vaccine regimens were found to be safe and well tolerated. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay responses were detected in 1/10 (10%) individuals in group A after three Advax primes and in 9/9 individuals (100%) after the MVA boost. In group B, IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were detected in 6/12 (50%) and 7/11 (64%) individuals after the second and third MVA vaccinations, respectively. Responses to all vaccine components, but predominantly to Env, were seen. The breadth and magnitude of the T cell response and viral inhibition were greater in group A than in group B, indicating that the quality of the T-cell response was enhanced by the DNA prime. Intracellular cytokine staining indicated that the T-cell responses were polyfunctional but were skewed toward Env with a CD4+ phenotype. At 2 weeks after the last vaccination, HIV-specific antibody responses were detected in all (100%) group B and 1/11 (9.1%) group A vaccinees. Vaccinia virus-specific responses were detected in all (100%) group B and 2/11 (18.2%) group A vaccinees. In conclusion, HIV-specific T-cell responses were seen in the majority of volunteers in groups A and B but with a trend toward greater quality of the T-cell response in group A. Antibody responses were better in group B than in group A.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00637-12
PMCID: PMC3592345  PMID: 23345581
4.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Elite Neutralizers: Individuals with Broad and Potent Neutralizing Activity Identified by Using a High-Throughput Neutralization Assay together with an Analytical Selection Algorithm▿ † 
Journal of Virology  2009;83(14):7337-7348.
The development of a rapid and efficient system to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals with broad and potent HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibody responses is an important step toward the discovery of critical neutralization targets for rational AIDS vaccine design. In this study, samples from HIV-1-infected volunteers from diverse epidemiological regions were screened for neutralization responses using pseudovirus panels composed of clades A, B, C, and D and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Initially, 463 serum and plasma samples from Australia, Rwanda, Uganda, the United Kingdom, and Zambia were screened to explore neutralization patterns and selection ranking algorithms. Samples were identified that neutralized representative isolates from at least four clade/CRF groups with titers above prespecified thresholds and ranked based on a weighted average of their log-transformed neutralization titers. Linear regression methods selected a five-pseudovirus subset, representing clades A, B, and C and one CRF01_AE, that could identify top-ranking samples with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) neutralization titers of ≥100 to multiple isolates within at least four clade groups. This reduced panel was then used to screen 1,234 new samples from the Ivory Coast, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand, and the United States, and 1% were identified as elite neutralizers. Elite activity is defined as the ability to neutralize, on average, more than one pseudovirus at an IC50 titer of 300 within a clade group and across at least four clade groups. These elite neutralizers provide promising starting material for the isolation of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to assist in HIV-1 vaccine design.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00110-09
PMCID: PMC2704778  PMID: 19439467

Results 1-4 (4)