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1.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Elite Neutralizers: Individuals with Broad and Potent Neutralizing Activity Identified by Using a High-Throughput Neutralization Assay together with an Analytical Selection Algorithm▿ † 
Journal of Virology  2009;83(14):7337-7348.
The development of a rapid and efficient system to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals with broad and potent HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibody responses is an important step toward the discovery of critical neutralization targets for rational AIDS vaccine design. In this study, samples from HIV-1-infected volunteers from diverse epidemiological regions were screened for neutralization responses using pseudovirus panels composed of clades A, B, C, and D and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Initially, 463 serum and plasma samples from Australia, Rwanda, Uganda, the United Kingdom, and Zambia were screened to explore neutralization patterns and selection ranking algorithms. Samples were identified that neutralized representative isolates from at least four clade/CRF groups with titers above prespecified thresholds and ranked based on a weighted average of their log-transformed neutralization titers. Linear regression methods selected a five-pseudovirus subset, representing clades A, B, and C and one CRF01_AE, that could identify top-ranking samples with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) neutralization titers of ≥100 to multiple isolates within at least four clade groups. This reduced panel was then used to screen 1,234 new samples from the Ivory Coast, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand, and the United States, and 1% were identified as elite neutralizers. Elite activity is defined as the ability to neutralize, on average, more than one pseudovirus at an IC50 titer of 300 within a clade group and across at least four clade groups. These elite neutralizers provide promising starting material for the isolation of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to assist in HIV-1 vaccine design.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00110-09
PMCID: PMC2704778  PMID: 19439467
2.  Antigen-driven C–C Chemokine-mediated HIV-1 Suppression by CD4+ T Cells from Exposed Uninfected Individuals Expressing the Wild-type CCR-5 Allele  
Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1, certain individuals remain persistently uninfected. Such exposed uninfected (EU) people show evidence of HIV-1–specific T cell immunity and, in rare cases, selective resistance to infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. The latter has been associated with a 32–base pair deletion in the C–C chemokine receptor gene CCR-5, the major coreceptor of macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. We have undertaken an analysis of the HIV-specific T cell responses in 12 EU individuals who were either homozygous for the wild-type CCR-5 allele or heterozygous for the deletion allele (CCR-5Δ32). We have found evidence of an oligoclonal T cell response mediated by helper T cells specific for a conserved region of the HIV-1 envelope. These cells produce very high levels of C–C chemokines when stimulated by the specific antigen and suppress selectively the replication of macrophage-tropic, but not T cell–tropic, strains of HIV-1. These chemokine-producing helper cells may be part of a protective immune response that could be potentially exploited for vaccine development.
PMCID: PMC2198997  PMID: 9236198
3.  Immune Responses to Candida albicans in Genetically Distinct Mice 
Infection and Immunity  1982;38(3):1020-1028.
Mice from six genetically distinct strains were examined for their immune responses to Candida albicans in in vitro and in vivo assays, and naive mice and mice immunized with the fungus were challenged intravenously with three different doses of C. albicans to determine differences in susceptibility. Naive mice from the six groups showed substantial differences in resistance to challenge based on mortalities and quantitative cultures of kidneys, with mice from strains C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ showing the most resistance; mice from strains A/J, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/J showing moderate susceptibility; and mice from strain DBA/2J showing the highest degree of susceptibility to challenge. Unimmunized mice from strains C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ did not produce detectable levels of Candida-specific antibody by the end of the 28-day observation period when challenged intravenously, but the other strains did. Immunized mice showed a degree of protection to challenge, with all groups except mice from strain BALB/cByJ showing a reduction of two to three log units in the level of colonization in their kidneys and all strains producing significant levels of antibody. Additionally, the immunized mice of all strains developed substantial levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity and demonstrated nearly identical lymphocyte proliferative responses to Candida antigens. The results indicate that resistance to systemic candidiasis is dependent upon a combination of innate factors, predominately an intact complement system, and the acquisition of an immune response, most likely of a cell-mediated type. Additionally, the findings suggest that genetic control of acquired resistance to C. albicans may not be associated with the H-2 complex.
PMCID: PMC347851  PMID: 6759403

Results 1-3 (3)