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1.  Attributable Causes of Esophageal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e42281.
Background
To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF)]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379) and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238) were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women) were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.
Conclusions/Significance
Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042281
PMCID: PMC3410925  PMID: 22876312
2.  Attributable Causes of Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer in China: Reproductive Factors, Oral Contraceptives and Hormone Replacement Therapy 
Objective
To provide an evidence-based, consistent assessment of the burden of breast cancer attributable to reproductive factors (RFs, including nulliparity, mean number of children, age at first birth and breastfeeding), use of oral contraceptives (OCs, restricted to the age group of 15-49 years), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as well as of the burden of ovarian cancer attributable to the mean number of children in China in 2005.
Methods
We derived the prevalence of these risk factors and the relative risk of breast and ovarian cancer from national surveys or large-scale studies conducted in China. In the case of RFs, we compared the exposure distributions in 2001 and counterfactual exposure.
Results
Exposure of RFs in 2001 was found to account for 6.74% of breast cancer, corresponding to 9,617 cases and 2,769 deaths, and for 2.78% of ovarian cancer (711 cases, 294 deaths). The decrease in mean number of children alone was responsible for 1.47% of breast cancer and 2.78% of ovarian cancer. The prevalence of OC use was 1.74% and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of breast cancer was 0.71%, corresponding to 310 cases and 90 deaths. The PAF of breast cancer due to HRT was 0.31%, resulting in 297 cases and 85 deaths.
Conclusion
RFs changes in China contributed to a sizable fraction of breast and ovarian cancer incidence and mortality, whereas HRT and OCs accounted for relatively low incidence of breast cancer in China.
doi:10.1007/s11670-012-0009-y
PMCID: PMC3555252  PMID: 23359757
Reproductive factors; Oral contraceptives; Hormone replacement therapy; Cancer; Population attributable fraction
3.  Attributable Causes of Cancer in China: Fruit and Vegetable 
Objective
To provide an evidence-based and consistent assessment of the burden of cancer attributable to inadequate fruit and vegetable intake in China in 2005.
Methods
The proportions of cancers attributable to low consumption of vegetable and fruit were calculated separately to estimate the burden of related cancers for the year 2005 in China. Data on the prevalence of exposure were derived from a Chinese nutrition and health survey. Data on relative risks were mainly derived from meta-analysis. Attributable fractions were calculated based on the counterfactual scenario which was a shift in the exposure distribution.
Results
The total cancer burden attributable to inadequate consumption of fruit was up to 233,000 deaths (13.0% of all cancers) and 300,000 cases (11.6% of all cancers) in 2005. Increasing consumption of vegetable to the highest quintile could avoid total cancer deaths and cases by 3.6% (64,000 persons) and 3.4% (88,000 persons). The contributions to cancer burden were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. They have greater influence on men than on women. The largest proportions of cancer burden attributable to low fruit and vegetable intake were for oral and pharyngeal cancers.
Conclusion
This study showed that inadequate intake of fruit and vegetable makes a significant contribution to the cancer burden. Increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable could prevent many cancer deaths and save many lives. Promoting the consumption of fruit and vegetable is an important component in diet-based strategies for preventing cancer.
doi:10.1007/s11670-011-0171-7
PMCID: PMC3587560  PMID: 23467575
Fruit; Vegetable; Cancer; Population attributable fraction; China
4.  No role for human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in China 
Certain regions of China have high rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Previous studies of human papillomavirus (HPV), a proposed causal factor, have produced highly variable results. We attempted to evaluate HPV and ESCC more definitively using extreme care to prevent DNA contamination. We collected tissue and serum in China from 272 histopathologically-confirmed ESCC cases with rigorous attention to good molecular biology technique. We tested for HPV DNA in fresh-frozen tumor tissue using PCR with PGMY L1 consensus primers and HPV16 and 18 type-specific E6 and E7 primers, and in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using SPF10 L1 primers. In HPV-positive cases, we evaluated p16INK4a overexpression and HPV E6/E7 seropositivity as evidence of carcinogenic HPV activity. β-globin, and thus DNA, was adequate in 98.2% of the frozen tumor tissues (267/272). Of these, 99.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 97.9–100.0%) were negative for HPV DNA by PGMY, and 100% (95% CI = 98.6–100%) were negative by HPV16/18 E6/E7 PCR. In the corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens, 99.3% (95% CI = 97.3–99.9%) were HPV negative by SPF10. By PGMY, 1 case tested weakly positive for HPV89, a noncancer causing HPV type. By SPF10, 2 cases tested weakly positive: 1 for HPV16 and 1 for HPV31. No HPV DNA-positive case had evidence of HPV oncogene activity as measured by p16INK4a overexpression or E6/E7 seropositivity. This study provides the most definitive evidence to date that HPV is not involved in ESCC carcinogenesis in China. HPV DNA contamination cannot be ruled out as an explanation for high HPV prevalence in ESCC tissue studies with less stringent tissue procurement and processing protocols.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25023
PMCID: PMC3069961  PMID: 19918949
human papillomavirus; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Results 1-4 (4)