There is evidence that exposure to chlorinated solvents may be associated with childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (M/PNET) risk. Animal models suggest genes related to detoxification and DNA repair are important in the carcinogenicity of these pollutants, however, there have been no human studies assessing the modifying effects of these genotypes on the association between chlorinated solvents and childhood M/PNET risk.
We conducted a case-only study to evaluate census tract-level exposure to chlorinated solvents and the risk of childhood M/PNET in the context of detoxification and DNA repair genotypes. Cases (n = 98) were obtained from Texas Children’s Hospital and MD Anderson Cancer Center. Key genotypes (n = 22) were selected from the Illumina Human 1M Quad SNP Chip. Exposure to chlorinated solvents (methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride) was estimated from the U.S. EPA’s 1999 Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN). Logistic regression was used to estimate the case-only odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
There were 11 significant gene-environment interactions associated with childhood M/PNET risk. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, only the interaction between high trichloroethylene levels and OGG1 rs293795 significantly increased the risk of childhood M/PNET risk (OR = 9.24, 95% CI: 2.24, 38.24, Q = 0.04).
This study provides an initial assessment of the interaction between ambient levels of chlorinated solvents and potentially relevant genotypes on childhood M/PNET risk. Our results are exploratory and must be validated in animal models, as well as additional human studies.
Hazardous air pollutants; chlorinated solvents; DNA repair genes; detoxification genes; childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor
Both PCR and Hybrid Capture II (HCII) have been used for identifying cervical dysplasia; however, comparisons on the performance between these two tests show inconsistent results. We evaluated the performance of HCII and PCR MY09/11 in both screening and diagnostic populations in sub-sample of 1,675 non-pregnant women from a cohort in three clinical centers in the United States and Canada.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance between the two tests were calculated.
Specificity of HCII in detecting low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) was higher in the screening group (88.7%; 95% CI: 86.2%–90.8%) compared to the diagnostic group (46.3%; 95% CI: 42.1%–50.6%); however, specificity of PCR was low in both the screening (32.8%; 95% CI: 29.6%–36.2%) and diagnostic (14.4%; 95% CI: 11.6%–17.6%) groups. There was comparable sensitivity by both tests in both groups to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); however, HCII was more specific (89.1%; 95% CI: 86.8%–91.0%; 66.2%; 95% CI: 62.0%–70.1%) than PCR (33.3%; 95% CI: 30.2%–36.5%; 17.9%; 95% CI: 14.8%–21.6%) in the screening and diagnostic groups, respectively. Overall agreement for HPV positivity was approximately 50% between HCII and PCR MY09/11; with more positive results coming from the PCR MY09/11.
In the current study, PCR MY09/11 was more sensitive but less specific than HCII in detecting LSIL, and HCII was more sensitive and specific in detecting HSIL than PCR in both screening and diagnostic groups.
comparison; test accuracy; hybrid capture II (HC II); polymerase chain reaction (PCR); cervical dysplasia
The risk of glioma has consistently been shown to be increased two-fold in relatives of patients with primary brain tumors (PBT). A recent genome-wide linkage study of glioma families provided evidence for a disease locus on 17q12-21.32, with the possibility of four additional risk loci at 6p22.3, 12p13.33-12.1, 17q22-23.2, and 18q23.
To identify the underlying genetic variants responsible for the linkage signals, we compared the genotype frequencies of 5,122 SNPs mapping to these five regions in 88 glioma cases with and 1,100 cases without a family history of PBT (discovery study). An additional series of 84 familial and 903 non-familial cases were used to replicate associations.
In the discovery study, 12 SNPs showed significant associations with family history of PBT (P < 0.001). In the replication study, two of the 12 SNPs were confirmed: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.031) and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs650461 (P = 0.025). In the combined analysis of discovery and replication studies, the strongest associations were attained at four SNPs: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.0001), SOX5 rs7305773 (P = 0.0001) and STKY1 rs2418087 (P = 0.0003), and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs6504618 (P = 0.0006). Further, a significant gene-dosage effect was found for increased risk of family history of PBT with these four SNPs in the combined data set (Ptrend < 1.0 ×10−8).
The results support the linkage finding that some loci in the 12p13.33-12.1 and 17q12-q21.32 may contribute to gliomagenesis and suggest potential target genes underscoring linkage signals.
Association; Polymorphisms; Glioma; Family history of primary brain tumor; Linkage analysis
Psychological or neurocognitive impairment is often seen in medulloblastoma survivors after craniospinal radiation; however, significant variability in outcomes exists. This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms in moderating this outcome and hypothesized that patients who had polymorphisms associated with lower antioxidant enzyme function would have a higher occurrence of impairment. From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort, 109 medulloblastoma survivors and 143 siblings were identified who completed the CCSS Neurocognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and who provided buccal DNA samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination was used for SOD2 (rs4880), GPX1 (rs1050450), and GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) genotyping and PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions. Outcomes on NCQ and BSI-18 subscale scores were examined in association with genotypes and clinical factors, including age at diagnosis, sex, and radiation dose, using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance. Patients <7 years of age at diagnosis displayed more problems with task efficiency (P < .001) and fewer problems with somatic complaints (P = .004) than did patients ≥7 years of age. Female patients reported more organization problems than did male patients (P = .02). Patients with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion reported higher anxiety (mean null genotype = 47.3 ± 9.2, non-null = 43.9 ± 7.8; P = .04), more depression (null = 51.0 ± 9.8, non-null = 47.0 ± 9.4; P = .03), and more global distress (null = 50.2 ± 9.7, non-null = 45.2 ± 9.9; P = .01). All associations for the GSTM1 polymorphism remained statistically significant in a multivariate model controlling for age, sex, and radiation dose. Homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion was consistently associated with greater psychological distress in medulloblastoma survivors across multiple domains, suggesting that this genotype may predispose patients for increased emotional late effects.
Childhood Cancer Survivor Study; glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms; medulloblastoma; neuropsychological impairment; radiation therapy
Despite previous research, prognostic factors for ependymoma remain relatively controversial. The purpose of our study was to examine demographic, clinical, and tumor attributes as potential predictors of survival using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data (1973–2007).
All ependymoma (ICD-O-3 code 9391) and anaplastic ependymoma cases (ICD-O-3 code 9392) with complete data (n=2369 and n=319, respectively) were included from SEER. Predictive Cox regression models were built separately among pediatric and adult cases. Recursive partitioning was used to corroborate results from regression models.
Among pediatric cases, tumor characteristics with a significantly increased mortality risk were anaplastic histology (vs. low grade, HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.19) and infratentorial tumor location (vs. spinal cord, HR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.17–12.77). Among adults, supratentorial tumors were associated with higher mortality hazard (vs. spinal cord tumors) than infratentorial tumors (HR: 4.83, 95% CI: 3.49–6.68 & HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.79–3.25, respectively). Complete surgical resection of the tumor conferred the most protection among pediatric and adult patients.
Our results indicate that treatment type and tumor characteristics are important prognostic factors in patients with ependymoma. However, there may be key differences between pediatric and adult cases regarding how these factors influence survival.
Cord blood IgE has previously been studied as a possible predictor of asthma and allergic diseases. Results from different studies have been contradictory, and most have focused on high-risk infants and early infancy. Few studies have followed their study population into adulthood. This study assessed whether cord blood IgE levels and a family history of asthma were associated with, and could predict, asthma medication and allergy-related respiratory symptoms in adults. A follow-up was carried out in a Swedish birth cohort comprising 1,701 consecutively born children. In all, 1,661 individuals could be linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Medical Birth Register, and 1,227 responded to a postal questionnaire. Cord blood IgE and family history of asthma were correlated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication at 32–34 years. Elevated cord blood IgE was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication. Similarly, a family history of asthma was associated with an increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and anti-inflammatory medication. However, only 8% of the individuals with elevated cord blood IgE or a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication at follow-up. In all, 49 out of 60 individuals with dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication at 32–34 years of age had not been reported having asthma at previous check-ups of the cohort during childhood. Among those, only 5% with elevated cord blood IgE and 6% with a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication as adults. Elevated cord blood IgE and a positive family history of asthma were associated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication in adulthood, but their predictive power was poor in this long-time follow-up.
The effectiveness of screening programs for cervical cancer has benefited from the inclusion of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays; which assay to choose, however, is not clear based on previous reviews. Our review addressed test accuracy of Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on studies with stronger designs and with more clinically relevant outcomes. We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies comparing both tests, published 1985–2012, with cervical dysplasia defined by the Bethesda classification. Meta-analysis provided pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. From 29 reports, we found that the pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was higher for HCII than PCR (0.89 [CI: 0.89–0.90] and 0.85 [CI: 0.84–0.86] vs. 0.73 [CI: 0.73–0.74] and 0.62 [CI: 0.62–0.64]). Both assays had higher accuracy to detect cervical dysplasia in Europe than in Asia-Pacific or North America (diagnostic odd ratio – dOR = 4.08 [CI: 1.39–11.91] and 4.56 [CI: 1.86–11.17] for HCII vs. 2.66 [CI: 1.16–6.53] and 3.78 [CI: 1.50–9.51] for PCR) and accuracy to detect HSIL than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (HCII-dOR = 9.04 [CI: 4.12–19.86] and PCR-dOR = 5.60 [CI: 2.87–10.94]). For HCII, using histology as a gold standard results in higher accuracy than using cytology (dOR = 2.87 [CI: 1.31–6.29]). Based on higher test accuracy, our results support the use of HCII in cervical cancer screening programs. The role of HPV type distribution should be explored to determine the worldwide comparability of HPV test accuracy.
Human papillomavirus; hybrid capture II; meta-analysis; polymerase chain reaction; test accuracy
As part of a 2 day conference on October 15 and 16, 2009, a nine-member task force composed of scientists, clinicians, educators, administrators, and students from across the United States was formed to discuss research, discovery, and technology obstacles to progress in cancer prevention and control, specifically those related to the cancer prevention workforce. This article summarizes the task force’s findings on the current state of the cancer prevention workforce in this area and its needs for the future. The task force identified two types of barriers impeding the current cancer prevention workforce in research, discovery, and technology from reaching its fullest potential: 1) limited cross-disciplinary research opportunities with underutilization of some disciplines is hampering discovery and research in cancer prevention, and 2) new research avenues are not being investigated because technology development and implementation are lagging. Examples of impediments and desired outcomes are provided in each of these areas. Recommended solutions to these problems are based on the goals of enhancing the current cancer prevention workforce and accelerating the pace of discovery and clinical translation.
Cancer prevention; training; workforce; technology; research
Genetic variation in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) may contribute to lung cancer risk. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype and lung cancer risk in Asian population but yielded inconclusive results.
We performed a meta-analysis of 23 studies including 4065 cases and 5390 controls. We assessed the strength of the association of GSTT1 with lung cancer risk and performed sub-group analyses by source of controls, smoking status, histological types, and sample size. A statistically significant correlation between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer in Asian population was observed (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I2 = 62.0%). Sub-group analysis revealed there was a statistically increased lung cancer risk in ever-smokers who carried the GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.96; P heterogeneity = 0.02 and I2 = 58.1%). It was also indicated that GSTT1 null genotype could increase lung cancer risk among population-based studies (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50; Pheterogeneity = 0.003 and I2 = 56.8%). The positive association was also found in studies of sample size (≤500 participants) (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.62; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I2 = 65.4%).
These meta-analysis results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population.
Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms)-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1) SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44–8.15) (P-interaction = 0.003). Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41) (P-interaction = 0.006). In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.
HPV testing in cervical cancer screening has been proposed as an alternative or complementary to cytology in women older than 30 years. However, adequate clinical sensitivity and specificity are crucial for a new test to be implemented. Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) has proved good clinical performance in selecting women at risk for high-grade intraepithelial lesions with a high sensitivity and specificity. cobas HPV Test has been recently launched and its performance in different clinical settings needs to be determined.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cobas HPV Test for the detection of cervical HPV infection in a population of women in Catalonia (Spain) using HC2 as a reference.
Materials and Methods
Cervical liquid cytology samples from 958 women have been studied. Sensitivity was analyzed in 60 samples from patients with a high-grade intraepithelial lesion (≥CIN2) on histology and specificity was determined in 898 samples from women with no ≥CIN2. All cases had HC2 and cobas HPV Test performed. Statistical analyses of sensitivity, specificity and comparison between HC2 and cobas HPV Test by a non-inferiority test were applied.
Sensitivity of HC2 and cobas HPV Test for detecting ≥CIN2 proved identical (98.3%) while specificity was 85.3% and 86.2% respectively. The non-inferiority test demonstrated that cobas HPV Test surpassed 90% sensitivity and 98% specificity of HC2.
The cobas HPV Test results fulfilled sensitivity and specificity requirements for HPV based cervical cancer screening and for the triage of minor cytological abnormalities, allowing its introduction in clinical settings.
The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, anal canal, and anorectum (SCCA) has increased over time. However, there are still no national guidelines on screening for SCCA among high-risk populations. Providers at University of California, San Francisco have been at the forefront of providing anal dysplasia screening. To determine whether such a screening program allows for earlier detection of abnormalities and consequently, improves patient survival, we conducted an ecological study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program to compare the San Francisco-Oakland catchment area (SF-O) to other SEER sites where routine screening has not been as accessible. Cox regression models were utilized to assess the impact of residing in the SF-O region, versus other SEER sites, on cause-specific mortality hazard. Logistic regression was used to determine if site was associated with the probability of having an in situ versus invasive tumor among SCCA cases. All analyses were stratified on calendar time (1985–1995 and 1996–2008) to compare differences pre- and post- highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Among SCCA cases, being reported by the SF-O registry was associated with a four fold higher probability of having an in situ tumor (rather than an invasive tumor) [95% CI: 3.48–4.61], compared to sites outside of California, between 1996 and 2008. Cases reported from the SF-O region between 1996 and 2008 had a 39% lower mortality risk than those reported from registries outside California (95% CI: 0.51–0.72). However, there was no decrease in the rate of invasive SCCA over this period. This is the first ecological study to evaluate whether access to anal cancer screening programs may help improve patient survival by allowing for earlier detection of lesions. Our results imply that routine screening programs may help detect SCCA at an earlier stage and thus, potentially impact patient survival.
Background. Little is known about the associations between CD4+ cell counts, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, and human papillomavirus “low-risk” types in noncancerous clinical outcomes. This study examined whether CD4+ count and HIV load predict the size of the largest anal warts in 976 HIV-infected women in an ongoing cohort.
Methods. A linear mixed model was used to determine the association between size of anal wart and CD4+ count and HIV load.
Results. The incidence of anal warts was 4.15 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.83–4.77) and 1.30 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 1.00–1.58) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, respectively. There appeared to be an inverse association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. There was no association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time.
Conclusions. There was no evidence for an association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Further exploration on the role of immune response on the development of anal warts is warranted in a larger study.
The effect of preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on the reduction of the cervical cancer (CC) burden will not be known for 30 years. Therefore, it’s still necessary to improve the procedures for CC screening and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cellular targets that could be considered potential markers for screening or therapeutic targets. A pyramidal strategy was used. Initially the expression of 8,638 genes was compared between 43 HPV16-positive CCs and 12 healthy cervical epitheliums using microarrays. A total of 997 genes were deregulated, and 21 genes that showed the greatest deregulation were validated using qRT-PCR. The 6 most upregulated genes (CCNB2, CDC20, PRC1, SYCP2, NUSAP1, CDKN3) belong to the mitosis pathway. They were further explored in 29 low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN1) and 21 high-grade CIN (CIN2/3) to investigate whether they could differentiate CC and CIN2/3 (CIN2+) from CIN1 and controls. CCNB2, PRC1, and SYCP2 were mostly associated with CC and CDC20, NUSAP1, and CDKN3 were also associated with CIN2/3. The sensitivity and specificity of CDKN3 and NUSAP1 to detect CIN2+ was approximately 90%. The proteins encoded by all 6 genes were shown upregulated in CC by immunohistochemistry. The association of these markers with survival was investigated in 42 CC patients followed up for at least 42 months. Only CDKN3 was associated with poor survival and it was independent from clinical stage (HR = 5.9, 95%CI = 1.4–23.8, p = 0.01). CDKN3 and NUSAP1 may be potential targets for the development of screening methods. Nevertheless, further studies with larger samples are needed to define the optimal sensitivity and specificity. Inhibition of mitosis is a well-known strategy to combat cancers. Therefore, CDKN3 may be not only a screening and survival marker but a potential therapeutic target in CC. However, whether it’s indispensable for tumor growth remains to be demonstrated.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and is virtually incurable. Recent studies have shown that CMV is present in the majority of GBMs. To evaluate if the CMV antigens pp65 and IE1, which are expressed in GBMs, can be targeted with CMV-specific T cells, we measured the frequency of T cells targeting pp65 and IE1 in the peripheral blood of a cohort of 11 sequentially-diagnosed CMV-seropositive GBM patients, and evaluated whether it was feasible to expand autologous CMV-specific T cells for future clinical studies. All 11 CMV-seropositive GBM patients had T cells specific for pp65 and IE1 in their peripheral blood assessed by IFNγ ELIspot assay. However, the precursor frequency of pp65-specific T cells was decreased in comparison to healthy donors (p=0.001). We successfully reactivated and expanded CMV-specific T cells from 6 out of 6 GBM patients using antigen presenting cells transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding pp65 and IE1. CMV-specific T-cell lines contained CD4-positive as well as CD8-positive T cells, recognized pp65- and IE1-positive targets and killed CMV-infected autologous GBM cells. Infusion of such CMV-specific T-cell lines may extend the benefits of T-cell therapy to patients with CMV-positive GBMs.
Glioblastoma; GBM; CMV; T cells; immunotherapy; pp65; IE1
There is an urgent global need for effective and affordable approaches to cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. For developing nations, cervical malignancies remain the leading cause of cancer death in women. This reality is difficult to accept given that these deaths are largely preventable; where cervical screening programs are implemented, cervical cancer deaths decrease dramatically. In the developed world, the challenges with respect to cervical disease stem from high costs and over-treatment. We are presently eleven years into a National Cancer Institute-funded Program Project (P01 CA82710) that is evaluating optical technologies for their applicability to the cervical cancer problem. Our mandate is to create new tools for disease detection and diagnosis that are inexpensive, require minimal expertise to use, are more accurate than existing modalities, and will be feasibly implemented in a variety of clinical settings. Herein, we update the status of this work and explain the long-term goals of this project.
Although the relationship between allergy and cancer has been investigated extensively, the role of allergy in head and neck cancer (HNC) appears less consistent. It is not clear whether allergies can independently influence the risk of HNC in the presence of known strong environmental risk factors, including consumption of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette.
The current paper reports results from: 1) an original hospital-based case-control study, which included 252 incident cases of HNC and 236 controls frequency-matched to cases on sex and age; and 2) a meta-analysis combining the results of the current case-control study and 13 previously published studies (9 cohort studies with 727,569 subjects and 550 HNC outcomes and 5 case-control studies with 4,017 HNC cases and 10,928 controls).
In the original case-control study, we observed a strong inverse association between allergies and HNC [odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.62]. The meta-analysis also indicated a statistically significant inverse association between HNC and allergies [meta-relative risk (RR) = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63–0.91], particularly strong for allergic rhinitis (meta-RR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.40–0.76). In addition, the inverse association between allergies and HNC was observed only among men (meta-RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54–0.84) but not among women (meta-RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.81–1.18).
These findings suggest that immunity plays an influential role in the risk of HNC. Future studies investigating immune biomarkers, including cytokine profiles and genetic polymorphisms, are warranted to further delineate the relationship between allergies and HNC. Understanding the relationship between allergies and HNC may help devise effective strategies to reduce and treat HNC.
The role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in glioma development and progression remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to assess the potential associations between anti-HCMV antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) and glioma risk and prognosis using data from the Harris County Case–Control Study. Multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between glioma status and antibody levels among glioma cases (n = 362) and cancer-free controls (n = 462). Hazard ratios and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for age, race, and sex, to determine if antibody levels were associated with survival over time among cases. Among IgG-positive participants, increasing anti-HCMV IgG levels were associated with decreasing glioma risk (P for trend = 0.0008), and those with the lowest level of anti-HCMV IgG (<10 U/mL) had the highest glioma risk, controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.42–4.43). Antibody levels were not associated with survival among glioma cases. Our study contributes new evidence toward the potential importance of the direct and indirect effects of HCMV infection in gliomagenesis.
Brain neoplasms; glioma; human cytomegalovirus; immunoglobulin G; immunoglobulin M; risk factors
X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) is one of the DNA repair genes encoding a scaffolding protein that participate in base excision repair (BER) pathway. However, studies on the association between polymorphisms in this gene and glioma have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation between XRCC1 polymorphisms (Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp, and Arg280His) and glioma risk.
Data were collected from several electronic databases, with the last search up to November 28, 2012. Meta-analysis was performed by critically reviewing 9 studies for Arg399Gln polymorphism (3146 cases and 4296 controls), 4 studies for Arg194Trp polymorphism (2557 cases and 4347 controls), and 4 studies for Arg280His polymorphism (1936 cases and 2895 controls). All of the statistical analyses were performed using the software programs STATA (version 11.0).
The combined results showed that Arg399Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with glioma risk (Gln/Gln versus Arg/Arg: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.03–2.23; recessive model: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.01–1.73; additive model: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00–1.47), whereas Arg194Trp/Arg280His polymorphisms were all not significantly associated with glioma risk. As for ethnicity, Arg399Gln polymorphism was associated with increased risk of glioma among Asians (Gln/Gln versus Arg/Arg: OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.29–2.47; Arg/Gln versus Arg/Arg: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.05–1.56; recessive model: OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.16–2.17; dominant model: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.13–1.65; additive model: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.15–1.52), but not among Caucasians. Stratified analyses by histological subtype indicated that the Gln allele of Arg399Gln polymorphism showed borderline association with the risk of glioblastoma among Caucasians. However, no evidence was observed in subgroup analyses for Arg194Trp/Arg280His polymorphisms.
Our meta-analysis suggested that Arg399Gln polymorphism was associated with increased risk of glioma among Asians and borderline increased risk for glioblastoma among Caucasians, whereas Arg194Trp/Arg280His polymorphisms might have no influence on the susceptibility of glioma in different ethnicities.
Although most advanced prostate cancer patients respond to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), the efficacy is widely variable. We investigated whether the host genetic variations in sex hormone pathway genes are associated with the efficacy of ADT. A cohort of 645 patients with advanced prostate cancer treated with ADT was genotyped for 18 polymorphisms across 12 key genes involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism. We found that after adjusting for known risk factors in multivariate Cox regression models, AKR1C3 rs12529 and AR-CAG repeat length remained significantly associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after ADT (P≤0.041). Furthermore, individuals carrying two unfavorable genotypes at these loci presented a 13.7-fold increased risk of PCSM compared with individuals carrying zero (P<0.001). Our results identify two candidate molecular markers in key genes of androgen and estrogen pathways associated with PCSM after ADT, establishing the role of pharmacogenomics in this therapy.
Multicentric Castleman Disease is largely driven by increased signaling in the pathway for the plasma cell growth factor interleukin-6. We hypothesized that interleukin-6/interleukin-6 receptor/gp130 polymorphisms contribute to increased interleukin-6 and/or other components of the interleukin-6 signaling pathway in HIV-negative Castleman Disease patients. The study group was composed of 58 patients and 50 healthy donors of a similar racial/ethnic profile. Of seven polymorphisms chosen for analysis, we observed an increased frequency between patients and controls of the minor allele of interleukin-6 receptor polymorphism rs4537545, which is in linkage disequilibrium with interleukin-6 receptor polymorphism rs2228145. Further, individuals possessing at least one copy of the minor allele of either polymorphism expressed higher levels of soluble interleukin-6 receptor. These elevated interleukin-6 receptor levels may contribute to increased interleukin-6 activity through the trans-signaling pathway. These data suggest that interleukin-6 receptor polymorphism may be a contributing factor in Castleman Disease, and further research is warranted.
The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany.
Evidence based resource allocation and decentralized planning of an effective HIV/AIDS response requires reliable information on levels and trends of HIV at national and sub-national geographic levels. HIV sentinel surveillance data from antenatal clinics (HSS-ANC) has been an important data source to assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, but has a number of limitations. We assess the value of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) programme data to appraise the HIV epidemic in India.
HIV data from PPTCT sites were compared to HSS-ANC and general population level surveys at various geographic levels in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Chi-square tests were used to ascertain statistical significance. PPTCT HIV prevalence was significantly lower than HSS-ANC HIV prevalence (0.92% vs. 1.22% in Andhra Pradesh, 0.65% vs. 0.89% in Karnataka, 0.52% vs. 0.60% in Maharashtra, p<0.001 for all three states). In all three states, HIV prevalence from PPTCT centres that were part of the sentinel surveillance was comparable to HSS-ANC prevalence but significantly higher than PPTCT centres that were not part of the sentinel surveillance. HIV prevalence from PPTCT data was comparable to that from general population surveys. In all three states, significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2007 and 2010 were observed with the PPTCT data set. District level analyses of HIV trends and sub-district level analysis of HIV prevalence were possible using the PPTCT and not the HSS-ANC data sets.
HIV prevalence from PPTCT may be a better proxy for general population prevalence than HSS-ANC. PPTCT data allow for analysis of HIV prevalence and trends at smaller geographic units, which is important for decentralized planning of HIV/AIDS programming. With further improvements to the system, India could replace its HSS-ANC with PPTCT programme data for surveillance.
Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two oncogenic types (16 and 18) that contribute to 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Our objective was to quantify the range of additional benefits conferred by second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines that are expected to expand protection to five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58).
A microsimulation model of HPV and cervical cancer calibrated to epidemiological data from two countries (Kenya and Uganda) was used to estimate reductions in lifetime risk of cervical cancer from the second-generation HPV vaccines. We explored the independent and joint impact of uncertain factors (i.e., distribution of HPV types, co-infection with multiple HPV types, and unidentifiable HPV types in cancer) and vaccine properties (i.e., cross-protection against non-targeted HPV types), compared against currently-available vaccines.
Assuming complete uptake of the second-generation vaccine, reductions in lifetime cancer risk were 86.3% in Kenya and 91.8% in Uganda, representing an absolute increase in cervical cancer reduction of 26.1% in Kenya and 17.9% in Uganda, compared with complete uptake of current vaccines. The range of added benefits was 19.6% to 29.1% in Kenya and 14.0% to 19.5% in Uganda, depending on assumptions of cancers attributable to multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types. These effects were blunted in both countries when assuming vaccine cross-protection with both the current and second-generation vaccines.
Second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against additional oncogenic HPV types have the potential to improve cervical cancer prevention. Co-infection with multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types can influence vaccine effectiveness, but the magnitude of effect may be moderated by vaccine cross-protective effects. These benefits must be weighed against the cost of the vaccines in future analyses.