Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is strongly associated with the therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, tumor tissue that needed for mutation analysis is frequently unavailable. Body fluid was considered to be a feasible substitute for the analysis, but arising problems in clinical practice such as relatively lower mutation rate and poor clinical correlation are not yet fully resolved.
In this study, 50 patients (32 pleural fluids and 18 plasmas) with TKIs therapy experience and with direct sequencing results were selected from 220 patients for further analysis. The EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS), and the clinical outcomes of TKIs were analyzed retrospectively.
As compared with direct sequencing, 16 positive and 23 negative patients were confirmed by ARMS, and the other 11 former negative patients (6 pleural fluids and 5 plasmas) were redefined as positive, with a fairly well clinical outcome (7 PR, 3 SD, and 1 PD). The objective response rate (ORR) of positive patients was significant, 81.3% (direct sequencing) and 72.7% (ARMS) for pleural fluids, and 80% (ARMS) for plasma. Notably, even reclassified by ARMS, the ORR for negative patients was still relatively high, 60% for pleural fluids and 46.2% for plasma.
When using body fluids for EGFR mutation analysis, positive result is consistently a good indicator for TKIs therapy, and the predictive effect was no less than that of tumor tissue, no matter what method was employed. However, even reclassified by ARMS, the correlation between negative results and clinical outcome of TKIs was still unsatisfied. The results indicated that false negative mutation still existed, which may be settled by using method with sensitivity to single DNA molecule or by optimizing the extraction procedure with RNA or CTC to ensure adequate amount of tumor-derived nucleic acid for the test.
Body Fluids; EGFR Mutation; Direct Sequencing; ARMS; TKIs; NSCLC
The effect of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism on brain structure and function has been previously investigated separately and regionally; this prevents us from obtaining a full picture of the effect of this gene variant. Additionally, gender difference must not be overlooked because estrogen exerts an interfering effect on COMT activity. We examined 323 young healthy Chinese Han subjects and analyzed the gray matter volume (GMV) differences between Val/Val individuals and Met carriers in a voxel-wise manner throughout the whole brain. We were interested in genotype effects and genotype × gender interactions. We then extracted these brain regions with GMV differences as seeds to compute resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the rest of the brain; we also tested the genotypic differences and gender interactions in the rsFCs. Val/Val individuals showed decreased GMV in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) compared with Met carriers; decreased GMV in the medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG) was found only in male Val/Val subjects. The rsFC analysis revealed that both the PCC and mSFG were functionally correlated with brain regions of the default mode network (DMN). Both of these regions showed decreased rsFCs with different parts of the frontopolar cortex of the DMN in Val/Val individuals than Met carriers. Our findings suggest that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates both the structure and functional connectivity within the DMN and that gender interactions should be considered in studies of the effect of this genetic variant, especially those involving prefrontal morphology.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the combined use of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), bortezomib or SN50, and the chemotherapy agents arsenic acid (As2O3), fluorouracil (5FU), oxaliplatin or paclitaxel on the growth and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. Cell morphology was observed using inverted microscopy, and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The activities of NF-κB were analyzed by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Cell growth was significantly inhibited by As2O3, oxaliplatin and paclitaxel in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), while 5FU inhibited cell growth in a time-dependent manner only (P<0.05). The growth inhibition rate and apoptosis induction ratio were increased following the combined treatment of the chemotherapy agent and NF-κB inhibitor. The expression of NF-κB p65 was upregulated when cells were treated with a chemotherapy drug, however it was downregulated following combined treatment or treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor alone. In conclusion, an NF-κB inhibitor combined with a chemotherapy drug effectively inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and inhibited NF-κB activity to enhance the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of HT-29 cells.
colon cancer; NF-κB inhibitor; chemotherapy; bortezomib; pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate; SN50
As a benign mesenchymal tumor, classic renal angiomyolipoma (AML) may obliterate the kidney parenchyma and cause renal hemorrhage. It has previously been reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tumorigenesis; however, there have been no studies on stem cells with renal AML origin. In the present study, six females with classic renal AML received a partial or total nephrectomy. During surgery, tumor tissues were collected and culture expansion of adhesive fibroblastoid cells from these tissues was performed. We successfully isolated and cultured MSC-like cells from all six renal AML tumors. MSC characteristics, including morphology, immunophenotype and multidifferentiation potential were analyzed. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that these cells are highly similar to human bone marrow MSCs due to the expression of MSC-specific surface proteins, including CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105. The stem cell-like nature of these cells is further supported by their adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potentials when incubated in appropriate differentiation cocktails. Renal AML-derived adhesive cells possessing the characteristics of MSCs are described for the first time. They are a novel cell type which may be useful in future studies with regards to determining the role of stem cells in the formation and development of renal AML.
renal angiomyolipoma; renal tumor; mesenchymal stem cells
The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unclear. Accumulating evidence indicates that various miRNAs expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled manner in the nervous system have an important function in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to determine the expression and cellular distribution of miRNA-9 in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 mutant mice at different time points (post-natal 95, 108 and 122 d). miRNA expression was evaluated by microarray analysis; differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR. The cellular distribution of miRNA-9 was analyzed by in-situ hybridization. Microarray results indicated for the first time that various miRNAs were differentially expressed between the G93A-SOD1 mutant mice and the littermate control mice. miRNA-9 expression was upregulated at 95, 108, and 122 d as validated by microarray analysis, RT-qPCR, and ISH. ISH results also showed that the miRNA-9-positive cells mainly expressed in the cytoplasm were located in the dorsal horn and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The majority of miRNA-9-positive cells were located in the ventral horn of the gray matter, the locus of neurodegeneration. These results indicated that the differential expression of miRNA-9 may have an important function in the pathogenesis of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice.
ALS; miRNA-9; differential expression
Plant innate immunity relies on successful detection of trespassing pathogens through recognizing their microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the cell surface. We recently reported two rice lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins, OsLYP4 and OsLYP6, as dual functional PRRs sensing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and fungal chitin. Here we further demonstrated the important roles of OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 in rice defense signaling, as silencing of either LYP impaired the defense marker gene activation induced by either bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaecola or fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Moreover, we found that OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 could form homo- and hetero-dimers, and could interact with CEBiP, suggesting an unexpected complexity of chitin perception in rice.
lysin motif-containing proteins; rice; innate immunity; defense-related gene; pattern recognition receptors
The nongreen plastids, such as etioplasts, chromoplasts, etc., as well as chloroplasts, are all derived from proplastids in the meristem. To date, the Min system members in plants have been identified as regulators of FtsZ-ring placement, which are essential for the symmetrical division of chloroplasts. However, the regulation of FtsZ-ring placement in nongreen plastids is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the division site placement of nongreen plastids by examining the etioplasts as representative in Arabidopsis Min system mutants. Surprisingly, the shape and number of etioplasts in cotyledons of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 mutants were similar to that observed in wild-type plants, whereas arc12 and parc6 mutants exhibited enlarged etioplasts that were reduced in number. In order to examine nongreen plastids in true leaves, we silenced the ALB3 gene in these Min system mutant backgrounds to produce immature chloroplasts without the thylakoidal network using virus induced gene silencing (VIGS). Interestingly, consistent with our observations in etioplasts, enlarged and fewer nongreen plastids were only detected in leaves of parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants. Further, the FtsZ-ring assembled properly at the midpoint in nongreen plastids of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, but organized into multiple rings in parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and presented fragmented filaments in arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, suggesting that division site placement in nongreen plastids requires fewer components of the plant Min system. Taken together, these results suggest that division site placement in nongreen plastids is different from that in chloroplasts.
China took great efforts to reforestation, even turned the long-term forest loss into a net gain, but this cannot hide the loss of species diversity due to destruction of primary forests, habitat loss, invasion of alien species, and over exploitation. Here we provide such a case by recording a dying tree species of Lauraceae from the evergreen forests of SE Yunnan of China and adjoining Vietnam. We made field collections and observations for four consecutive years from 2009 to 2012. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on a combined dataset from nrITS and plastid trnL-trnF region, rpl16 intron, and psbA-trnH spacer. The results indicate that the Asiatic Beilschmiedia and Syndiclis are reciprocally monophyletic with Endiandra as a sister group, and both morphology and molecular phylogeny clearly suggest that the new species belongs to Beilschmiedia. Thus Beilschmiedia turbinata Bing Liu et Y. Yang is illustrated and described as new to science, color plates, line drawings, distribution map and comparison with related species are provided. This new species is similar to B. yunnanensis in the small and ferruginous-brown tomentose terminal buds, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate and alternate or subopposite leaves bearing the fine veinlet reticulation, but differs from the latter by the smaller flowers, the eglandular stamens of the third whorl, and the large turbinate furfuraceous fruits.
Hydrogen recovered from organic wastes and solar energy by photo-fermentative bacteria (PFB) has been suggested as a promising bioenergy strategy. However, the use of PFB for hydrogen production generally suffers from a serious biomass washout from photobioreactor, due to poor flocculation of PFB. In the continuous operation, PFB cells cannot be efficiently separated from supernatant and rush out with effluent from reactor continuously, which increased the effluent turbidity, meanwhile led to increases in pollutants. Moreover, to replenish the biomass washout, substrate was continuously utilized for cell growth rather than hydrogen production. Consequently, the poor flocculability not only deteriorated the effluent quality, but also decreased the potential yield of hydrogen from substrate. Therefore, enhancing the flocculability of PFB is urgent necessary to further develop photo-fermentative process.
Here, we demonstrated that L-cysteine could improve hydrogen production of Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53, and more importantly, simultaneously trigger remarkable aggregation of PFB. Experiments showed that L-cysteine greatly promoted the production of extracellular polymeric substances, especially secretion of protein containing more disulfide bonds, and help for enhancement stability of floc of PFB. Through formation of disulfide bonds, L-cysteine not only promoted production of EPS, in particular the secretion of protein, but also stabilized the final confirmation of protein in EPS. In addition, the cell surface elements and functional groups, especially surface charged groups, have also been changed by L-cysteine. Consequently, absolute zeta potential reached a minimum value at 1.0 g/l of L-cysteine, which obviously decreased electrostatic repulsion interaction energy based on DLVO theory. Total interaction energy barrier decreased from 389.77 KT at 0.0 g/l of L-cysteine to 127.21 kT at 1.0 g/l.
Thus, the strain RLD-53 overcame the total energy barrier and flocculated effectively. After a short settlement, the biomass rush out will be significantly reduced and the effluent quality will be greatly improved in the continuous operation. Furthermore, aggregation of PFB could enable high biomass hold-up of photobioreactor, which allows the photobioreactor to operate at low hydraulic retention time and high organic loading rate. Therefore, the described flocculation behaviour during photo-hydrogen production is potentially suitable for practicable application.
Bioflocculation; Photo-hydrogen production; L-Cysteine; Extracellular polymeric substances; Disulfide bonds; DLVO
RbpA is a small non–DNA-binding transcription factor that associates with RNA polymerase holoenzyme and stimulates transcription in actinobacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. RbpA seems to show specificity for the vegetative form of RNA polymerase as opposed to alternative forms of the enzyme. Here, we explain the basis of this specificity by showing that RbpA binds directly to the principal σ subunit in these organisms, but not to more diverged alternative σ factors. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that, although differing in their requirement for structural zinc, the RbpA orthologues from S. coelicolor and M. tuberculosis share a common structural core domain, with extensive, apparently disordered, N- and C-terminal regions. The RbpA–σ interaction is mediated by the C-terminal region of RbpA and σ domain 2, and S. coelicolor RbpA mutants that are defective in binding σ are unable to stimulate transcription in vitro and are inactive in vivo. Given that RbpA is essential in M. tuberculosis and critical for growth in S. coelicolor, these data support a model in which RbpA plays a key role in the σ cycle in actinobacteria.
Hypomagnesemia is a serious adverse event for patients treated with cetuximab, an inhibitor of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, no significant association has yet been established between cetuximab and hypomagnesemia in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published RCTs to assess the overall risk of hypomagnesemia associated with cetuximab. PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and the American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences were searched for relevant RCTs. Quantitative analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between hypomagnesemia and cetuximab. A total of 7,045 patients with a variety of advanced cancers from 10 trials were included in the analysis. The overall incidence of grade 3/4 hypomagnesemia in patients receiving cetuximab was 3.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.6–4.3%]. Patients treated with cetuximab had a significantly increased risk of grade 3/4 hypomagnesemia compared with patients treated with control medication, with a relative risk (RR) of 8.60 (95% CI, 5.08–14.54). Risk was observed to vary with tumor type. The study concluded that cetuximab is associated with a significant risk of hypomagnesemia in patients with advanced cancer receiving concurrent chemotherapy.
cetuximab; hypomagnesemia; advanced cancer; meta-analysis
Transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are primary metazoan gene regulators. Regulatory mechanisms of the two main regulators are of great interest to biologists and may provide insights into the causes of diseases. However, the interplay between miRNAs and TFs in a regulatory network still remains unearthed. Currently, it is very difficult to study the regulatory mechanisms that involve both miRNAs and TFs in a biological lab. Even at data level, a network involving miRNAs, TFs and genes will be too complicated to achieve. Previous research has been mostly directed at inferring either miRNA or TF regulatory networks from data. However, networks involving a single type of regulator may not fully reveal the complex gene regulatory mechanisms, for instance, the way in which a TF indirectly regulates a gene via a miRNA.
We propose a framework to learn from heterogeneous data the three-component regulatory networks, with the presence of miRNAs, TFs, and mRNAs. This method firstly utilises Bayesian network structure learning to construct a regulatory network from multiple sources of data: gene expression profiles of miRNAs, TFs and mRNAs, target information based on sequence data, and sample categories. Then, in order to produce more meaningful results for further biological experimentation and research, the method searches the learnt network to identify the interplay between miRNAs and TFs and applies a network motif finding algorithm to further infer the network.
We apply the proposed framework to the data sets of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results elucidate the complex gene regulatory mechanism for EMT which involves both TFs and miRNAs. Several discovered interactions and molecular functions have been confirmed by literature. In addition, many other discovered interactions and bio-markers are of high statistical significance and thus can be good candidates for validation by experiments. Moreover, the results generated by our method are compact, involving a small number of interactions which have been proved highly relevant to EMT.
We have designed a framework to infer gene regulatory networks involving both TFs and miRNAs from multiple sources of data, including gene expression data, target information, and sample categories. Results on the EMT data sets have shown that the proposed approach is able to produce compact and meaningful gene regulatory networks that are highly relevant to the biological conditions of the data sets. This framework has the potential for application to other heterogeneous datasets to reveal the complex gene regulatory relationships.
To pinpoint the exact location of the etiological variant/s present at 1q21.1 harboring FCRL1-5 and CD5L genes, we carried out a refined association study in the entire FCRL region in 1,536 patients with Graves’ disease (GD) and 1,516 sex-matched controls by imputation analysis, logistic regression, and cis-eQTL analysis. Among 516 SNPs with P<0.05 in the initial GWAS scan, the strongest signals associated with GD and correlated to FCRL3 expression were located at a cluster of SNPs including rs7528684 and rs3761959. And the allele-specific effects for rs3761959 and rs7528684 on FCRL3 expression level revealed that the risk alleles A of rs3761959 and C of rs7528684 were correlated with the elevated expression level of FCRL3 whether in PBMCs or its subsets, especially in CD19+ B cells and CD8+ T subsets. Next, the combined analysis with 5,300 GD cases and 4,916 control individuals confirmed FCRL3 was a susceptibility gene of GD in Chinese Han populations, and rs3761959 and rs7528684 met the genome-wide association significance level (Pcombined = 2.27×10−12 and 7.11×10−13, respectively). Moreover, the haplotypes with the risk allele A of rs3761959 and risk allele C of rs7528684 were associated with GD risk. Finally, our epigenetic analysis suggested the disease-associated C allele of rs7528684 increased affinity for NF-KB transcription factor. Above data indicated that FCRL3 gene and its proxy SNP rs7528684 may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD by excessive inhibiting B cell receptor signaling and the impairment of suppressing function of Tregs.
The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a member of a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that is characterized by its alternative splicing. In a previous study, we identified a splice site mutation of intron 6 (IVS6-3C>A) in a patient suffering from Leydig cell hypoplasia, which leads to aberrant splicing of LHR mRNA. In vitro expression analysis confirmed that this mutation results in the skipping of exon 7 in the mature mRNA of the LHR gene. In this study, we determined the impact of IVS6-3C>A on the RNA secondary structure and function of LHR-Del7. The three-dimensional structure of the leucine-rich repeats in LHR was predicted by molecular modeling. Radioactive ligand-binding assays verified that LHR-Del7 has no binding affinity for hCG. Furthermore, we detected negligible cAMP production in cells transfected with LHR-Del7. Cells co-expressing LHR-WT and LHR-Del7 were able to generate cAMP in response to hCG, but there was no significant difference between cells transfected with LHR-WT/vector and LHR-WT/LHR-Del7, although the variant was able to localize to cell surface, similar to wild-type receptor. These results indicated that LHR-Del7 does not have a dominant negative effect on LHR-WT cell surface expression, and although the pathological splicing variant LHR-Del7 was able to localize to cell membranes it failed to bind hCG and had no effect on wild-type LHR.
function study; splicing variant; LHR
Kv1.3 channels play an important role in modulating lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis. We hypothesized that Kv1.3 channels in B lymphocytes might be regulated by rituximab, an antibody to CD20, a drug for treatments of B-cell lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. Using both whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp techniques, we found that rituximab inhibited Kv1.3 channels in Daudi human B lymphoma cells by promoting the channel inactivation at a concentration which was much greater than that required for activation of CD20. The effect of rituximab on Kv1.3 channels was abolished after selective blockade of FcγRIIB receptors with anti-FcγRIIB antibody. Western blot experiments showed that Daudi B cells expressed both Kv1.3 channel and the low affinity Fc receptor, FcγRIIB, which could be activated by the Fc region of rituximab. In contrast, normal lymphocytes expressed less Kv1.3 channels with faster inactivation. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry data showed that rituximab induced apoptosis of Daudi B cells and that the effect was attenuated by blockade of FcγRIIB receptors and partially mimicked by inhibition of Kv1.3 channels. These results suggest that in addition to previously described complement-dependent cytotoxicity, rituximab also induces apoptosis of malignant B lymphocyte by stimulating FcγRIIB receptors and inhibiting Kv1.3 channels.
Voltage-dependent potassium channel; Fc receptor; Rituximab; Apoptosis; Patch-clamp technique; Confocal microscopy
Mesenchymal stem cells may differentiate into cardiomyocytes and participate in local tissue repair after heart injury. In the current study, rat adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) grown on chitosan membranes were observed to form cell spheroids after 3 days. The cell seeding density and surface modification of chitosan with Arg-Gly-Asp–containing peptide had an influence on the sizes of ASC spheroids. In the absence of induction, these spheroids showed an increased level of cardiac marker gene expression (Gata4, Nkx2-5, Myh6, and Tnnt2) more than 20-fold versus cells on the tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dish. Induction by 5-azacytidine or p38 MAP kinase inhibitor (SB202190) did not further increase the cardiac marker gene expression of these spheroids. Moreover, the enhanced cardiomyogenic potential of the spheroids was highly associated with the chitosan substrates. When ASC spheroids were plated onto TCPS with either basal or cardiac induction medium for 9 days, the spheroids spread into a monolayer and the positive effect on cardiomyogenic marker gene expression disappeared. The possible role of calcium ion and the up-regulation of adhesion molecule P-selectin and chemokine receptor Cxcr4 were demonstrated in ASC spheroids. Applying these spheroids to the chronic myocardial infarction animal model showed better functional recovery versus single cells after 12 weeks. Taken together, this study suggested that the ASC spheroids on chitosan may form as a result of calcium ion signaling, and the transplantation of these spheroids may offer a simple method to enhance the efficiency of stem cell–based therapy in myocardial infarction.
biomaterials; cardiology; regeneration; stem cells; tissue engineering
Changes in the cortical expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA) have been observed in postmortem analysis of psychotic disorders. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are the most effective treatment option for these disorders and have been associated with changes in gene expression. MicroRNA regulate numerous genes involved in brain development and function. It is therefore plausible to question whether miRNA expression is also altered and hence whether they take part in the neuroleptic mechanism of action.
We sought to investigate whether treatment with APDs induces changes in miRNA expression and query the functional implications of such changes. Furthermore, we investigated the possible functional interplay of miRNA–gene regulatory interactions.
High-throughput miRNA profiling of the whole brain of C57BL/6 mice treated with haloperidol, olanzapine or clozapine for 7 days was performed. Functional analysis was conducted on the putative targets of altered microRNA. Significant miRNA–gene regulatory interactions were evaluated by the integration of genome-wide mRNA expression analysis using the Bayesian networks with splitting–averaging strategy and functional analysis conducted.
Small subsets of miRNA were altered with each treatment with potential neurologically relevant influence. Metabolic pathways were enriched in olanzapine and clozapine treatments, possibly associated with their weight gain side effects. Neurologically and metabolically relevant miRNA–gene interaction networks were identified in the olanzapine treatment group.
This study is the first to suggest a role for miRNA in the mechanism of APD action and the metabolic side effects of the atypical ADPs, and adds support for their consideration in pharmacogenomics.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2939-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Antipsychotic drugs; MicroRNA; Schizophrenia; Olanzapine; Clozapine; Haloperidol; Pharmacogenomics
Scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM), which enables high-resolution imaging of cell surface topography, has been developed for over two decades. However, only recently, a unique scanning mode is increasingly used in biological studies to allow SICM to detect the surface of live cells. More recently, in combination with confocal microscopy and patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques, SICM allows investigators to localize proteins or ion channels in a specific nanostructure at the cell surface. This article will briefly review SICM nanotechnique and summarize the role of SICM in biological studies.
live cell imaging; nanoscale topography; microvilli; cilia; endocytic pits; tight junctions; confocal microscopy; patch-clamp techniques
The purpose of this study was to test hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) and pingyangmycin (PYM) for their ability to inhibit the squamous cells of tongue carcinoma (Tca8113 cells). The effect of these compounds was tested using the MTT assay in vitro, clonogenic assays, flow cytometry, morphological observation, telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), transplantation of tumors into athymic mice and TUNEL staining. Treatment with HCPT and PYM, alone or in combination, inhibited the tumor cells and showed a greater inhibition when the drugs were combined. The cloning efficiency of Tca8113 cells was decreased. The microstructure and cell cycle of the cells changed significantly as a result of treatment. Telomerase activity was significantly inhibited in a time-dependent manner. By appearing to promote apoptosis, the drugs demonstrated a significant level of inhibition of the tumor cells in an athymic mouse model, promoting prolonged survival. HCPT and PYM have a marked cytotoxic effect on Tca8113 cells which is improved when used in combination.
hydroxycamptothecin; pingyangmycin; Tca8113 cell; telomerase; apoptosis
Cellulose digestion in termites (Isoptera) is highly important for ecological reasons and applications in biofuel conversion. The speciose Termitidae family has lost flagellates in the hindgut and developed diverse feeding habits. To address the response of cellulase activity to the differentiation of feeding habits, a comparative study of the activity and distribution of composite cellulases, endo-β-1, 4-glucanase, and β-glucosidase was performed in seven common flagellate-free termites with three feeding habits: the humus-feeding termites Sinocapritermes mushae (Oshima et Maki), Malaysiocapritermes zhangfengensis Zhu, Yang et Huang and Pericapritermes jiangtsekiangensis (Kemner); the fungus-growing termites Macrotermes barneyi Light and Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki); and the wood-feeding termites Nasutitermes parvonasutus (Shiraki) and Havilanditermes orthonasus (Tsai et Chen). The results showed that in diverse feeding groups, the wood-feeding group had the highest total composite cellulase and endo-β-1, 4-glucanase activities, while the fungus-growing group had the highest β-glucosidase activity. In terms of the distribution of cellulase activity in the alimentary canals, the cellulase activities in wood-feeding termites were concentrated in the midgut, but there was no significant difference between all gut segments in humus-feeding termites. As for the fungus-growing termites, the main site of composite cellulase activity was in the midgut. The endo-β-1, 4-glucanase activity was restricted to the midgut, but the primary site of β-glucosidase activity was in the foregut and the midgut (Mac. barneyi). The functions of the gut segments apparently differentiated between feeding groups. The results suggest that the differentiation of feeding habits in flagellate-free termites was characterized by the distribution of cellulases in the gut rather than by variations in cellulase activity.
β-glucosidase; endo-β-1; 4-glucanase; fungus-growing termites; humus-feeding termites; Termitidae; wood-feeding termites
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) initiates the enzymatic stage of collagen and elastin cross-linking. It also has intracellular functions involved in the regulation of cell differentiation, motility/migration and gene transcription. Aberrant expression of the LOX gene has been reported in multiple tumors. However, the correlation of its expression with clinicopathological parameters and its prognostic significance in gastric cancer remains largely unknown. In order to address this problem, total RNA of paired tissue samples (n=10) and a tissue microarray containing 161 paired tissues from patients with gastric cancers at different stages were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunochemistry assay were conducted to investigate the expression of LOX. Based on the results, LOX mRNA was increased in gastric cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal mucosa. Immunohistochemical detection revealed that expression of LOX was associated with depth of tumor invasion (P<0.05), lymph node status (P<0.05), TNM stage (P<0.05) and survival (P<0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that positive expression of LOX (P=0.026) was an independent prognostic marker for survival in patients with gastric cancer.
gastric cancer; LOX gene; tissue microarray; prognostic marker
The use of heavy water (D2O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D2O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD.
Deuterium oxide; crystallography; additive; pilin
Human adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is characterized by diffused invasion of the tumor into adjacent organs and early distant metastasis. Anoikis resistance and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) are considered prerequisites for cancer cells to metastasize. Exploring the relationship between these processes and their underlying mechanism of action is a promising way to better understand ACC tumors. We initially established anoikis-resistant sublines of ACC cells; the variant cells revealed a mesenchymal phenotype through Slug-mediated EMT-like transformation and displayed enhanced metastatic potential both in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of EMT by knockdown of Slug significantly impaired anoikis resistance, migration, and invasion of the variant cells. With overexpression of Slug and Twist, we determined that induction of EMT in normal ACC cells could prevent anoikis, albeit partially. These findings strongly suggest that EMT is indispensable in anoikis resistance, at least in ACC cells. Furthermore, we found that the EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway acts as the common regulator for EMT-like transformation and anoikis resistance, as confirmed by their specific inhibitors. Gefitinib and LY294003 restored the sensibilities of anoikis-resistant cells to anoikis and simultaneously impaired their metastatic potential. In addition, the results from our in vivo model of metastasis suggest that pretreatment with gefitinib promotes mouse survival by alleviating pulmonary metastasis. Most importantly, immunohistochemistry of human ACC specimens showed a correlation between the overexpression of Slug and EGFR staining. This study has demonstrated that Slug-mediated EMT-like transformation is required by human ACC cells to achieve anoikis resistance and their metastatic potential. Targeting the EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway holds potential as a preventive strategy against distant metastasis of ACC.
HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to neurologic manifestation of HIV disease is lacking. Therefore, identifying HIV fingerprints on the host gene machinery and its regulation by microRNA holds a great promise and potential for improving our understanding of HAD pathogenesis, its diagnosis and therapy.
A parallel profiling of mRNA and miRNA of the frontal cortex autopsies from HIV positive patients with and without dementia was performed using Illumina Human-6 BeadChip and Affymetrix version 1.0 miRNA array, respectively. The gene ontology and pathway analysis of the two data sets showed high concordance between miRNA and mRNAs, revealing significant interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways in HAD brains. Moreover, the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs identified in this study, in particular miR-137, 153 and 218, based on which most correlations were built cumulatively targeted neurodegeneration related pathways, implying their future potential in diagnosis, prognosis and possible therapies for HIV-mediated and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, this relationship between DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs was also reflected in correlation analysis using Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy (SA-BNs), which revealed 195 statistically significant correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs according to Pearson’s correlation test (P<0.05).
Our study provides the first evidence on unambiguous support for intrinsic functional relationship between mRNA and miRNA in the context of HIV-mediated neurodegeneration, which shows that neurologic manifestation in HIV patients possibly occurs through the interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways. These data provide an excellent avenue for the development of new generation of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic intervention strategies for HIV-associated neurodegeneration.
HIV-associated dementia; Neurodegeneration; HIV; Microarray; MicroRNA; Axon guidance
The present study aimed to observe the therapeutic effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) using nasal endoscopy. A total of 72 patients with perennial AR received treatment using the CZB ultrasonic therapeutic instrument with nasal endoscopy. A scoring method was adopted for evaluation of effectiveness according to the AR therapeutic principles and recommendations described in Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) in 2001. The patients were followed up between 2 and 6 months after treatment. The excellence rate was 34.7% (25/72), the effective rate was 62.5% (45/72) and the ineffective rate was 2.8% (2/72). The total effective rate reached 97.2% high (70/72). Endoscopic high-intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of AR is a non-invasive method and has the advantages of simple manipulation, a short course, high safety and a clear short-term effect.
allergic rhinitis; focused ultrasound